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AKA: Our Home & Native Land

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1 AKA: Our Home & Native Land
Canadian Biomes AKA: Our Home & Native Land

2 What is a “biome”? A biome is a collection of ecosystems that are similar, or related to one another, based on the types of plants they support. It is important to note that the plant-life that is found in a biome is the direct result of the climate that the region experiences – so a biome will also have the same climatic features. Canada has four biomes within its borders.

3 1. The Tundra Biome The tundra is located in the northernmost regions of Canada – up near the North Pole – in and around the Arctic circle. The climate is extremely cold which results in the freezing of the soil and the formation of the permafrost – a soil layer that is frozen year round due to the cold. There is very little precipitation. Plants are few and far between. Those that can grow must grow and reproduce very rapidly in the short growing season. They are often very small plants that form roots in the active layer of the soil – the thin layer on top of the permafrost. Few plants means few animals as plants are the food source for animals. Matter cycling is very slow due to extreme cold. Plants = Lichens, mosses, shorter grasses and shrubs. Animals = Polar bears, caribou, arctic foxes and ptarmigans.

4 Tundra Pics

5 2. The Boreal Forest The Boreal forest is located just south of the Tundra and is the largest biome in Canada. It has a very temperate climate – hot summers and quite cold winters, but, no permafrost. It receives a fair amount of precipitation. Matter cycling is quick in hot but slows in cold. Dominant plant life are coniferous trees – evergreens such as pine, fir and spruce. Their conical shape and needles allow them to cope very well in the boreal forest climate. (Cold, snow, acidic conditioning) Animals = moose, bears, squirrels, rabbits, deer and birds. Higher biodiversity than the Tundra.

6 Boreal Forest Pics

7 3. Temperate Deciduous Forest
The temperate deciduous forest is found only in the southern portion of Ontario and Quebec. It has a temperate climate – hot summer and cold winter (but not as cold as boreal forest). Longest growing season and most precipitation of all Canadian biomes – great for plants of all types which is great for many animals = highest biodiversity. Higher temps and water result in rapid cycling of matter which results in rich fertile soil. Dominant plants are deciduous trees with broad flat leaves that maximize the great amount of sunlight that is offered. You will also find many ferns & shrubs. Deciduous forest – three layers – canopy, understorey and litter. Animals = Deer, insects, shrews, mice, bears, weasels, wolves and many birds.

8 Deciduous Forest Pics

9 4. The Grasslands Forest The grasslands are found in the southern regions of the prairie provinces. The climate is temperate with a long growing season. It receives a fair amount of precipitation but not as much as the deciduous forest. Matter cycling is very fast – result is incredibly fertile, black soil. Biodiversity is at a good level, but, not near the level of the deciduous forest. Dominant plants are grasses (not enough water for trees). Animals = Bison, prairie dogs, voles, mice, hawks, wolves, snakes and insects.

10 Grasslands Pics

11 The Overall Picture

12 THE END!!!

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