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Dietary Supplements : The Science You Need to Know

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Presentation on theme: "Dietary Supplements : The Science You Need to Know"— Presentation transcript:


2 Dietary Supplements : The Science You Need to Know
Duffy MacKay, ND Vice President, of Scientific and Regulatory Affairs Council for Responsible Nutrition

3 Disclaimer: Employed by a Dietary Supplement Trade Association Founded in 1973 Trade association representing dietary supplement manufacturers and ingredient suppliers CRN companies produce a large portion of the dietary supplements marketed in the United States and globally

4 The Science You Need to Know
Supplement 101 Basics of Regulatory Framework State of the Science Filling Nutrition Gaps Specialty Supplements Recent Controversies in Nutrition Iowa Women’s Health Study Calcium and Cardiovascular Health Safety Considerations Conclusion

5 Dietary Supplement 101

6 FOODS OR DRUGS? Conventional Rx Drugs Foods Drugs Dietary Supplements
Supplements are Foods: Congress has considered the legal classification of dietary supplements on at least 3 separate occasions in past 70 years, and every time has concluded that they belong in the food category

7 Regulation is a Four-Legged Stool
11. The ingredients are safe. 3. The product is manufactured in a manner that assures quality. Ingredient Safety Manufacturing Standards 2. The ingredients are effective - the product does what the marketer says it will do. 4. The product is being monitored in the marketplace. Labeling/Claims Post-Market Surveillance

8 Label Claims Nutrient Content claims Structure/Function claims
Nutrient Deficiency claims Health Claims Qualified Health Claims All of these can now be used in the labeling of both dietary supplements and conventional foods.

9 Claims & Nutrition Labeling
Legislation Description Application Health Claim 1990 NLEA Describes the relationship between a food or substance and a disease or health-related condition, Significant Scientific Agreement standard Food & Supplements Structure/ Function Claim 1994 DSHEA Describe an effect on the structure or function of the body Foods & Supplements Health Claim/ Nutrient Content Claim 1997 FDAMA Permits health claims based on authoritative statements of scientific bodies (NIH, CDC, USDA, etc…) Qualified Health Claim 1999 Pearson v. Shalala Qualifying language for claim depending on strength of evidence FDA review and approval? Yes No

10 FDA Approved Health Claims
Dietary substance Disease risk Year approved Calcium, Vitamin D Osteoporosis 1993, 2008 Dietary Lipids Cancer 1993 Dietary Saturated Fat and Cholesterol CHD Dietary Non-cariogenic Carbohydrate Sweeteners Dental caries 1996 Folic Acid Neural Tube Defects Fruits and Vegetables Fruits, Vegetables and Grain Products that contain fiber Sodium Hypertension Soluble Fiber from Certain Foods 1997 Soy Protein 1999 Stanols/Sterols 2000 Whole grain foods CHD, Cancer 2003

11 Claims Enforcement FDA: authority over label claims that are false or misleading or not substantiated, and unapproved drug claims. FDA Guidance: ation/GuidanceDocuments/DietarySupplements/ucm htm FTC: authority over advertising claims that are false, misleading or not substantiated. FTC Guidance:

12 FDA Enforcement Myth = Unregulated
“Your products are represented as dietary supplements . . .; however, the products do not meet the definition of a dietary supplement in section 201(ff) of the Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act Your products are intended to affect the structure or function of the body by, among other things, building muscle, increasing strength, and affecting the levels of estrogens and androgens in the body Accordingly, [these products] are drugs . . Furthermore, your products are "prescription drugs" as defined at section 503(b)(I)(A) of the Act (21 U.S.C. § 353(b)(1)(A)), in that because of their toxicity or other potentiality for harmful effect, or the method of their use, or the collateral measures necessary to their use, they are not safe for use except under the supervision of a practitioner ” FDA warning letter to Americell Labs, July 27, 2009

13 FDA Enforcement “…Only products that are intended for ingestion may be lawfully marketed as dietary supplements. Topical products and products intended to enter into the body directly through the skin or mucosal tissues, such as transdermal or sublingual products, are not dietary supplements. For these products, both disease and structure/function claims may cause them to be new drugs” – Stated in multiple warning letters from FDA

14 FTC Enforcement

15 FDA-regulated products
Pre-market approval Pre-market notification GMPs Labeling require-ments Facility registration Post-market surveillance Advertising (FTC or FDA*) Foods Dietary supplements Drugs * Biologics Medical devices

16 Filling Nutrition Gaps

17 Basic Premise of the Dietary Guidelines is that nutrient needs should be met primarily through eating food. Fortified foods and dietary supplements may be useful in providing one or more nutrients that otherwise might be consumed in less than recommended amounts.

18 American Nutrient Inadequacy
Because consumption of vegetables, fruits, whole grains, milk and milk products, and seafood is lower than recommended, intake by Americans of some nutrients is low enough to be of public health concern. These are potassium, dietary fiber, calcium, and vitamin D In addition intake of iron, folate, and vitamin B12 is of concern for specific population groups.

19 Potassium Potassium is an essential mineral needed to regulate water balance, levels of acidity, blood pressure, and neuromuscular function and the transmission of electrical impulses in the heart. Dietary potassium can lower blood pressure by blunting the adverse effects of sodium on blood pressure and reduced risk of developing kidney stones and decreased bone loss. The Adequate Intake (AI) for potassium for adults is 4,700 mg per day. AIs are amounts of a nutrient that are adequate for almost everyone in the population; therefore, intake below an AI may be adequate for some people.

20 Potassium Few Americans, including all age-gender groups, consume potassium in amounts equal to or greater than the AI. In view of the health benefits of adequate potassium intake and its relatively low current intake by the general population, increased intake of potassium is warranted. Individuals with kidney disease and those who take certain medications, such as ACE inhibitors, should consult with their health care provider for specific guidance on potassium intake.

21 Dietary Fiber The AI for fiber is 14 g per 1,000 calories
25 g per day for women 38 g per day for men Most Americans greatly under-consume dietary fiber, and usual intake averages only g per day.

22 Calcium Adequate calcium is important for optimal bone health.
Calcium serves vital roles in nerve transmission, constriction and dilation of blood vessels, and muscle contraction. Age groups of particular concern due to low calcium intake - children ages 9 y/o +, adolescent girls, adult women, adults ages 51 y/o + All ages are encouraged to meet their Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) for calcium. 800 to 1,500 mg daily depending on age and dietary calcium intake

23 Vitamin D Vitamin D’s most important role is maintaining blood levels of calcium, which it accomplishes by increasing absorption of calcium from food and reducing urinary calcium loss. Vitamin D also supports breast, colon, immune and prostate health and contributes to the maintenance of a healthy mood. The RDAs for vitamin D, which assume minimal sun exposure, are 600 IU (15 mcg) per day for children and most adults and 800 IU (20 mcg) for adults older than 70 years.

24 “Several large-scale studies have found that vitamin D deficiency is widespread —one in 10 U.S. children are estimated to be deficient — and that 60 percent of children may have suboptimal levels of vitamin D. “

25 Nutrients of Concern for Specific Groups
Women capable of becoming pregnant Iron – mg Folic Acid – 400 mcg Women who are pregnant or breastfeeding Folic Acid – 600 mcg Omega-3 fatty acids EPA + DHA (250 – 500 mg) Iron – 27 mg Individuals ages 50 years and older Vitamin B12 2.4 mcg

26 Beyond the Dietary Guidelines
Optimizing Health Beyond the Dietary Guidelines dietary supplements one aspect of a total wellness package

The ADA and Dieticians of Canada 500 mg/day EPA + DHA 2 servings of fatty fish/week (1/4 can of sardines/week) ISSFAL 500 mg/day EPA + DHA UK's Scientific Advisory Committee on Nutrition 450 mg/day EPA + DHA Australia and New Zealand National Health and Medical Research Council 610 mg/day EPA + DHA 430 mg/day DPA World Health Organization mg/day EPA + DHA 1-2 servings of fish per week (1/4 can of sardines/week) American Heart Association mg/day British Nutrition Foundation Task Force mg/day UK Department of Health 200 mg/day Institutes of Medicine Dietary Reference Intakes mg/day (based on 10% of AI for ALA in 2002) STUDIES 1. Brownawell AM, Harris WS, Hibbelin JR 500 mg/d of EPA + DHA 2. Gebauer, Pstoa, Harris, Kris-Etherton 3. Harris WS, Kris-Etherton PM mg/d of EPA + DHA 4. Pepping. Am J Health-System Pharmacy 2 - 4g fish oil caps/day 5. Simopoulous AP, Leaf A, Salem N Jr Minimum of 500mg of EPA + DHA/day 6. Kris-Etherton PM, Grieger JA, Etherton TD Highly recommend establishing EPA + DHA DRI's above present 100mg

28 Iodine

29 The American Thyroid Association recommends that women receive 150 mcg iodine supplements daily during pregnancy and lactation and that all prenatal vitamin/mineral preparations contain 150 mcg of iodine.

30 Phytonutrients from plant-based foods
Substantial research has demonstrated the heart health benefits of eating a dietary pattern high in fruits and vegetables. Nutritionally, fruits and vegetables are lower calorie sources of key nutrients, such as potassium, dietary fiber, folic acid, and vitamins A, C and E. They also contain literally thousands of naturally-occurring compounds referred to as phytochemicals or phytonutrients, which have health benefits beyond basic nutrition.

31 America’s Phytonutrient Report
Quantify American intake of 14 select phytonutrients Phytonutrients are not considered “essential” to human health, there are no Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs), as there are for macro and micronutrients. Using NHANES and USDA datasets, the report identified the median intakes of phytonutrients by the subpopulation of adults who meet recommended daily intakes of fruits and vegetables (“meeters”). The median intake was referred to as the “prudent intake” (PI), because that is the intake level among adults eating a “prudent diet” that contains recommended amounts of fruits and vegetables.

32 On average, 8 out of 10 Americans (76%) have a “phytonutrient gap” – that is, they fall short in consuming key phytonutrients from plant-based foods that could benefit their health.

33 Heart health Female health Cognitive Health Gut Health Allergy Support
Overview of all categories is beyond the scope of a one hour presentation Resources are available Heart health Female health Cognitive Health Gut Health Allergy Support Immune Support


35 Controversies in Nutrition

36 Calcium and Heart Disease
No suggestions of serious adverse effects from this supplemental calcium intake had been reported until a series of reports from Bolland, Reid, and colleagues Bolland et al., raise the issue of a possible increase in risk for adverse cardiovascular events in men and women associated with the use of calcium or calcium plus vitamin D supplements The initial reports were from two clinical trials in which women and men had been randomly assigned to receive a calcium supplement or placebo and were followed for 2y (men) or 5y (women) .

37 Calcium Controversies
The primary outcome measure was the change in bone mineral density in each of these studies; however, adverse cardiovascular events were pre-specified secondary outcomes. Trends were reported toward increased cardiovascular events in the groups receiving calcium supplementation in both studies.

38 Calcium Controversy The Institute of Medicine Food and Nutrition Board’s report on calcium and vitamin D assessed the early Bolland, Reid, and colleagues’ RCTs and first meta-analysis The IOM concluded that the studies included are small, the event frequency is low, and most outcomes have confidence intervals that overlap In the meta-analysis cardiovascular events were not a primary outcome, the events may not have been well adjudicated, and renal function was not considered as a covariate Facts are stubborn, but statistics are more pliable If you torture the data long, and hard will confess The IOM stands by the current RDAs for Calcium RDAs are target levels to be achieved from total calcium intake (diet + supplementation)

39 Iowa Women’s Health Study
Observational Study of about 4,000 Women from Iowa Primary endpoint was distribution of body fat and disease incidence Questionnaire asked about education smoking, alcohol use, leisure time activity, diet and supplement use Surveys conducted in 1986, 1997, and 2004. In 2011 an article reported on dietary supplement use and mortality Supplement users were healthier, so the data was adjusted to remove this variable After data adjustments Small (2.4%) increased increase in risk of mortality in women who used a multivitamin Small (3.8%) decreased risk in women who took calcium

40 None detected an increase in mortality
Iowa Women’s Health Study Concludes “No reason to supplement unless strong medically based cause, such as symptomatic nutrient deficiency disease” Researchers at the Harvard School of Public Health identified major flaws in the authors conclusions Study did not exclude women who already had disease (cancer heart disease, etc) No analysis of duration of supplement use Results based on questionnaires – no biomarkers of status or intervention No discussion of other similar studies in authors notes, accompanying editorial, or media coverage Multiethnic Cohort Study, (n = 180,000) Women’s Health Initiative, (n=160,000) Pocobelli, Peters, et al (n=77,000) Watkins, Erickson et al., (n= 1,000,000) None detected an increase in mortality

41 Improper Comparison Other Flaws
“User” MV 12,769 “Non-User” control 25,475 17,428 Calcium users 10,905 Vit C users 5,403 Vit E users etc Other Flaws A “user” of a particular supplement was compared against everyone else in the study (not a true non-user of vitamins) e.g. mortality of multivitamin users (n= 12,769) was compared against mortality of everyone else in the study (n = 25,000, which included 17,428 calcium-alone users) Relative risks were very small making all of these limitations to the study significant in tempering conclusions that can be made form the data

42 Randomized controlled trials impose constraints ill-suited to testing of nutrients
Drugs Nutrients Example Control Group Drug-free state Nutrient-free state unethical and impossible WHI conclusion “Ca+ and Vit D not effective for maintaining bone health” median intake of Ca+ in p Placebo group:1,100 mg Ca $625 million NIH study Baseline nutrient status influences effect No baseline status Nutrient-sufficiency state may mask effect (unintended ingestion) PHS II. C, E, beta-carotene, & MV not effective for prevention of CV dz, total ca, prostate ca. 60 -73% % risk reduction for those enrolled in the study vs not in the study Effect size Large (if no effect in 6-12 months no investment) Modest, aggregate over time and aggregate across multiple systems Subclinical iodine deficiency may result in mental deficiencies in offspring Scope of effect Target a single system Nutrients impact all cells and tissues Omega-3 fatty acids are found in every cell in the human body Omega-3 effect the structure, function, and cell signaling for all cells

43 Safety Considerations
Drug Nutrient Interactions

44 Dietary Supplement use is Mainstream
More than 150 million Americans use dietary supplements each year as part of an overall approach to wellness CRN survey data 80% of Americans take at least one pharmacologically active agent on a regular basis. Kaufman DW, Kelly JP, Rosenberg L, et al. JAMA 2002.

45 Potential Interactions between conventional drug therapies and herbal and nutritional therapies exists and presents both a challenge and an opportunity Challenge = unanticipated adverse reactions Opportunity = discovery of new synergies that enhance the depth and breadth of mainstream medicine

46 Practical Consideration
A small number of prescription medications and dietary supplements account for the majority of possible interactions. Actual potential for harm is low. Sood A, et al. Potential for Interactions Between Dietary Supplements and Prescription Medications. Am J Med,

47 Survey of 1,795 Mayo clinic patients
Approximately 700 used both Rx and DS only 185 medical records showed DS use (26%) 236 pts demonstrated potential for 369 interactions 107 interactions with potential clinical significance none resulted in serious harm during 10 month study period Sood A, et al. Am J Med, 2008.

48 Survey of 1,795 Mayo clinic patients
Approximately 700 used both Rx and DS only 185 medical records showed DS use (26%) 236 pts demonstrated potential for 369 interactions 107 interactions with potential clinical significance none resulted in serious harm during 10 month study period Sood A, et al. Am J Med, 2008.

49 4 most common Rx accounted for 94% of possible interactions
8 most commonly used DS accounted for approx 86% of possible interactions Garlic, Valerian, Kava, Ginkgo, St. John’s Wort, Glucosamine, Ginger, Ginseng 4 most common Rx accounted for 94% of possible interactions Anti-thrombotic, Sedatives, Anti- depressants, Anti-diabetics No data on actual interactions Sood A, et al. Am J Med 2008. Pareto principle 80% of the effects come from 20% of the causes (also known as the rule,[1] the law of the vital few, and the principle of factor states that, for many events, roughly 80% of the effects come from 20% of the causes.[2][3] areto principle (also known as the rule

50 Safety Considerations
Three pieces of advice can address most dietary supplement safety considerations Follow all label instructions Talk to your doctor, pharmacist, or other qualified health- care practitioner about drugs and supplements you are taking Evaluate supplement use in context with known allergens

51 Conclusions: Dietary supplements are regulated Dietary supplements can help fill nutrition gaps Specialty supplements are a popular option for proactive health maintenance Resources are available to support responsible marketing of dietary supplements Controversies in nutrition are inappropriately sensationalized before proper scientific conclusions


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