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Types of English Civil Law

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1 Types of English Civil Law
by Snježana Husinec

2 CIVIL LAW a legal system prevalent in continental Europe that is based on written codes (in this sense contrasts with the common-law system used in England and most of the United States) an area of law governing disputes between individuals (as opposed to criminal law)

3 CIVIL LAW (as a branch of law) and its SUBCATEGORIES
IN COMMON LAW SYSTEM -an area of law concerned with a) relations between private individuals b) non-criminal relations between governments and private individuals or other entities Subcategories: Law of contract Law of torts Law of property Law of succession Family law  Revenue law; Patents and copyright; Trade unions; Administrative law IN CIVIL LAW SYSTEMS -an area of private law regulating relations between individuals Basic brances: Law of property Law of obligations (Contract law) Law of sucession New branches: Law of securities Commercial law Copy-right law Insurance law

PLAINTIFF (CLAIMANT) the party bringing a civil action (filing a claim) – the injured party DEFENDANT - the party against whom an action is brought (a claim filed)

5 THE LAW OF CONTRACT CONTRACT Subcategories of the law of contract:
CONTRACT = a legally binding agreement made between two or more persons, by which rights are acquired by one or more to acts or forbearances on the part of the other or others Subcategories of the law of contract: 1. shipping contracts, 2. hire purchase, 3. sale of goods etc.

THE LAW OF TORTS TORT = a less serious civil wrong committed by one citizen against another Ø    serious enough to merit the award of compensation to the injured party Ø    not serious enough to amount to the breaking of the the criminal law CIVIL LIABILITY  NOT PUNISHABLE BY THE STATE Offender tortfeasor Action taken by the injured party

1.  Negligence 2.  Nuisance 3.  Defamation 4.  Intentional torts 5.  Statutory torts 6.  Economic torts 7.  Competition law

8 NEGLIGENCE an unreasonable breach of duty by one person to another the failure to take reasonable care to avoid foreseeable injury to others Example: the modern law of negligence started with a decomposed snail contained in a drink consumed in a public bar; the manufacturer was sued by the consumer for her consequent illness

9 NUISANCE unreasonable interference with a person’s use or enjoyment of property Example: Jones v Powell A brewery made stinking fumes waft to neighbors’ property, damaging his documents. Because he was a landowner, the neighbor sued in nuisance for this damage

10 DEFAMATION - tarnishing the reputation of someone (making factual assertion for which you cannot provide evidence of its truth) LIBEL defaming somebody through print or broadcasting SLANDER spoken defamation

11 INTENTIONAL TORTS any intentional acts that are reasonably foreseeable to cause harm to an individual AGAINST THE PERSON assault battery false imprisonment intentional infliction emotional distress fraud PROPERTY TORTS trespass to land trespass to chattels conversion

12 Other torts STATUTORY TORTS
- created by the legislature, not the courts - workplace health and safety laws and health and safety in food produce (consumer protection - Product Liability Directive in the EU) ECONOMIC TORTS - protect people from interference with their trade or business (eg. trade libel, conspiracy, inducement of breach of contract etc.) COMPETITION LAW (ANTI-TRUST LAW) - an important method for regulating the conduct of business (the abuse of market power by monopolists, or the substantial lessening of competition through merger, acquisition, or concentration of enterprises)


a tort a plaintiff/claimant a defendant to bring a civil action a wrong negligence nuisance false imprisonment assault and battery trespass to property trespass to chattels defamation slander libel a remedy an injunction

15 pravno obvezujući ugovor nečinjenje
Read the text and find the English equivalents for the following Croatian legal terms: građanski delikt pravno obvezujući ugovor nečinjenje dodjela naknade/odštete; dodijeliti/dosuditi odštetu naknada štete čiji iznos određuje sud građanska pravna odgovornost; smatrati odgovornim oštećena strana kršenje ugovora osoba koja neovlašteno ulazi na tuđe imanje; počinitelj delikta pravična obveza tužiti za nemar

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