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**Gas Laws: Pressure, Volume, and Hot Air**

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Introduction This interactive lesson will introduce three ways of predicting the behaviour of gases: Boyle’s Law, Charles’ Law, and the Ideal Gas Law. PREVIOUS NEXT

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Navigation Throughout this lesson, you will use buttons at the bottom right corner of the page to navigate. Takes you to the next page Takes you to the previous page Takes you to the Main Menu PREVIOUS NEXT

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**Main Menu Basic Terminology Charles’ Law Boyle’s Law Ideal Gas Law**

Lesson 1 Lesson 3 Charles’ Law Lesson 2 Lesson 4 Boyle’s Law Ideal Gas Law Review Review of all four lessons

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**Lesson 1: Basic Terminology**

This lesson reviews terms used to describe the properties and behavior of gases. MAIN MENU NEXT

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**Opening thoughts… Have you ever: Seen a hot air balloon? MAIN MENU**

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**Opening thoughts… Have you ever: Seen a hot air balloon?**

Had a soda bottle spray all over you? Baked (or eaten) a nice, fluffy cake? These are all examples of gases at work! MAIN MENU PREVIOUS NEXT

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Properties of Gases You can predict the behavior of gases based on the following properties: Pressure Volume Amount (moles) Temperature Lets review each of these briefly… MAIN MENU PREVIOUS NEXT

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**You can predict the behavior of gases based on the following properties:**

Pressure Volume Amount (moles) Temperature MAIN MENU PREVIOUS NEXT

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Pressure Pressure is defined as the force the gas exerts on a given area of the container in which it is contained. The SI unit for pressure is the Pascal, Pa. If you’ve ever inflated a tire, you’ve probably made a pressure measurement in pounds (force) per square inch (area). MAIN MENU PREVIOUS NEXT

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**You can predict the behavior of gases based on the following properties:**

Pressure Volume Amount (moles) Temperature MAIN MENU PREVIOUS NEXT

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Volume Volume is the three-dimensional space inside the container holding the gas. The SI unit for volume is the cubic meter, m3. A more common and convenient unit is the liter, l. Think of a 2-liter bottle of soda to get an idea of how big a liter is. (OK, how big two of them are…) MAIN MENU PREVIOUS NEXT

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**You can predict the behavior of gases based on the following properties:**

Pressure Volume Amount (moles) Temperature MAIN MENU PREVIOUS NEXT

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Amount (moles) Amount of substance is tricky. As we’ve already learned, the SI unit for amount of substance is the mole, mol. Since we can’t count molecules, we can convert measured mass (in kg) to the number of moles, n, using the molecular or formula weight of the gas. By definition, one mole of a substance contains approximately x 1023 particles of the substance. You can understand why we use mass and moles! MAIN MENU PREVIOUS NEXT

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**You can predict the behavior of gases based on the following properties:**

Pressure Volume Amount (moles) Temperature MAIN MENU PREVIOUS NEXT

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Temperature Temperature is the measurement with which you’re probably most familiar (and the most complex to describe completely). For these lessons, we will be using temperature measurements in Kelvin, K. The Kelvin scale starts at Absolute 0, which is °C. To convert Celsius to Kelvin, add MAIN MENU PREVIOUS NEXT

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How do they all relate? Some relationships of gases may be easy to predict. Some are more subtle. Now that we understand the factors that affect the behavior of gases, we will study how those factors interact. MAIN MENU PREVIOUS NEXT

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**How do they all relate? Let’s go!**

Some relationships of gases may be easy to predict. Some are more subtle. Now that we understand the factors that affect the behavior of gases, we will study how those factors interact. Let’s go! MAIN MENU PREVIOUS

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Lesson 2: Boyle’s Law This lesson introduces Boyle’s Law, which describes the relationship between pressure and volume of gases. MAIN MENU NEXT

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Boyle’s Law This law is named for Charles Boyle, who studied the relationship between pressure, p, and volume, V, in the mid-1600s. Boyle determined that for the same amount of a gas at constant temperature, p * V = constant This defines an inverse relationship: when one goes up, the other comes down. pressure volume MAIN MENU PREVIOUS NEXT

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Boyle’s Law This law is named for Charles Boyle, who studied the relationship between pressure, p, and volume, V, in the mid-1600s. He determined that for the same amount of a gas at constant temperature, p * V = constant This defines an inverse relationship: when one goes up, the other comes down. pressure volume MAIN MENU PREVIOUS NEXT

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**What does Boyle’s Law mean?**

p * V = constant Suppose you have a cylinder with a piston in the top so you can change the volume. The cylinder has a gauge to measure pressure, is contained so the amount of gas is constant, and can be maintained at a constant temperature. A decrease in volume will result in increased pressure. Hard to picture? Let’s fix that! MAIN MENU PREVIOUS NEXT

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Boyle’s Law at Work… Doubling the pressure reduces the volume by half. Conversely, when the volume doubles, the pressure decreases by half. MAIN MENU PREVIOUS NEXT

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**Application of Boyle’s Law**

Boyle’s Law can be used to predict the interaction of pressure and volume. If you know the initial pressure and volume, and have a target value for one of those variables, you can predict what the other will be for the same amount of gas under constant temperature. Let’s try it! MAIN MENU PREVIOUS NEXT

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**Application of Boyle’s Law**

p1 * V1 = p2 * V2 p1 = initial pressure V1 = initial volume p2 = final pressure V2 = final volume If you know three of the four, you can calculate the fourth. MAIN MENU PREVIOUS NEXT

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**Application of Boyle’s Law**

p1 * V1 = p2 * V2 p1 = 1 KPa V1 = 4 liters p2 = 2 KPa V2 = ? Solving for V2, the final volume equals 2 liters. So, to increase the pressure of 4 liters of gas from 1 KPa to 2 KPa, the volume must be reduced to 2 liters. MAIN MENU PREVIOUS NEXT

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**Boyle’s Law: Summary Pressure * Volume = Constant p1 * V1 = p2 * V2**

With constant temperature and amount of gas, you can use these relationships to predict changes in pressure and volume. MAIN MENU PREVIOUS NEXT

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**Lesson 2 Complete! This concludes Lesson 2 on Boyle’s Law!**

Click the Main Menu button below, then select Lesson 3 to learn about how temperature fits in. MAIN MENU PREVIOUS

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Lesson 3: Charles’ Law This lesson introduces Charles’ Law, which describes the relationship between volume and temperature of gases. MAIN MENU NEXT

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Charles’ Law This law is named for Jacques Charles, who studied the relationship volume, V, and temperature, T, around the turn of the 19th century. He determined that for the same amount of a gas at constant pressure, V / T = constant This defines a direct relationship: an increase in one results in an increase in the other. volume temperature MAIN MENU PREVIOUS NEXT

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**What does Charles’ Law mean?**

V / T = constant Suppose you have that same cylinder with a piston in the top allowing volume to change, and a heating/cooling element allowing for changing temperature. The force on the piston head is constant to maintain pressure, and the cylinder is contained so the amount of gas is constant. An increase in temperature results in increased volume. Hard to picture? Let’s fix it (again)! MAIN MENU PREVIOUS NEXT

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Charles’ Law at Work… As the temperature increases, the volume increases. Conversely, when the temperature decreases, volume decreases. MAIN MENU PREVIOUS NEXT

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**Application of Charles’ Law**

Charles’ Law can be used to predict the interaction of temperature and volume. If you know the initial temperature and volume, and have a target value for one of those variables, you can predict what the other will be for the same amount of gas under constant pressure. Let’s try it! MAIN MENU PREVIOUS NEXT

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**Application of Charles’ Law**

V1 / T1 = V2 / T2 V1 = initial volume T1 = initial temperature V2 = final volume T2 = final temperature If you know three of the four, you can calculate the fourth. MAIN MENU PREVIOUS NEXT

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**Application of Charles’ Law**

V1 / T1 = V2 / T2 V1 = 2.5 liters T1 = 250 K V2 = 4.5 liters T2 = ? Solving for T2, the final temperature equals 450 K. So, increasing the volume of a gas at constant pressure from 2.5 to 4.5 liters results in a temperature increase of 200 K. MAIN MENU PREVIOUS NEXT

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**Charles’ Law: Summary Volume / Temperature = Constant**

V1 / T1 = V2 / T2 With constant pressure and amount of gas, you can use these relationships to predict changes in temperature and volume. MAIN MENU PREVIOUS NEXT

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**Lesson 3 Complete! This concludes Lesson 3 on Charles’ Law!**

Click the Main Menu button below, then select Lesson 4 to put all the pieces together with the Ideal Gas Law. MAIN MENU PREVIOUS

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Lesson 4: Ideal Gas Law This lesson combines all the properties of gases into a single equation. MAIN MENU NEXT

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**Ideal Gas Law P*V = n*R*T**

Combining Boyle’s and Charles’ laws allows for developing a single equation: P*V = n*R*T P = pressure V = volume n = number of moles R = universal gas constant (we’ll get to that in a minute…) T = temperature MAIN MENU PREVIOUS NEXT

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**Ideal Gas Law P*V = n*R*T**

This is one of the few equations in chemistry that you should commit to memory! By remembering this single equation, you can predict how any two variables will behave when the others are held constant. MAIN MENU PREVIOUS NEXT

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Gas Constant The Ideal Gas Law as presented includes use of the Universal Gas Constant. The value of the constant depends on the units used to define the other variables. For the purposes of this lesson, we will use the equation only to predict gas behavior qualitatively. Specific calculations and units will be part of our classroom work. MAIN MENU PREVIOUS NEXT

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**Putting p*V=n*R*T to Work**

After using Boyle’s and Charles’ law for predicting gas behavior, use of the Ideal Gas Law should be relatively straightforward. Use NASA’s Animated Gas Lab to explore the interaction of these variables on gas behavior. Follow the directions on the page for changing values for the variables. When you’re finished, click the Back button on your browser to return to this lesson. Link to site: Animated Gas Lab MAIN MENU PREVIOUS NEXT

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**Ideal Gas Law: Summary P*V = n*R*T**

Learn it! Use it! This single equation can be used to predict how any two variables will behave when the others are held constant. MAIN MENU PREVIOUS NEXT

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**Lesson 4 Complete! This concludes Lesson 4 on the Ideal Gas Law!**

Click the Main Menu button below, then select Review to try some questions based on these lessons. MAIN MENU PREVIOUS

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Review This review contains multiple choice questions on the material covered by Lessons 1 – 4. Select an answer by clicking the corresponding letter. If you choose an incorrect answer, you will be given feedback and a chance to try again. If you want to return to a lesson to review the material, click on the Main Menu button, then select the lesson. When you’re ready to complete the review again, go back to the Main Menu and click the Review button. MAIN MENU NEXT

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Question 1 Based on Boyle’s Law (p * V = constant) or the Ideal Gas Law (p*V=n*R*T), when the number of moles (n) and temperature (T) are held constant, pressure and volume are: a. Inversely proportional: if one goes up, the other comes down. b. Directly proportional: if one goes up, the other goes up. c. Not related MAIN MENU

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Question 1 is Correct! Based on Boyle’s Law (p * V = constant) or the Ideal Gas Law (p*V=n*R*T), when the number of moles (n) and temperature (T) are held constant, pressure and volume are: a. Inversely proportional: if one goes up, the other comes down. Decreasing volume increases pressure. Increasing volume decreases pressure. pressure volume MAIN MENU NEXT

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Try Question 1 again… Based on Boyle’s Law (p * V = constant) or the Ideal Gas Law (p*V=n*R*T), when the number of moles (n) and temperature (T) are held constant, pressure and volume are: a. Inversely proportional: if one goes up, the other comes down. b. Directly proportional: if one goes up, the other goes up. c. Not related You selected b. While pressure and volume are related, it is not a direct proportion. Try again! MAIN MENU TRY AGAIN

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Try Question 1 again… Based on Boyle’s Law (p * V = constant) or the Ideal Gas Law (p*V=n*R*T), when the number of moles (n) and temperature (T) are held constant, pressure and volume are: a. Inversely proportional: if one goes up, the other comes down. b. Directly proportional: if one goes up, the other goes up. c. Not related You selected c. Pressure and volume are related. Is the relationship inverse or direct? MAIN MENU TRY AGAIN

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Question 2 Based on Charles’ Law (V / T = constant) or the Ideal Gas Law (p*V=n*R*T), when the number of moles (n) and pressure (p) are held constant, volume and temperature are: a. Inversely proportional: if one goes up, the other comes down. b. Directly proportional: if one goes up, the other goes up. c. Not related MAIN MENU

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Try Question 2 again… Based on Charles’ Law (V / T = constant) or the Ideal Gas Law (p*V=n*R*T), when the number of moles (n) and pressure (p) are held constant, volume and temperature are: a. Inversely proportional: if one goes up, the other comes down. b. Directly proportional: if one goes up, the other goes up. c. Not related You selected a. While volume and temperature are related, it is not an inverse proportion. Try again! MAIN MENU TRY AGAIN

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Question 2 is Correct! Based on Charles’ Law (V / T = constant) or the Ideal Gas Law (p*V=n*R*T), when the number of moles (n) and pressure (p) are held constant, volume and temperature are: b. Directly proportional: if one goes up, the other goes up. volume temperature Increasing temperature increases volume. Decreasing temperature decreases volume. MAIN MENU NEXT

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Try Question 2 again… Based on Boyle’s Law (p * V = constant) or the Ideal Gas Law (p*V=n*R*T), when the number of moles (n) and temperature (T) are held constant, pressure and volume are: a. Inversely proportional: if one goes up, the other comes down. b. Directly proportional: if one goes up, the other goes up. c. Not related You selected c. Pressure and volume are related. Is the relationship inverse or direct? MAIN MENU TRY AGAIN

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Question 3 Lets put the Ideal Gas Law (p*V=n*R*T) to some practical use. To inflate a tire of fixed volume, what is the most effective way to increase the pressure in the tire? a. Increase the force pressing on the outside of the tire. b. Increase the temperature of the gas (air) in the tire. c. Increase the amount (number of moles) of gas in the tire. MAIN MENU

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Try Question 3 again… Lets put the Ideal Gas Law (p*V=n*R*T) to some practical use. To inflate a tire of fixed volume, what is the most effective way to increase the pressure in the tire? a. Increase the force pressing on the outside of the tire. b. Increase the temperature of the gas (air) in the tire. c. Increase the amount (number of moles) of gas in the tire. While increasing the load in the car might increase the force on the tires, it would prove to be a difficult way to adjust tire pressure. Try again! MAIN MENU TRY AGAIN

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Try Question 3 again… Lets put the Ideal Gas Law (p*V=n*R*T) to some practical use. To inflate a tire of fixed volume, what is the most effective way to increase the pressure in the tire? a. Increase the force pressing on the outside of the tire. b. Increase the temperature of the gas (air) in the tire. c. Increase the amount (number of moles) of gas in the tire. Increasing the temperature of the air in the tire would definitely increase pressure. That is why manufacturers recommend checking air pressures when the tires are cold (before driving). But how would you increase temperature without damaging the tire? Is there a more practical solution? MAIN MENU TRY AGAIN

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Question 3 is Correct! Lets put the Ideal Gas Law (p*V=n*R*T) to some practical use. To inflate a tire of fixed volume, what is the most effective way to increase the pressure in the tire? a. Increase the force pressing on the outside of the tire. b. Increase the temperature of the gas (air) in the tire. c. Increase the amount (number of moles) of gas in the tire. When you inflate a tire with a pump, you are adding air, or increasing the amount of air in the tire. This will often result in a slight increase in temperature because a tire is not a controlled environment. Such deviations and quirks will be discussed in class! MAIN MENU NEXT

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Mission complete! You have completed the lessons and review. Congratulations! You should now have a better understanding of the properties of gases, how they interrelate, and how to use them to predict gas behavior. Please click on the button below to reset the lesson for the next student. Thanks! Return to Title Slide

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Chapter 4: The Gas Laws In this chapter, we’ll study the gas laws which will allow us to predict the properties of any gas We’ll cover sections 1 through.

Chapter 4: The Gas Laws In this chapter, we’ll study the gas laws which will allow us to predict the properties of any gas We’ll cover sections 1 through.

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