Presentation on theme: "Computerized Provider Order Entry (CPOE)"— Presentation transcript:
1 Computerized Provider Order Entry (CPOE) Welcome to Health Management Information Systems, Computerized Provider Order Entry. This is Lecture a.The component, Health Management Information Systems, is a “theory” component that provides an introduction to health care applications and the systems that use them, health information technology standards, health-related data structures, and enterprise architecture in health care organizations.Lecture a will define CPOE, state the purpose of CPOE, list attributes and functions of CPOE, and explain how CPOE is currently being used in health care.Tamim Alganam
2 Definition of CPOE Computerized practitioner order entry Order entry applicationAssists practitioners with the creation and management of orders for services and medicationsComputerized provider order entryUse of computer assistance to directly enter ordersOrder is documented/captured in a digital, structured, and computable formatInterventions in patient care, such as performing diagnostic tests, administering medications, and drawing blood, are initiated by provider’s orders. The more traditional methods of placing provider orders are written (paper), verbal (in person or via telephone), and fax. A computer application known as computerized provider order entry is now being used in place of these traditional methods.According to HIMSS, Computerized Practitioner Order Entry or CPOE is “An order entry application specifically designed to assist clinical practitioners in creating and managing medical orders for patient services and medications” (HIMSS Dictionary, 2010, p. 28).The Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) defined CPOE as “entailing the provider’s use of computer assistance to directly enter medical orders (for example, medications, consultations with other providers, laboratory services, imaging studies, and other auxiliary services) from a computer or mobile device. The order is also documented or captured in a digital, structured, and computable format for use in improving safety and organization” (CMS, 2010, pp ).CPOE is often depicted in the literature and referred to in the healthcare community as computerized practitioner order entry, or computerized physician order entry. For this unit, the term computerized provider order entry will be used.
3 CPOE Is part of an integrated clinical information system Is a computer application that enables order entryNot just an electronic prescribing systemBest coupled with clinical decision supportCare delivery and clinical documentation systems are systems that support the delivery of the care and documentation of that care. An example would be clinical information systems. A clinical information system (CIS) “The components of a health care information system designed to support the delivery of patient care, including order communications, results reporting, care planning, and clinical documentation” (Shortliffe & Cimino, 2006, p. 924). Computerized provider order entry is typically a module of an integrated clinical information system.CPOE is a computer application that enables a provider to place patient orders via the computer for further processing. It is much more than a replacement of paper orders with electronic ones. CPOE is also not just an electronic prescribing system. It may or may not include the electronic transmittal of that order to another department, such as the pharmacy, laboratory, or diagnostic imaging center.Coupled with a clinical decision support system, CPOE has the capability of applying rules-based logic to assist the provider with making optimal ordering decisions. Later on in this unit the relationship between CPOE and CDS is further explored.
4 Purpose of CPOEAutomate the ordering process in order to manage patient care more effectively and efficiently and as a result improve patient safety and outcomesThe next several slides will explain the purpose of computerized provider order entry. The overall purpose of CPOE is to automate the ordering process in order to manage patient care more effectively and efficiently, and as a result improve patient safety and outcomes. CPOE is a far-reaching technology, as it affects everyone in the organization from administration to providers to patients.
5 Purpose of CPOEPrevent, reduce, or eliminate medical errors and adverse drug events (ADEs)Improve patient safetyReduce unnecessary variation in health careImprove efficiency of health care deliveryAs was previously explained, CPOE’s purpose is to automate the patient ordering process. This in turn helps to manage patient care more effectively and efficiently and as a result, improve patient safety and outcomes. Given this overarching purpose, the four main reasons healthcare providers implement CPOE are to:- Prevent, reduce, or eliminate medical errors and adverse drug events- Improve patient safety,- Reduce unnecessary variation in health care, and- Improve efficiency of health care delivery.Each will be explored more in detail on the next few slides.
6 Prevent, Reduce, or Eliminate Medical Errors and ADEs IOM reports98,000 patients die each year in U.S. hospitals due to medical errorsAdvised rapid adoption of electronic medication ordering to support clinical decisionsCPOE seen as a solutionThe first main reason health care organizations and providers implement CPOE is to prevent, reduce, or eliminate medical errors and adverse drug events or ADEs. Two well known reports from the Institute of Medicine, To err is human: Building a safer health system and Crossing the quality chasm: A new health system for the 21st century, provided an impetus to health care organizations and physician practices to consider CPOE. These IOM reports stated 98,000 patients die each year in U.S. hospitals due to medical errors (Kohn, Corrigan, & Donaldson, 2000) and advised rapid adoption of electronic medication ordering to support clinical decisions (Committee on Quality of Health Care in America, 2001).While the automation of the patient ordering process is recognized as not a small or easy task, CPOE’s potential to prevent, reduce, or eliminate medical errors and adverse drug events is a major motivation for health care organizations and physician practices to adopt this application.
7 Reduce Unnecessary Variation in Health Care Help the physician make optimal ordering decisions and improve adherence to evidence- based practiceRequires configuration of orders and order setsThe third main reason health care organizations and providers implement CPOE is to reduce unnecessary variation in health care. CPOE helps the physician make optimal ordering decisions and improve adherence to evidence-based practice. For example, a specific diagnosis may have a set of orders associated with it. The CPOE application provides the use of the pre-programmed, provider or institution-reviewed and approved orders to facilitate the process and guide the provider to follow accepted protocols for the diagnosis.However, a CPOE system requires orders and order sets be configured for this goal to be achieved. This is discussed in lecture 4b.
8 Improve Efficiency of Health Care Delivery Reduction in order verification and processing timesElectronic communication both directionsOrder entered electronicallyOrder sent electronicallyOrder received electronicallyStatus returned electronicallyRequires interfaces with existing information systemsThe fourth main reason health care organizations and providers implement CPOE is to improve the efficiency of health care delivery. CPOE applications accept orders into the system which are then communicated to the department and personnel to execute. Notification of the status is sent back. Thus a reduction in the time from placement of the order to its completion is realized. CPOE also saves a step as there is no need to re-enter data into an ancillary computer system so the time it takes for the ancillary department to complete the order is less (First Consulting Group, 2003, p. 6).
9 Attributes CIS module System integration Order entry Electronic health record systemsAncillary systemsClinical decision support systemsOrder entryFrom a computer or mobile devicePre-configured orders and order setsHaving covered the reasons why health care organizations and providers are adopting CPOE, attributes will be covered next.First, computerized provider order entry is typically a module of an integrated clinical information system which in turn is part of a larger integrated information technology infrastructure.Second, interfaces with existing information systems such as registration, pharmacy, laboratory, and electronic medical record systems are needed for CPOE to be most effective (Dixon & Zafar, 2009). In addition, coupling CPOE with a clinical decision support system provides the capability of applying rules-based logic to assist the provider with making optimal ordering decisions which is key to enhancing patient safety and provider efficiencies.A third attribute is the capability for the provider to place patient orders via the computer or mobile device for further processing thereby automating the communication of orders from the ordering practitioner to the location where the order is processed. Through the use of pre-programmed, provider or institution-reviewed and approved orders and order sets that facilitate the process and guide the provider to follow accepted protocols for the diagnosis, this attribute helps the physician make optimal ordering decisions and improve adherence to evidence-based practice.
10 Attributes Order processing and documentation System responsiveness System response timeOther attributes include order processing and documentation. The application is able to assist clinical practitioners in creating and managing medical orders for patient services. Specific features document or capture orders in a digital, structured, and computable format and accept them into the system which are then communicated to the department and personnel to execute. Notification of the status is sent back. Regulatory compliance related to order documentation, such as the creation of a permanent, signed order, and security controls, for example, secure access, are important attributes but these may not be included in every CPOE application.Additional CPOE attributes are system responsiveness and system response time. Positive provider experiences are linked to application responsiveness. Providers expect CPOE to not leave them hanging and to provide them with a quick response during their ordering sessions. Response time is the time interval between an executed event and some response, e.g., acknowledgment of receipt, an estimated completion time, or a progress bar. Providers may find variable response times almost as frustrating as a CPOE application that is all-around slow.
11 Attributes Reliability Probability of failure-free operation Ability of a program to perform its required functions accurately and reproduciblyCPOE also needs to be reliable. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration’s glossary (as cited in Booth, 1993) includes the following definition of software reliability:“(1) the probability that software will not cause the failure of a system for a specified time under specified conditions. The probability is a function of the inputs to and use of the system in the software. The inputs to the system determine whether existing faults, if any, are encountered. (2) The ability of a program to perform its required functions accurately and reproducibly under stated conditions for a specified period of time” (Booth, 1993).Providers expect CPOE to perform without interruption due to system shutdowns from crashes, or even routine maintenance to facilitate the critical ordering process.
12 Functions of CPOE Basic: Electronic order communication Accepts/captures the provider’s orders for servicesTransmits the order to the appropriate locationReturns status of orderReturns results of order executionMoving on, the next topic that will be discussed is CPOE functionality. CPOE applications may encompass only basic functionality or expand to more complex functionality where clinical decision support is used.For basic functionality, the focus is on the capture and transmission of the order or order communication. There may or may not be minimal access to knowledge resources and simple bi-directional communication.Many CPOE applications accept the physician’s orders for diagnostic and treatment services, transmit the order to the appropriate location, return the status of the order, and return the results of the order execution.
13 Functions of CPOE Advanced: includes clinical decision support Simple: drug-drug interaction checks, medication dose calculatorsComplex: drug to lab valueThe more advanced CPOE applications have some form of clinical decision support. However, when it comes to clinical decision support and CPOE applications, there are different levels of sophistication. An elementary level is simple, clinical decision support where, for example, the capability to perform drug-drug interaction checks is possible. An example of a complex level is when an alert is generated from an identified drug and a lab value. This interactive decision support goes a long way towards improvements in patient safety and quality. According to Dixon & Zafar (2009), limited benefit may result from implementing an order entry system without coupling clinical decision support with it during the order-entry process.CPOE and clinical decision support are explored further in the next several slides.
14 CPOE and Clinical Decision Support System(CDSS) Uses pre-established rules and guidelinesIntegrates clinical data form several sourcesGenerates alerts and treatment suggestionsAccording to HIMSS, “Clinical decision support system is an application that uses pre-established rules and guidelines that can be created and edited by the healthcare organization, and integrates clinical data from several sources to generate alerts and treatment suggestions” (HIMSS Dictionary, 2010, p. 21).
15 CPOE and Clinical Decision Support System(CDSS) Coupled with a clinical decision support systemApplies rules-based logicSupplies real-time feedbackExampleAlert of a drug allergy with a suggested alternative medicationCPOE needs clinical decision support to reach its full valueCPOE can be much more than the replacement of paper orders with electronic ones. United with a clinical decision support system, CPOE has the ability to provide access to evidence-based guidelines, give prompts, reminders, or alerts regarding the order entered thereby enhancing patient safety and provider efficiencies.The clinical decision support system use of rules-based logic assists the provider with making optimal and safe ordering decisions by supplying clinical advice at the time of order entry about a wide-range of diagnostic and treatment-related information. Advice such as patient allergies, possible drug reactions and interactions, and calculations of medication dosages based on patient weight and age is possible when the CPOE application is coupled with clinical decision support.For example, once the medication order is entered into the computer the CPOE application could then trigger a warning of a drug allergy along with a suggested alternative medication.As numerous studies show, CPOE needs to include clinical decision support to reach its full value. A CPOE system employing CDSS elements provides clinicians with access to evidence-based guidelines, prompts, and alerts at the point of care delivery.
16 CPOE and Clinical Decision Support Systems (CDSS) No single approach to integrationQuestions to askWhat kind and how much clinical support?What about medication alerts, allergies, routine preventive diagnostics?How many alerts will users tolerate before ignoring them?How difficult should it be for the practitioners to override the alerts?There is not one single approach to integrating CDSS into CPOE. According to HIMSS, questions information technology specialists should be asking with regards to the clinical decision support available to the CPOE application are:“What kind and how much clinical support?“What about medication alerts, allergies, routine preventive diagnostics?“How many alerts will users tolerate before ignoring them?“How difficult should it be for the practitioners to override the alerts?” (HIMSS, 2003, para. 2)Joining a clinical decision support system with CPOE has been shown to unlock the patient safety and provider efficiency benefits such as the ability to provide access to evidence-based guidelines and give prompts, reminders, or alerts regarding the order entered.
17 CPOE Users Those who enter the orders and those who process the orders PhysiciansNursesPhysician assistantsNurse practitionersAncillary staff, e.g., pharmacists, therapists, laboratory and radiology personnel, dieticiansCPOE is a broad-ranging application with a multitude of users including but not limited to those who enter the orders and those who process the orders. CPOE users include physicians, nurses, physician assistants, nurse practitioners, ancillary staff such as pharmacists, therapists, laboratory and radiology personnel, dieticians and others.
18 CPOE Uses Applies to both the inpatient and ambulatory setting Order typesMedicationsTests, e.g., laboratoryProceduresOther clinical processes such as admissions, referralsCPOE also is far-reaching from the sense of where it is used, and the order types involved. CPOE use is not limited to the inpatient environment. It is useful to any health care setting where clinical processes, tests, procedures, and medications are ordered, performed, or administered. The most common settings are inpatient or ambulatory settings.CPOE is also not limited to medication orders. Order types, such as those for tests, procedures, and other clinical processes fall under the umbrella of CPOE.Thus, CPOE is currently being used in health care as a replacement for the more traditional methods of placing a variety of order types, including written (paper prescriptions), verbal (in person or via telephone), and fax, in any health care settings where tests and medications are ordered, performed, or administered.
19 Computerized Provider Order Entry References Booth, C.J. (Ed.). (5th Ed.). (1993). IEEE standard dictionary of electrical and electronic terms. New York, NY: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc.Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services; Medicare and Medicaid Programs; Electronic Health Record Incentive Program; Proposed Rule, 42 CFR Parts 412, et al. (January 13, 2010). Retrieved fromCommittee on Quality of Health Care in America, Institute of Medicine. (2001). Crossing the quality chasm: a new health system for the 21st Century. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.Dixon, B.E. & Zafar, A. (2009, January). Inpatient computerized provider order entry (CPOE) Findings from the AHRQ health IT portfolio (Prepared by the AHRQ National Resource Center for Health IT). AHRQ Publication No EF. Retrieved fromFirst Consulting Group. (2003, January). Computerized physician order entry: Costs, benefits and challenges. Retrieved fromHIMSS. (2003, February). CPOE fact sheet. Retrieved fromHIMSS dictionary of healthcare information technology terms, acronyms and organizations. (2010). Chicago, IL: Healthcare Information and Management Systems Society.Kohn, L. T., Corrigan, J.M., & Donaldson, M. S. (Eds.). (2000). To err is human: Building a safer health system. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.No audioThis material Comp6_Unit4a was developed by Duke University, funded by the Department of Health and Human Services, Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology under Award Number IU24OC.