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Meeting the Needs of the Community: A System for Redesigning Care

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1 Meeting the Needs of the Community: A System for Redesigning Care
Mike Hindmarsh Hindsight Healthcare Strategies

2 Mrs. C – We all know one Ms. C is a 68yo woman with cough and shortness of breath and risk factors for Type II diabetes. She calls her doctor who cannot see her until the following week. Two days later she is hospitalized with shortness of breath. She is dxed with “CHF”, discharged on captopril, “no added salt diet” with encouragement to see her MD in three weeks When she sees her MD, he does not have information about the hospitalization PE reveals rales, S3 gallop, edema and possible depression Ms. C is told she has “a little heart failure”, encouraged not to add salt, and Captopril is increased. Her depression is not addressed. She is told to call back if she is no better Two weeks later Ms. C calls 911 because of severe breathlessness and is admitted. Fuller history in the hospital reveals that she has been taking the Captopril prn because it seems “strong”, and she has never added salt to her diet, so her diet hasn’t changed. Further tests reveal elevated blood glucose. She is warned of impending diabetes. She is discharged feeling ill and frightened.

3 Four Biggest Worries About Having A Chronic Illness (Age 50 +)
Losing independence Being a burden to family or friends Affording medical care But what are patients really concerned about? Source: Partnership for Solutions, Medicare data and Harris polls of Medicare recipients. (from Jerry Anderson)

4 The Increasing Burden of Chronic Illness
For Example: Patients with Diabetes Need Additional Diagnoses* 45% Functional Limits** 50% > 2 Symptoms*** 35% Not Good Health Habits 30% Or you might choose to think about the care of a patients with chronic diseases, such as diabetes.However, don’t fall into a trap. A disease management program aimed only at improving a hemoglobin A1C will miss the mark. These patients often have multiple diagnoses, functional limits and symptoms. Source: John Wasson, data from *Arthritis (34%), obesity (28%), hypertension (23%),cardiovascular (20%), lung 17%) ** Physical (31%), pain (28%), emotional (16%), daily activities (16%) *** Eating/weight (39%), joint pain (32%), sleep (25%), dizzy/fatigue(23%), foot (21%), backache (20%)

5 Differences between acute and chronic conditions (Holman et al, 2000)
Acute disease Chronic Illness Onset Abrupt Generally gradual and often insidious Duration Limited Lengthy and indefinite Cause Usually single Usually multiple and changes over time Diagnosis and prognosis Usually accurate Often uncertain Intervention Usually effective Often indecisive; adverse effects common Outcome Cure possible No cure Uncertainty Minimal Pervasive Knowledge Prof.’s - knowledgeable Patients - inexperienced Prof.’s and patients have complementary knowledge and exp.’s

6 Figure 2: Care Gap for Chronic Conditions
Adherence to recommended care is low for chronic conditions % of Recommended Care Received Source: McGlynn et al. NEJM 2003

7 Figure 3: The toll on patients is high: US Data
CONDITION SHORTFALL IN CARE AVOIDABLE TOLL Diabetes Average blood sugar not measured for 24% 29,000 kidney failures 2,600 blind Colorectal cancer 62% not screened 9,600 deaths Pneumonia 36% of elderly didn't receive vaccine 10,000 deaths Heart attack 39% to 55% didn't receive needed medications 37,000 deaths Hypertension Less than 65% received indicated care 68,000 deaths Source: Elizabeth McGlynn, et al. “The Quality of Health Care Delivered to Adults in the US.” NEJM 2003; 348:

8 Systems are perfectly designed to get the results they achieve
The Watchword Systems are perfectly designed to get the results they achieve Source, Don Berwick

9 Problems with Current Disease Management Efforts
Emphasis on physician, not system, behavior Lack of integration across care settings hindering quality care Characteristics of successful interventions weren’t being categorized usefully Commonalities across chronic conditions unappreciated 1) In the past, deficiencies were attributed to bad physicians who just didn’t do the right thing. The emphasis needs to be on the system and the care it delivers. 2) The literature hasn’t been organized in such a way that makes it easy to understand what health care providers were doing and how they were doing it to achieve better results. We need to read the literature and look at who was on the team, what they did, how they interacted with each other and the patient, what visit intervals were like, etc. Clinical trials are more than just one drug vs. another. They create a system of regular, routine care and follow-up, with standardized assessments. 3) Research is primarily condition-specific because of funding sources. We need to be able to provide care in a framework that is similar no matter if the patient has asthma, depression or multiple sclerosis. We need to do this for our own sanity and for our patient’s who can’t be expected to deal with a system where they have 5 case managers, 7 providers and charts in every one of those places.

10 Clinical Information Systems Self- Management Support
Chronic Care Model Community Health System Resources and Policies Health Care Organization Clinical Information Systems Self- Management Support Delivery System Design Decision Support Prepared, Proactive Practice Team Informed, Activated Patient Productive Interactions Our premise is that good outcomes at the bottom of the model (clinical, satisfaction, cost and function) result from productive interactions. To have productive interactions, the system needs to have developed four areas at the level of the practice (shown in the middle): self-management support (how we help patients live with their conditions), delivery system design (who’s on the health care team and in what ways we interact with patients), decision support (what is the best care and how do we make it happen every time) and clinical information systems (how do we capture and use critical information for clinical care). These four aspects of care reside in a health care system, and some aspects of the greater organization influence clinical care. The health system itself exists in a larger community. Resources and policies in the community also influence the kind of care that can be delivered. It is not accidental that self-management support is on the edge between the health system and the community. Some programs that support patients exist in the community. It is also not accidental that it is on the same side of the model as the patient. It is the most visible part of care to the patient, followed by the delivery system design. They know what kind of appointments they get, and who they see. They may be unaware of the guidelines that describe best care (but we should work to change that) and they may be totally unaware of how we keep information to provide that care. We’ll talk about each in detail in the following slides. Wagner EH, Davis C, Schaefer J, Von Korff M, Austin B. A survey of leading chronic disease management programs: Are they consistent with the literature? Managed Care Quarterly. 1999;7(3):56-66. Bodenheimer T, Wagner EH, Grumbach K. Improving primary care for patients with chronic illness: the chronic care model, Part 2. JAMA 2002 Oct 16; 288(15): Wagner EH, Austin BT, Davis C, Hindmarsh M, Schaefer J, Bonomi A., Improving chronic illness care: translating evidence into action. Health Aff (Millwood) Nov-Dec;20(6):64-78. Improved Outcomes

11 Model Development 1993 -- Initial experience at GHC Literature review
RWJF Chronic Illness Meeting -- Seattle Review and revision by advisory committee of 40 members (32 active participants) Interviews with 72 nominated “best practices”, site visits to selected group Model applied with diabetes, depression, asthma, CHF, CVD, arthritis, and geriatrics The chronic care model grew in the following way. It began with attempts to improve care for diabetes at Group Health Cooperative, which has approximately 20,000 patients with diabetes. The improvements were based on a careful reading of the literature. In 1996, GHC was funded to bring together international experts in chronic illness care and charged them with finding the commonalities in the ways they provided good care. This seemed like a useful strategy to continue, and RWJF funded a planning grant which had an international advisory committee who did two things: help develop the model and nominate ideal chronic illness care programs. 72 programs were interviewed and the information checked against the developing model. Fifteen of the organizations were site visited. The elements of the successful programs were captured in the chronic care model. Geriatrics is the interesting area, because care for geriatrics needs to be condition-neutral. Patients have many chronic conditions. Planning grant published as: Wagner EH, Davis C, Schaefer J, Von Korff M, Austin B. A survey of leading chronic disease management programs: Are they consistent with the literature? Managed Care Quarterly. 1999;7(3):56-66 First diabetes collaborative published in: Wagner EH, Glasgow RE, Davis C, Bonomi AE, Provost L, McCulloch D, Carver P, Sixta C. Quality improvement in chronic illness care: a collaborative approach. MacColl Institute for Healthcare Innovation, Center for Health Studies, Group Health Cooperative of Puget Sound, 1730 Minor Ave, Suite 1290, Seattle, WA, USA. Jt Comm J Qual Improv Feb;27(2):63-80

12 Essential Element of Good Chronic Illness Care
Informed, Activated Patient Productive Interactions Prepared Practice Team The advisory committee told us that good outcomes are the result of productive interactions between an informed, activated patient (and their family or caregivers) and a prepared, proactive practice team. This is what the chasm report calls continuous healing relationship. Wagner EH, Davis C, Schaefer J, Von Korff M, Austin B. A survey of leading chronic disease management programs: Are they consistent with the literature? Managed Care Quarterly. 1999;7(3):56-66

13 What characterizes a “prepared” practice team?
At the time of the visit, they have the patient information, decision support, people, equipment, and time required to deliver evidence-based clinical management and self-management support Let’s look at the two sides of the interaction in more detail. Taplin S, Galvin MS, Payne T, Coole D, Wagner E. Putting Population-Based Care Into Practice: Real Option or Rhetoric? J Am Board Fam Pract. 1998;11(2):

14 What characterizes an “informed, activated” patient?
Patient understands the disease process, and realizes his/her role as the daily self manager. Family and caregivers are engaged in the patient’s self-management. The provider is viewed as a guide on the side, not the sage on the stage! We need to help our patients become more involved in their care. We need to allow for cultural and age cohort variations and personal preference in the amount of involvement. Our interactions need to foster the patient’s sense of control and responsibility. Anderson R. Patient empowerment and the traditional medical model: A case of irreconcilable differences? Diabetes Care. 1995; March. 18(3): Bodenheimer T, Lorig K, Holman H, Grumbach K. Patient self-management of chronic disease in primary care. JAMA. 2002; November. 288(19): Lorig K, Holman H, Sobel D, Laurent D, Gonzalez V, Minor M. Living a healthy life with chronic conditions. Bull Publishing, Palo Alto, CA. 2000

15 productive interaction?
What is a productive interaction? Informed, Activated Patient Productive Interactions Prepared Practice Team Assessment of self-management skills and confidence as well as clinical status Tailoring of clinical management by stepped protocol Collaborative goal-setting and problem-solving resulting in a shared care plan Active, sustained follow-up This is how you would know good chronic illness care if you saw it.

16 Self-Management Support
Emphasize the patient's central role Use effective self-management support strategies that include assessment, goal-setting, action planning, problem-solving, and follow-up Organize resources to provide support Self-management support: Empower and prepare patients to manage their health and health care. 1) Emphasize the patient’s central role in managing their health. Providers emphasize the patient's active and central role in managing their illness. (Health care team is only with patients a very brief amt. of time.) 2) Use effective self-management support strategies that include assessment, goal-setting, action planning, problem-solving and follow-up. 5 A’s is an office-based way to help patients with behavior change. Assessments include not only knowledge but beliefs and behavior. (Knowledge isn’t enough to change behavior. We need to understand more about what patients value and what they do.) Advice needs to be given carefully and linked to things that are important to patients. For example, graphing lowered blood sugars after a patient has successful exercised regularly. Agree on goals that are important to patients. Goals are usually broken down into smaller steps (typically called action plans) that lead to better outcomes. Assist with problem-solving by identifying barriers, strategies and social or environmental support. Arrange a specific follow-up plan. Follow-up is not left to chance and can be done in person, over the phone or via , or by using peers and outreach workers. Review: Effectiveness of SM training for diabetes Norris et al, Diabetes Care 2001;24:561 Glasgow et al in submission 3) Organize internal and community resources to provide ongoing self-management support to patients.

17 Delivery System Design
Define roles and distribute tasks amongst team members Use planned interactions to support evidence-based care Provide clinical case management services Ensure regular follow-up Give care that patients understand and that fits their culture Delivery system design: Assure the delivery of effective, efficient clinical care and self-management support. Delivery system design is where we all work everyday--(WHO is there and WHAT do they do to contribute to good quality care. This is about HOW we interact with patients.) 1) Sometimes people who work together don’t really work together. We are talking about actually having a team who discusses the work they do and how they are going to do it and how to improve on it. Taplin S, Galvin MS, Payne T, Coole D, Wagner E. Putting Population-Based Care Into Practice: Real Option or Rhetoric? J Am Board Fam Pract. 1998;11(2): 2) Planned interactions have an agenda, like a routine physical has a known agenda. These can be either 1:1 or in groups. We can use prompts and tools to help set the agenda and not leave out critical parts of the care. McCulloch et al Effective Clinical Practice 1998;1:12-22 and Disease Management 2000;3(2):75-82 3) Many of the effective chronic disease programs use case or care managers, but many of us in clinic settings don’t have a way to make care managers a part of our team. What we can do is to determine what it is the care managers are doing that improved care, and make those tasks part of our system. We also need to reserve these intensive services for patients who really need them, the complex patients, either because of multiple conditions, complicated treatment routines or for psychosocial reasons. Simon et al. Randomised trial of monitoring, feedback, and management of care by telephone to improve treatment of depression in primary care. BMJ. 2000;320:550 4) Follow-up is not left to chance. Better outcomes in chronic illness care are due to proactive follow-up by the health care team. In real estate, they say, Location, Location, Location. In chronic illness, it is Follow-up, Follow-up, Follow-up. Support for telephone follow-up: Nurses increase exercise in elderly primary care pts using phone calls: Journal of Geront: Medical Sciences 2002 vol 57A no 11 M733-M740. Impact of automated phone calls and nurse calls on diabetes in the VA, RCT Piette et al, Diabetes Care 2001;24:202 (better HbA1c, more lipid testing, fewer sx, better satisfaction) 5) Give care that patients understand and that fits with their cultural background. This goes beyond providing interpretation but being aware of our values, beliefs and communication style, and adapting to meet patient needs. Since clinical case management is a hot topic, here is a little more detail about what the evidence shows are effective services.

18 Features of Case Management
Regularly assess disease control, adherence, and self-management status Either adjust treatment or communicate need to primary care immediately Provide self-management support Provide more intense follow-up Provide navigation through the health care process Positive results in multiple trials Don’t have to have a case manager, but looks like do need to provide these functions in the outpatient setting. Source for negative review of case management for severe mental disorders: Marshall M et al Cochrane Database Syst Review 2000; (2) CD000050

19 Decision Support Embed evidence-based guidelines into daily clinical practice Integrate specialist expertise and primary care Use proven provider education methods Share guidelines and information with patients Decision support: Promote clinical care that is consistent with scientific evidence and patient preferences. Many people think that decision support is only about guidelines, but it is much more than that. Guidelines can be found at 1) We need to not only have guidelines, but get them off the shelf or the computer screen and use them. Make it hard to do it wrong. Grimshaw & Russell Effect of clinical guidelines on medical practice: a systematic review of rigorous evaluations. Lancet 1993;342:1317 Good guidelines describe stepped care. 2) Our typical way of interacting with specialists is to send a patient and hope to get a letter back. We need ways to work more closely together. Some examples are by practice agreements or by sharing team members. Go beyond traditional referral letters to real-time consultation and exchanges. Quinn et al. Overcoming turf battles: developing a pragmatic, collaborative model to improve glycemic control in patients with diabetes. Jt Comm J Qual Improv 2001;27:255 Katon et al. Collaborative management to achieve treatment guidelines. Impact on depression in primary care. JAMA Apr 5; 273(13): 3) We know lots of ways that don’t change provider behavior, like lecturing you (which I am doing now. The good news is that a collaborative like you will be working in, has been shown to change the ways systems work and improve outcomes for patients. Providers and care teams benefit from problem or case-based learning, academic detailing, modeling by expert providers.) Wagner EH, et al. Quality improvement in chronic illness care: a collaborative approach.. Jt Comm J Qual Improv Feb;27(2):63-80 4) Another thing we can do is to inform patients of guidelines pertinent to their care. (Sometimes written as “Expectations for Care” to let patient know what their care should be like.) An example is a wallet card for diabetes. This information is designed to encourage patient participation in all aspects of care, from shared decision-making to adjusting treatment according to shared care plans.

20 Clinical Information System
Provide reminders for providers and patients Identify relevant patient subpopulations for proactive care Facilitate individual patient care planning Share information with providers and patients Monitor performance of team and system Clinical information system: Organize patient and population data to facilitate efficient and effective care. Many of you may think of this as a registry, but these information systems range from card files to fully functional electronic health records and everything in between. Whatever our system, we need it to perform be able to do these things for us. 1) Provide timely care reminders for providers and patients (Our CIS will prompt reminders to perform needed labs or exams.) 2) Identify relevant patient subpopulations can be identified for proactive care. (Such as to notify all the smokers of a new cessation program, invite patients to a group meeting, or alter medications if some new therapy is shown to be beneficial.) 3) Individual patient care planning is facilitated by the information system. (Care plan is stored and can be adjusted as patient changes their routine and care is adjusted.) 4) Information can be shared with patients and providers. Print outs, care summaries, and communications from distant sites are all ways to increase the efficiency and quality of care we can provide. 5) Monitor performance of practice team and care system—the CIS provides us feedback on how we are doing by provider, clinic or entire system. This feedback loop is valuable information for us to learn from what we are testing and the changes we are trying in our settings.

21 Health Care Organization
Visibly support improvement at all levels, starting with senior leaders Promote effective improvement strategies aimed at comprehensive system change Encourage open and systematic handling of problems Provide incentives based on quality of care Develop agreements for care coordination Health care organization: Create a culture, organization and mechanisms that promote safe, high quality care. 1)Visible support for leaders is believed to be critical for ongoing success. Ovretveit et al. Quality collaboratives:lessons from research. Qual Saf Health Care 2002;11: Senior leaders provide support by visiting clinical sites, reviewing monthly reports, providing resources and problem-solving for innovators. This support of change in pursuit of better quality care becoes part of the culture of the organization and everyone has a role in quality. 2) Some QI strategies work. Langley and colleagues have categorized what they learned from helping organizations institute improvements. References on Effective QI: Walshe & Freeman Qual Saf Health Care 2002 Mar;11(1): Langley et al: The Improvement Guide, Jossey Bass, 1996 3) Encourage open and systematic handling of errors and quality problems to improve care . Safety has been a rallying cry for inpatient care and is becoming a concern in outpatient care. The system needs to be open and honest about handling errors in care and shortcomings in quality. IOM Quality chasm 4) Examples of provider incentive: Medical Assistance Administration (Medicaid) in Washington state pays for group clinical visits for asthma and diabetes when lead by an MD or ARNP. Includes assessment, treatment planning, group discussion on prevention of exacerbations or complications, proper use of medications and monitoring and living with chronic illness, Q&A, BP, wt, one on one to gather data and review individual treatment plan. Pays ~$20, 4 times/yr.) Reward care teams for quality of care, not just productivity. Not always monetary but through recognition, attending CME. Not just physician providers. Bonuses for MDs for quality care: employers and health plans starting bonus programs, $ per patient for BP control, lower lipids, blood sugar. Some programs reward establishing a registry, providing pt education and having regular follow-up (Boston Globe 11/7/2002, p A1) Endsley et al FPM March 2004. 5) Develop agreements that facilitate care coordination within and across organizations. Work with local hospitals, VNS, social service agencies in an open and coordinated manner. IOM Quality Chasm

22 Community Resources and Policies
Encourage patients to participate in effective programs Form partnerships with community organizations to support or develop programs Advocate for policies to improve care Community: Mobilize community resources to meet needs of patients. 1) Encourage patients to participate in effective community programs. This means you need to first know what they are. A good example of an effective program based in the community is the Chronic-Disease Self-Management Program developed by Stanford. It is a 6 week scripted curriculum delivered by lay people with chronic illness. Lorig KR, Sobel DS, Stewart AL, Brown Jr BW, Ritter PL, González VM, Laurent DD, Holman HR. Evidence suggesting that a chronic disease self-management program can improve health status while reducing utilization and costs: A randomized trial. Medical Care, 37(1):5-14, 1999. Lorig et al. Medical Care 39: , (follow-up data) 2) Form partnerships with community organizations to support and develop interventions that fill gaps in needed services One of the most common partnerships is for safe exercise programs. In the Seattle area, the University of Washington partnered with Group Health Cooperative and Senior Services to make “Lifetime Fitness” exercise program available in senior centers and community meeting rooms throughout the area. 3) Advocate for policies to improve patient care Another potential way is to have health plans work together. In several states, health plans have coordinated chronic illness guidelines, measures and care resources throughout the community. This makes it much easier for practicing providers to work with more than one plan. (Washington, Oregon, Kansas City)

23 Advantages of a General System Change Model
Applicable to primary and secondary preventive issues, prenatal and pediatric, mental health and other age-related chronic care issues Once system changes in place, accommodating new guideline or innovation much easier Fits well with other redesign initiatives – such as improved access Approach is being used comprehensively in multiple care settings and countries

24 Research and QI Findings about The Chronic Care Model

25 Organizing the Evidence
Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of interventions to improve chronic care Studies of the relationship between organizational characteristics & quality improvement Evaluations of the use of the CCM in Quality Improvement RCTs of CCM-based interventions Cost-effectiveness studies

26 1: RCTs of interventions to improve chronic care results
“Complex,” “integrated care,” “disease management” programs show positive effects on quality of care Consistently powerful elements include: team care, case management, self-management support STUDY SPECIFICS A review of systematic reviews demonstrates that integrated care programs generally have positive outcomes. The most commonly used components of integrated care programs include: self-management support, patient education, case management, multidisciplinary patient care team, clinical feedback/reminders/education. Authors caution that inconsistent definitions of interventions and outcomes are prevalent throughout the literature and, if ignored, can lead to inappropriate conclusions about the effectiveness of programs in meta analyses. 1 One of two reviews of depression treatment in primary care finds that complex interventions using clinician education, enhanced nurse case management and greater integration between primary and specialty care are effective in improving patient outcomes. Less complex interventions like provider education alone are less likely to be effective. 2 Badamgarav and colleagues conducted systematic evaluation of disease management. Lack of a clear definition of “disease management” makes interpreting the findings difficult, but in general they found an improvement in patient satisfaction, adequacy of prescribed treatment, and other quality of care markers. They also found increases in costs associated with hospitalization and treatment costs among the intervention groups as compared to controls. 3 A review of quality improvement strategies in hypertension finds that interventions that include team care are associated with the greatest improvement in blood pressure outcomes. Here, team care is defined as the “assignment of some responsibilities to a health professional other than the patient's physician.” Other strategies that proved effective include patient education, self management support. 4 Glasgow and colleagues published a literature review and expert recommendations for future research around diabetes care as part of the Health Care Delivery Work Group. They find that the continued focus on acute illness, rather than proactive chronic care management, is the cause for poor quality diabetes care processes and outcomes. They cite articles showing that self-management support, improved patient-provider communication, and collaborative goal setting are linked to improved behavioral, biological and quality of life outcomes. They also cite that a population focus, inclusion of clinician prompts and reminders & a quality clinical information systems that supports disease registries are helpful tools to improve care. 5 A second systematic review of diabetes shows that multifaceted interventions that “facilitate structured and regular review of patients were effective in improving the process of care.” Renders et al finds that studies rarely assess outcomes. Like the studies above, they find that clinician education with performance feedback and use of care teams seemed to improve care. 6 A recent Cochrane review of diabetes care finds that in 58 papers with 66 comparisons, quality improvement initiatives that used team changes and those that use case management with the ability to influence physicians’ prescribing patterns showed the largest difference in post intervention HbA1c scores. 7 Ouwens M, Wollersheim H, Hermens R, Hulscher M, Grol R. Integrated care programmes for chronically ill patients: a review of systematic reviews. Int J Qual Health Care 2005; 17(2):141-6. Gilbody S, Whitty P, Grimshaw J, Thomas R. Educational and organizational interventions to improve the management of depression in primary care: a systematic review. JAMA 2003; 289(23): Badamgarav E, Weingarten SR, Henning JM et al. Effectiveness of disease management programs in depression: a systematic review. Am J Psychiatry 2003; 160(12): Walsh JM, McDonald KM, Shojania KG et al. Quality improvement strategies for hypertension management: a systematic review. Med Care 2006; 44(7): Glasgow RE, Hiss RG, Anderson RM et al. Report of the health care delivery work group: behavioral research related to the establishment of a chronic disease model for diabetes care. Diabetes Care 2001; 24(1): Renders CM, Valk GD, Griffin SJ, Wagner EH, Eijk Van JT, Assendelft WJ. Interventions to improve the management of diabetes in primary care, outpatient, and community settings: a systematic review. Diabetes Care 2001; 24(10): Shojania KG, Ranji SR, McDonald KM et al. Effects of quality improvement strategies for type 2 diabetes on glycemic control: a meta-regression analysis. JAMA 2006; 296(4):

27 2: Studies of the Relationship between Organizational Characteristics & Quality Improvement
Diabetes, preventive services, asthma, chronic disease care Organizational characteristics associated with… successful implementation of quality improvement programs improved health outcomes of patients Several studies have tried to identify the characteristics of high quality practices by examining the extent to which practices used the components of the CCM.

28 2: Studies of the Relationship between Organizational Characteristics & Successful Implementation of QI Projects Common organizational characteristics across studies: Organized teams, including physicians, involved in quality improvement Reminder systems & patient registries Reporting data to external organizations Formal self-management programs Others Characteristics associated with process improvement include: Receiving income, recognition, or better contracts for quality Improved IT infrastructure Large size Receiving capitation payments Utilizing guidelines supported by academic detailing Primary care orientation STUDY SPECIFICS There is a significant relationship between a practice’s primary care orientation and its implementation of the CCM. Specifically, medical groups (as opposed to IPAs) that accept risk for hospitalization costs, use health promotion programs, have of an electronic standardized problem list, and are required to report patient process and outcome measures appear to use more chronic care management practices.1 Flemming et al. studied 134 managed Medicare organizations & collected diabetes quality measures (HbA1c, LDL, microalbuminuria and eye exams). They assessed 32 care elements based on the CCM & compared top and bottom quartiles on quality (e.g., HbA1c>9.5– 20% vs. 50%)Top quartile more likely to employ CCM elements, especially: computerized reminders, practitioner involvement on QI teams, guidelines supported by academic detailing, formal self-management programs, a registry 2 Staff participation in practice decisions & optimization of the clinical care team to include non-physician staff can improve the delivery of preventive services. In addition, improved clinical systems such as reminders & patient registries are associated with improved delivery of preventive services 3 Overall, physician organizations have not adopted as many components of the diabetes care management index as we would expect. 47% use one or fewer care management processes. A number of factors were associated with increased use of care management processes: Reporting data to external organizations; receiving income, recognition, or better contracts for quality; improved IT infrastructure; ownership by HMO or hospital system; receiving capitated payments; and large size. 4 1. Schmittdiel JA, Shortell SM, Rundall TG, Bodenheimer T, Selby JV. Effect of primary health care orientation on chronic care management. Ann Fam Med 2006; 4(2): 2. Fleming B, Silver A, Ocepek-Welikson K, Keller D. The relationship between organizational systems and clinical quality in diabetes care. Am J Manag Care 2004; 10(12): Hung DY, Rundall TG, Crabtree BF, Tallia AF, Cohen DJ, Halpin HA. Influence of primary care practice and provider attributes on preventive service delivery. Am J Prev Med 2006; 30(5): 4. Li R, Simon J, Bodenheimer T et al. Organizational factors affecting the adoption of diabetes care management processes in physician organizations. Diabetes Care 2004; 27(10):

29 3: Evaluations of the Use of CCM in Quality Improvement
Largest concentration of literature RAND Evaluation of ICIC Wide variety in quality and type of evaluation design Majority of studies focus on diabetes RAND Evaluation of the Improving Chronic Illness Care was a multimillion dollar evaluation effort sponsored by the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation. Because of the size and robustness of that evaluation, those findings are highlighted separately in the next few slides.

30 3: RAND Evaluation of Chronic Care Collaboratives
Two major evaluation questions: 1. Can busy practices implement the CCM? 2. If so, would their patients benefit? Studied 51 organizations in four different collaboratives, 2132 BTS patients, 1837 controls with diabetes, CHF, asthma Controls generally from other practices in organization Data included patient and staff surveys, medical record reviews See for details.

31 3: RAND Findings Patient Impacts
Diabetes pilot patients had significantly reduced CVD risk (pilot>control), resulting in a reduced risk of 1 cardiovascular disease event for every 48 patients exposed. CHF pilot patients more knowledgeable and more often on recommended therapy, had 35% fewer hospital days and fewer ER visits Asthma and diabetes pilot patients more likely to receive appropriate therapy. Asthma pilot patients had better QOL STUDY SPECIFICS Over the ten-year risk of cardiovascular disease was determined using a modification of the UK Prospective Diabetes Study risk engine. The baseline 10 year risk was 31% for both cases and controls. At the end of the period, the intervention group had a 2.1% greater reduction in predicted risk. 2 Participation in the collaborative for Heart Failure was associated fewer emergency department visits. 3 The RAND team also utilized medical record review to measure performance on 23 predefined quality indicators for sites participating in the heart failure collaborative. Patients from collaborative sites showed greater improvement than control sites for 11 of the 21 indicators, including use of lipid lowering and angiotensin converting enzyme inhibition therapy. When all indicators were combined into a single overall process score, participating sites improved more than controls (17% versus 1%, P _ ). The improvement was greatest for measures of education and counseling (24% versus _1%, P _ ). 4 The overall process of pediatric asthma care improved significantly in the intervention group but remained unchanged in the control group (change in process score +13% vs 0%; P < .0001). Patients in the intervention group were more likely than patients in the control group to monitor their peak flows (70% vs 43%; P < .0001) and to have a written action plan (41% vs 22%; P = .001). Patients in the intervention group had better general health-related quality of life (scale score 80 vs 77; P = .05) and asthma-specific quality of life related to treatment problems (scale score 89 vs 85; P < .05). 5 The RAND study of adult asthma care had a smaller study population and found process of asthma care improved significantly, as did patient satisfaction with communication, but outcomes were not significantly different from controls. 6 Vargas R, et al. Can a Chronic Care Model Collaborative Reduce Heart Disease Risk in Patients with Diabetes? JGIM, Pre-published online at: Accessed January 29, 2007 Baker DW, Asch SM, Keesey JW, Brown JA, Chan KS, Joyce G, Keeler EB. Differences in education, knowledge, self-management activities, and health outcomes for patients with heart failure cared for under the chronic disease model: the improving chronic illness care evaluation. J Card Fail Aug;11(6): PMID: Asch SM, Baker DW, Keesey JW, Broder M, Schonlau M, Rosen M, Wallace PL, Keeler EB. Does the collaborative model improve care for chronic heart failure? Med Care Jul;43(7): Mangione-Smith R, et al. Measuring the effectiveness of a collaborative for quality improvement in pediatric asthma care: does implementing the chronic care model improve processes and outcomes of care? Ambul Pediatr Mar-Apr;5(2):75-82. Schonlau M, et al. Evaluation of a quality improvement collaborative in asthma care: does it improve processes and outcomes of care? Ann Fam Med May-Jun;3(3):200-8.

32 3: Non-RAND Evaluations of CCM Implementation
In general, those studies with greater fidelity to the CCM showed greater improvements All but one showed improvement on some process measures Most showed improvement on outcomes & empowerment measures, as well. Sustainability & implementation of all CCM elements were challenges Physician & staff must be motivated to change STUDY SPECIFICS Used disease registry, diabetes nurse case managers, and group visits to improve diabetes outcomes in rural, minority populations in Eastern North Carolina. Pre-post findings indicated an increase in patients with self-management goals, who received lipid panel, used aspirin & received a foot exam.1 Pre-post examination of Midwestern CHCs’ participation in the Diabetes Health Disparities Collaborative showed increased process measures like: rates of HbA1c measurement, eye examination referral, foot examination & lipid assessment. Mean value of HbA1c also decreased & survey respondents felt the effort was worth it & successful. Practices struggled in : needing more time, developing a patient registry, staff turnover, more support by senior management.2 Teams implementing CCM in as part of the Diabetes BTS collaborative improved their self-management support capabilities, as measured both by self report & objective data. Among heart failure collaboratives, daily self-monitoring of weight by patients improved significantly 19% to 93% & teams provided education significantly more often to patients.3 Harwell and colleagues supported primary care practices with performance feedback. Practices then did a variety of additional system changes. This cross-sectional study found improvements in some processes – foot examinations, microalbumin testing, dilated retinal examination – but not others like HbA1c testing or LDL-C testing.4 Multiple North Carolina residency practices participated in the BTS collaboratives & implemented strategies across all elements of the CCM. Practices evaluated themselves at base-line and after using the ACIC. Study found that key measures of diabetes care were improved in 2/3 of practices.5 Practices in Wisconsin & Minnesota that implemented planned care and DEMS found that planned care + use of a disease registry improved care across all 12 performance measures. Planned care alone or in conjunction with DEMS improved metabolic outcomes. DEMS alone improved process measures, but not metabolic outcomes.6 Implementation of the CCM in a rural Pennsylvania practice resulted in significant improvement in adherence to ADA guidelines including 2 HbA1c tests per year, lipid profile, urinalysis, eye exam & foot exam performed. Mean HbA1c also declined significantly, as did mean HDLc levels. Improvement in 3 empowerment measures was seen, though it wasn’t significant.7 Among a highly transient, uninsured population, significant improvements in diabetes outcomes including decreased LDL, HbA1c and Arterial Pressure were observed. 8 Case studies from North Carolina show that participation in the CCM collaborative resulted in improved HbA1c values for diabetics. Factors contributing to success included senior leadership support, physician champions, and multidisciplinary teams. Staff turnover was a barrier.9 A Washington state initiative to conduct state-level collaboratives around diabetes care resulted in some improvement in process and outcome measures in most of the 47 participating teams. Absolute improvement was higher for process measures than for outcome measures. 10 One study used the CCM framework to improve the delivery of diabetes self-management training. They found the framework useful in terms of improving the number of DSMT programs offered, enhancing reimbursement to cover costs, and lowering patients HbA1c –ostensibly by offering more patients self management support. 11 The implementation of the Chronic Care Model produced different results when used at two different primary care practices in London. One site showed significant improvements in identification and case management of depression, the other, did not. Tangible barriers like a primitavie information technology system, lack of experience with chronic disease management, and the inability to find common meeting time proved serious barriers to the implementation of the project in the second site. Other, intangible barriers which mediated the impact of the CCM at the second site included a lack of staff ownership, participation, and buy-in as well as lack of external support for the elements of the project. 12 Sites participating in the Breakthrough Series Collaborative for HIV/AIDS did not show improvement on process or outcome measures when compared to other clinics that did not participate in the BTS collaborative. The proportion of patients with a suppressed viral load decreased in the intervention group, compared to the control group, but the decrease was not significant. 13 Bray P, Roupe M, Young S, Harrell J, Cummings DM, Whetstone LM. Feasibility and effectiveness of system redesign for diabetes care management in rural areas: the eastern North Carolina experience. Diabetes Educ 2005; 31(5):712-8. Chin MH, Cook S, Drum ML et al. Improving Diabetes Care in Midwest Community Health Centers With the Health Disparities Collaborative. Diabetes Care 2004; 27(1):2-8. Glasgow RE, Funnell MM, Bonomi AE, Davis C, Beckham V, Wagner EH. Self-management aspects of the improving chronic illness care breakthrough series: implementation with diabetes and heart failure teams. Ann Behav Med 2002; 24(2):80-7. Harwell TS, McDowall JM, Gohdes D, Helgerson SD. Measuring and improving preventive care for patients with diabetes in primary health centers. Am J Med Qual 2002; 17(5): Landis SE, Schwarz M, Curran DR. North Carolina family medicine residency programs' diabetes learning collaborative. Fam Med 2006; 38(3):190-5. Montori VM, Dinneen SF, Gorman CA et al. The impact of planned care and a diabetes electronic management system on community-based diabetes care: the Mayo Health System Diabetes Translation Project. Diabetes Care 2002; 25(11): Siminerio LM, Piatt G, Zgibor JC. Implementing the chronic care model for improvements in diabetes care and education in a rural primary care practice. Diabetes Educ 2005; 31(2): Stroebel RJ, Gloor B, Freytag S et al. Adapting the chronic care model to treat chronic illness at a free medical clinic. J Health Care Poor Underserved 2005; 16(2): Wang A, Wolf M, Carlyle R, Wilkerson J, Porterfield D, Reaves J. The North Carolina experience with the diabetes health disparities collaboratives. Jt Comm J Qual Saf 2004; 30(7): Daniel DM, Norman J, Davis C et al. A state-level application of the chronic illness breakthrough series: results from two collaboratives on diabetes in Washington State. Jt Comm J Qual Saf 2004; 30(2):69-79. Siminerio LM, Piatt GA, Emerson S et al. Deploying the chronic care model to implement and sustain diabetes self-management training programs. Diabetes Educ 2006; 32(2): Scott J, Thorne A, Horn P. Quality improvement report: Effect of a multifaceted approach to detecting and managing depression in primary care. BMJ 2002; 325(7370):951-4. Landon BE, Wilson IB, McInnes K et al. Effects of a quality improvement collaborative on the outcome of care of patients with HIV infection: the EQHIV study. Ann Intern Med 2004; 140(11):

33 Successes of Teams in Collaboratives: The Benefit of Organized Chronic Care
times as many patients with major depression will be recovered at six months Inner city kids with moderate to severe asthma have 13 fewer days per year with symptoms Readmission rates of patients hospitalized with CHF will be cut nearly in half

34 Premier Health Partners
Dayton, Ohio 100 physicians in 36 practices Change began in one practice—spread throughout system ACE-inhibitors for albuminuria was 38% in 1999 and 80% in 2001 A1c < 7% was 42% in 1999 and 70% in 2001

35 UKPDS trend There are currently177,401 patients in the diabetes registries with 77% of the organizations reporting registry size. This measure reflects the average HbA1c of those having at least one HbA1c in the last 12 months. Source of data reported 1/1/05: Slide preparation:

36 4: Randomized Controlled Trials (RCT) of CCM-based Interventions
6 RCTs covering asthma, diabetes, bipolar disorder, comorbid depression & oncology, and multiple conditions 5 in the US – disease specific, 1 in Australia – multiple diseases Practice-level randomization Varying levels of disease severity: mild to severely ill & highly comorbid These trials all tested multi-component interventions based on the CCM in primary care.

37 4: RCTs of CCM-based interventions Results
All but one study shows that implementation of the Chronic Care Model significantly improves process and outcome measures compared to controls and – when included in the trial – less intensive interventions (e.g. physician training alone) Often CCM implementation is linked with improved patient empowerment & education scores, as well Active team motivation to change may be an important factor in predicting success STUDY SPECIFICS Southern Australia “HealthPlus” 4 regions working on 8 sub-trials found a generic model of coordinated care resulted in improved well-being for people with a ride range of chronic conditions in both rural and urban settings.1 Asthma: compared planned care to physician education. Planned care was shown to be more effective than physician education alone in decreasing asthma symptom days for children with mild to moderate asthma.2 Diabetes: Implemented in underserved communities, this trial found that patients in the CCM group significantly lowered A1C levels, non-HDL cholesterol, & frequency of self monitoring compared to controls. Results of Diabetes knowledge & diabetes empowerment also improved, but not significantly more than other groups.3 Applying CCM concepts like SMS, decision support, planned encounters, and care coordinators to treatment of bipolar disorder significantly reduced weeks in affective episodes, primarily mania in severely ill, highly comorbid individuals. Also, functional outcomes improved significantly.4 Among low-income Latinas with comorbid depression and cancer, use of proactive care, case management, self-management support, and feedback to physicians, resulted in significant improvement in depressive symptoms. Patients in the intervention group were also more likely to be alive at the end of the study and to have improved emotional well-being. 5 Sites randomized to attend the Breakthrough Series Collaboratives to improve pediatric asthma care showed no differences in patient experience or outcomes. Lack of team motivation to change, as indicated by the fact that less than ½ the randomized teams attended all three learning sessions, may partially explain the results. Serious financial & other organizational factors also may have played a role. 6 Battersby MW. Health reform through coordinated care: SA HealthPlus. BMJ 2005; 330(7492):662-5. Lozano P, Finkelstein JA, Carey VJ et al. A multisite randomized trial of the effects of physician education and organizational change in chronic-asthma care: health outcomes of the Pediatric Asthma Care Patient Outcomes Research Team II Study. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 2004; 158.(9): Piatt GA, Orchard TJ, Emerson S et al. Translating the chronic care model into the community: results from a randomized controlled trial of a multifaceted diabetes care intervention. Diabetes Care 2006; 29(4):811-7. Bauer MS, McBride L, Williford WO et al. Collaborative care for bipolar disorder: Part II. Impact on clinical outcome, function, and costs. Psychiatr Serv 2006; 57(7): Dwight-Johnson M, Ell K, Lee PJ. Can collaborative care address the needs of low-income Latinas with comorbid depression and cancer? Results from a randomized pilot study. Psychosomatics 2005; 46(3): Homer CJ, Forbes P, Horvitz L, Peterson LE, Wypij D, Heinrich P. Impact of a quality improvement program on care and outcomes for children with asthma. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 2005; 159(5):464-9.

38 5: Cost Effectiveness Study Results
Some evidence that improved disease control can reduce cost, especially for heart disease & uncontrolled diabetes Achieving cost-savings depends on the disease management strategies employed Features of the healthcare market place – including displacement of payoffs in time and place and failure to pay for quality – act as barriers to a business case for quality STUDY SPECIFICS Sustained reductions in HbA1c of 1% or more result in cost savings within 1-2 years of improvement. Cost savings are highest for individuals with highest HbA1c levels at baseline. Utilization of primary care and specialty care were significantly lower among the “improved’ group, but hospitalization rates were not affected.1 Reviewing 44 articles examining the ROI of DM programs showed that some evidence suggests a positive ROI for CHF and multiple disease conditions. Results were mixed for asthma, diabetes, and depression studies, and depended on what types of costs were included (e.g. productivity).2 Gilmer and O’Connor propose that the elements of disease management that are cost effective include: disease management programs; clinical management; and self-management training. Evidence is still needed to support both the costs & effectiveness of these recommendations. 3 Organizational features & improvement strategies differentially affect future health care costs. For example, interventions focusing on the increased use of pharmaceuticals to improve care are associated with increased health care costs. Interventions that focus on clinical meetings, registries, and resource use related to diabetes or heart disease care are associated with lower costs. 4 Wagner EH, Sandhu N, Newton KM, McCulloch DK, Ramsey SD, Grothaus LC . Effect of improved glycemic control on health care costs and utilization. JAMA 2001; 285(2):182-9. Goetzel RZ, Ozminkowski RJ, Villagra VG, Duffy J. Return on Investment in Disease Management: a Review. Health Care Financ Rev 2005; 26(4):1-19. Gilmer T, O'connor PJ. Cost Effectiveness of Diabetes Mellitus Management Programs - a Health Plan Perspective. Disease Management & Health Outcomes 2003; 11(7): Gilmer TP, O'Connor PJ, Rush WA et al. Impact of office systems and improvement strategies on costs of care for adults with diabetes. Diabetes Care 2006; 29(6):

39 What have we learned? Start where you willing… Take small steps
Move quickly Learn from failures Data, data, data…

40 Primary Care Build the team structure Obtain guidelines
Collect some baseline data on the population Set performance measures and targets Call in patients for planned visits Set self-mgmt goals at the visit Conduct follow up on shared care plan

41 The Mrs. C We Want to Know Mrs. C is discharged after her first bout of breathlessness with information about CHF, risk factors for diabetes, and assurance of rapid PCP follow-up The discharge nurse notes Mrs. C’s conditions and care in the EHR and then sends an to PCP’s office about her recent hospitalization. The primary care nurse ensures the physician sees the information and calls Mrs. C to schedule a follow-up within 48 hours. Mrs. C is added to the care team’s registry which prompts team to her future care needs. Mrs. C is scheduled for 30 minutes: 15 minutes with her physician and 15 minutes with the nurse (or medical asst.). The physician explains CHF and diabetes to her. He orders the appropriate diagnostic test for diabetes and assures her that all will be fine recognizing her fear and shock. He closes the loop with her to make sure she understood his recommendations and then briefly explained the concept of self-management support. Mrs. C then visits with the nurse who steps her through a collaborative goal setting and action planning process. While Mrs. C is a bit overwhelmed, she is assured that her care team will follow-up in the next couple of days by phone to make sure she understands her clinical and self-management care plan and to report on the results of diabetes test. The nurse calls within 48 hours and informs Mrs. C that she should be able to manage her blood sugar by better diet and exercise. She reviews the CHF medications with Mrs. C and adjust dosage since it seems to be bothering her. She is scheduled for a follow-up visit in one week to discuss her blood glucose in more depth. She is encouraged to call her team should she have any concerns or symptoms in the meantime. Mrs. C understands the hard work she needs to do to manage her conditions but is thankful for such a caring team.

42 Thank you
For more information please see our web site: Or contact me at Thank you

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