2 Chapter 1 The Study of Life Section 1: Introduction to BiologySection 2: The Nature of ScienceSection 3: Methods of Science
3 Biology—the science of life Chapter 1The Study of Life1.1 Introduction to BiologyBiology—the science of lifeStudy the origins and history of life and once-living thingsStudy the structures of living thingsStudy how living things interact with one anotherStudy how living things function
4 Study the diversity of life Chapter 1The Study of Life1.1 Introduction to BiologyWhat do biologists do?Study the diversity of lifeResearch diseasesDevelop technologiesImprove agriculturePreserve the environment
5 The Eight Characteristics of Life Made of one or more cells Chapter 1The Study of Life1.1 Introduction to BiologyThe Eight Characteristics of LifeMade of one or more cellsDisplays growthGrows and developsReproduces
6 The Eight Characteristics of Life Responds to stimuli Requires energy Chapter 1The Study of Life1.1 Introduction to BiologyThe Eight Characteristics of LifeResponds to stimuliRequires energyMaintains homeostasisAdaptations evolve over time
8 Living things are made of one or more cells. Chapter 1The Study of Life1.1 Introduction to BiologyLiving things are made of one or more cells.Cells are the basic unit of structure and function in all living things.
9 Displays Organization Chapter 1The Study of Life1.1 Introduction to BiologyDisplays OrganizationLiving things also display organization, which means they are arranged in an orderly way.Specialized cells are organized into groups that work together called tissues.Tissues are organized into organs.Organ systems work together to support an organism.
10 Chapter 1The Study of Life1.1 Introduction to BiologyGrows and DevelopsGrowth results in the addition of mass to an organism and, in many organisms, the formation of new cells and new structures.
11 Chapter 1The Study of Life1.1 Introduction to BiologyReproducesA species is a group of organisms that can breed with one another and produce fertile offspring.
12 The reaction to a stimulus is a response. Chapter 1The Study of Life1.1 Introduction to BiologyResponds to StimuliAnything that is part of the internal or external environments and causes some sort of reaction by the organism is called a stimulus.Venus flytrapThe reaction to a stimulus is a response.
13 Living things get their energy from food. Chapter 1The Study of Life1.1 Introduction to BiologyRequires EnergyLiving things get their energy from food.Most plants and some unicellular organisms use light energy from the Sun to make their own food and fuel their activities.Organisms that cannot make their own food get energy by consuming other organisms.
14 Maintains Homeostasis Chapter 1The Study of Life1.1 Introduction to BiologyMaintains HomeostasisRegulation of an organism’s internal conditions to maintain life is called homeostasis.If anything happens within or to an organism that affects its normal state, processes to restore the normal state begin.
15 Adaptations Evolve Over Time Chapter 1The Study of Life1.1 Introduction to BiologyAdaptations Evolve Over TimeAn adaptation is any inherited characteristic that results from changes to a species over time.
16 Science is a body of knowledge based on the study of nature. Chapter 1The Study of Life1.2 The Nature of ScienceWhat is science?Science is a body of knowledge based on the study of nature.The nature, or essential characteristics, of science is scientific inquiry.Scientific inquiry is both a creative process and a process rooted in unbiased observations and experimentation.
17 Uses Scientific Theory Chapter 1The Study of Life1.2 The Nature of ScienceUses Scientific TheoryA theory is an explanation of a natural phenomenon supported by many observations and experiments over time.The results are always the same.
18 Expands Scientific Knowledge Chapter 1The Study of Life1.2 The Nature of ScienceExpands Scientific KnowledgeMost scientific fields are guided by research that results in a constant reevaluation of what is known.This reevaluation often leads to new knowledge that scientists then evaluate.
19 Challenges Accepted Theories Chapter 1The Study of Life1.2 The Nature of ScienceChallenges Accepted TheoriesScientists welcome debate about one another’s ideas.Sciences advance by accommodating new information as it is discovered.
20 These inconsistencies often lead to further investigations. Chapter 1The Study of Life1.2 The Nature of ScienceQuestions ResultsObservations or data that are not consistent with current scientific understanding are of interest to scientists.These inconsistencies often lead to further investigations.
21 Conclusions are reached from the evidence. Chapter 1The Study of Life1.2 The Nature of ScienceTests ClaimsScience-based information makes claims based on a large amount of data and observations obtained from unbiased investigations and carefully controlled experimentation.Conclusions are reached from the evidence.
22 Chapter 1The Study of Life1.2 The Nature of ScienceUndergoes Peer ReviewBefore it is made public, science-based information is reviewed by scientists’ peers.Peer review is a process by which the procedures used during an experiment and the results are evaluated by other scientists who are in the same field or who are conducting similar research.
23 Scientists can repeat the work of others as part of a new experiment. Chapter 1The Study of Life1.2 The Nature of ScienceUses Metric SystemScientists can repeat the work of others as part of a new experiment.The metric system uses units with divisions that are powers of ten.
24 Science in Everyday Life Chapter 1The Study of Life1.2 The Nature of ScienceScience in Everyday LifeA person who is scientifically literate combines a basic understanding of science and its processes with reasoning and thinking skills.Ethical issues must be addressed by society based on the values it holds important.
25 Scientific inquiry begins with observation. Chapter 1The Study of Life1.3 Methods of ScienceAsk a QuestionScientific inquiry begins with observation.Science inquiry involves asking questions and processing information from a variety of reliable sources.
26 A hypothesis is a testable explanation of a situation. Chapter 1The Study of Life1.3 Methods of ScienceForm a HypothesisA hypothesis is a testable explanation of a situation.When a hypothesis is supported by data from additional investigations, usually it is considered valid and is accepted by the scientific community.
27 Chapter 1The Study of Life1.3 Methods of ScienceCollect the DataWhen a biologist conducts an experiment, he or she investigates a phenomenon in a controlled setting to test a hypothesis.
28 Controlled Experiments Chapter 1The Study of Life1.3 Methods of ScienceControlled ExperimentsA control group in an experiment is a group used for comparison.The experimental group is the group exposed to the factor being tested.
29 Chapter 1The Study of Life1.3 Methods of ScienceExperimental DesignIndependent variable—only one factor in a controlled experiment can change at a time.Dependent variable—results from or depends on changes to the independent variable.Dependentand Independent Variables
30 Data—information gained from observations. Chapter 1The Study of Life1.3 Methods of ScienceData GatheringData—information gained from observations.Quantitative data can be measurements of time, temperature, length, mass, area, volume, density, or other factors.Qualitative data are descriptions of what our senses detect.
31 A graph of the data makes the pattern easier to grasp. Chapter 1The Study of Life1.3 Methods of ScienceAnalyze the DataA graph of the data makes the pattern easier to grasp.Even when a hypothesis has not been supported, it is valuable.
32 Chapter 1The Study of Life1.3 Methods of ScienceReport ConclusionsIf the reviewers agree on the merit of the paper, then the paper is published for review by the public and use by other scientists.
34 Chapter Resource Menu Chapter Diagnostic Questions The Study of LifeChapter Resource MenuChapter Diagnostic QuestionsFormative Test QuestionsChapter Assessment QuestionsStandardized Test Practicebiologygmh.comGlencoe Biology TransparenciesImage BankVocabularyAnimationClick on a hyperlink to view the corresponding feature.
35 Why is the metric system preferred by scientists? Chapter 1The Study of LifeChapter Diagnostic QuestionsWhy is the metric system preferred byscientists?Answer: Using the same system ofmeasurements allows a scientistto repeat another’s work knowingthat he or she is performing theexperiments exactly the same.
36 What is a testable explanation? Chapter 1The Study of LifeChapter Diagnostic QuestionsWhat is a testable explanation?observationhypothesisexperimentconstantDCBACDQ 2
37 Which is not a characteristic of all organisms? Chapter 1The Study of LifeChapter Diagnostic QuestionsWhich is not a characteristic of all organisms?made of one or more cellsgrows and developscapable of rational thoughtmaintains homeostasisDCBACDQ 3
38 Chapter 1The Study of Life1.1 Formative QuestionsWhat area of science takes scientific knowledge and applies it to meet human needs?explorationdynamicsphysicstechnologyDCBAFQ 1
39 Chapter 1The Study of Life1.1 Formative QuestionsWhat is the process of change that takes place during the life of an organism?adaptationdevelopmentgrowthmaturationDCBAFQ 2
40 adapting to the environment displaying organization Chapter 1The Study of Life1.1 Formative QuestionsSome species of plants begin opening their flowers in the morning when they are exposed to sunlight. What characteristic of living things does this represent?acquiring energyadapting to the environmentdisplaying organizationresponding to stimuliDCBAFQ 3
41 Chapter 1The Study of Life1.1 Formative QuestionsWhat process regulates an organism’s internal conditions and keeps them stable?adaptationequilibriumhomeostasismetabolismDCBAFQ 4
42 What is a theory? 1.2 Formative Questions Chapter 1The Study of Life1.2 Formative QuestionsWhat is a theory?a body of knowledge about a natural phenomenona creative tool for designing investigationsa scientific inquiry that seeks to provide an explanationan explanation supported by observations and experimentsDCBAFQ 5
43 Chapter 1The Study of Life1.2 Formative QuestionsScientists discard observations and data that are not consistent with current scientific understanding.BAtruefalseFQ 6
44 Chapter 1The Study of Life1.2 Formative QuestionsA scientist wants to report the findings from her investigations. Before her information can be published, what must it go through?forensicspeer reviewscientific methodsthe metric systemDCBAFQ 7
45 Chapter 1The Study of Life1.2 Formative QuestionsWhat do issues such as AIDS, global warming, genetic engineering, and cloning have in common?They involve ethics.They involve forensics.They must be addressed by scientists.They require the metric system.DCBAFQ 8
46 Chapter 1The Study of Life1.3 Formative QuestionsWhen you form a logical conclusion based on your observations and what you already know, what are you making?a conjecturean inferencea speculationa theoryDCBAFQ 9
47 a testable explanation Chapter 1The Study of Life1.3 Formative QuestionsWhat is a hypothesis?a defined questiona curious assumptiona tested inferencea testable explanationDCBAFQ 10
48 What type of discovery is a serendipitous discovery? Chapter 1The Study of Life1.3 Formative QuestionsWhat type of discovery is a serendipitous discovery?accidentalanticipatedingeniouswhimsicalDCBAFQ 11
49 Chapter 1The Study of Life1.3 Formative QuestionsIn order for scientific experiments to be valid, they must be based on scientific methods that use controlled experiments.BAtruefalseFQ 12
50 Chapter 1The Study of LifeChapter Assessment QuestionsIdentify the term used to describe an explanation of a natural phenomenon supported by observation and experimentation.forensicsnatural lawtheoryphysicsDCBACAQ 1
51 In a controlled experiment, which factor can change? Chapter 1The Study of LifeChapter Assessment QuestionsIn a controlled experiment, which factor can change?control groupexperimental groupdependent variableindependent variableDCBACAQ 2
52 Look at the figure below. Why is scientific Chapter 1The Study of LifeChapter Assessment QuestionsLook at the figure below. Why is scientificdata often displayed in graphs?CAQ 3
53 Answer: Graphs help show patterns in the data and make it easier to Chapter 1The Study of LifeChapter Assessment QuestionsAnswer: Graphs help show patterns in thedata and make it easier tounderstand.CAQ 4
54 Chapter 1The Study of LifeStandardized Test PracticeWhich biological science was Jane Goodall studying when she observed chimpanzees?ecologygeneticsanimal behaviorbiotechnologyDCBASTP 1
55 Chapter 1The Study of LifeStandardized Test PracticeIn which activity would an environmental biologist most likely be involved?genetically engineering plantsfinding ways to protect speciespreventing the spread of diseasedeveloping new medicines and vaccinesDCBASTP 2
56 Which is an indication that an idea is based on pseudoscience? Chapter 1The Study of LifeStandardized Test PracticeWhich is an indication that an idea is based on pseudoscience?It brings up more questions.It causes disagreement and debate.It does not welcome scientific investigation.It does not receive acceptance by scientists.DCBASTP 3
57 Chapter 1The Study of LifeStandardized Test PracticeScientists use laboratory rats to test the effects of a new drug, Razatrin. What do rats in the control group receive?food containing Razatrinfood without Razatrinfood containing another drugfood containing a variety of drugsDCBASTP 4
58 Which is the dependent variable in this experiment? Chapter 1The Study of LifeStandardized Test PracticeWhich is the dependent variable in this experiment?numberof daysmassBASTP 5
59 Glencoe Biology Transparencies Chapter 1The Study of LifeGlencoe Biology Transparencies
61 Section 1 Vocabulary biology organism organization growth development Chapter 1The Study of LifeVocabularySection 1biologyorganismorganizationgrowthdevelopmentreproductionspeciesstimulusresponsehomeostasisadaptation
62 Section 2 Vocabulary science theory peer review metric system SI Chapter 1The Study of LifeVocabularySection 2sciencetheorypeer reviewmetric systemSIforensicsethics
63 Section 3 Vocabulary observation inference scientific method Chapter 1The Study of LifeVocabularySection 3observationinferencescientific methodhypothesisserendipityexperimentcontrol groupexperimental groupindependent variabledependent variableconstantdatasafety symbol
64 Visualizing Scientific Methods Chapter 1The Study of LifeAnimationVisualizing Scientific Methods