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Diet, Disease, and Digestion

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Presentation on theme: "Diet, Disease, and Digestion"— Presentation transcript:

1 Diet, Disease, and Digestion
Eva Murdoch, PhD Assistant Professor, Anatomy and Physiology Department of Natural Sciences Joliet Junior College

2 Organs of the Digestive System
Gastrointestinal tract (GI): mouth, esophagus, stomach, small & large intestine Accessory organs: salivary glands, liver, gall bladder, pancreas

3 Functions of the GI tract and Accessory Organs
GI tract: continuous muscular tube which passes, digests, and absorbs food molecules, and eliminates the indigestible residue Accessory organs: release digestive juices into the muscular tubule, and aid in the breakdown of nutrients

4 Digestive System Living organisms must obtain nutrients from their environment to sustain life The digestive system breaks down large nutrient molecules to small nutrient molecules that all body cells can then use to: Synthesize ATP (cell’s energy supply) Perform structural maintenance, repair and support growth

5 Digesting and Absorbing Nutrients
Salivary glands, pancreas and liver help with the digestion of large food molecules to small molecules by secreting enzymes Digestion Absorption Carbs  monosacchrides blood Fats  fatty acids blood Proteins  amino acids blood

6 Cell Metabolism All chemical reactions that occur in a cell
Synthesis of ATP Synthesis of new organic molecules, and other cell functions that require ATP

7 Nutrient Molecules Carbohydrates / Sugars
Function: short-term energy supply 4 Cal / 1 gram (calories are a unit of energy) Found in: grains (wheat, rice, oats, corn), fruits, veggies

8 Lipids / Fats Function: energy reserve, padding, insulation 9 Cal / 1 gram Found in: nuts, red meat, milk, eggs, butter

9 Proteins Functions: enzymes, hormones, muscle, last resort for energy 4 Cal / 1 gram Found in: meat, nuts, beans, dairy, eggs

10 Diet Pyramid


12 Disease GERD – gastro-esophageal (acid) reflux disease
Cause: stomach acid in the esophagus, due to weak esophageal sphincter Pathology: erosion of esophageal tissue  pain Treatment: largely preventable by changes in lifestyle, medication, surgery

13 Stomach ulcer Stomach cancer
Cause: inflammation due to H. pylori infection Pathology: bleeding in stomach Treatment: antiacid, antibiotics, anti-inflammatories Stomach cancer Cause: H. pylori infection, genetics Pathology: abnormal growth (tumor) in stomach tissue Treatment: surgery, chemotherapy

14 Colon polyp Cause: irritable bowl syndrome (IBS) history
Pathology: abnormal growth, rectal bleeding Treatment: surgery

15 Colon Cancer (3rd most commonly diagnosed cancer)
Cause: genetic, polyps, diet, smoking, excessive drinking Pathology: uncontrolled cell growth in colon, rectal bleeding Treatment: surgery, chemotherapy, radiation therapy

16 Liver cirrhosis Cause: chronic alcoholism and hepatitis C infection
Pathology: liver cells (hepatocytes) are replaced by fibroblasts (cells found in tendons, can’t perform liver functions) Treatment: liver transplant

17 Pancreatic Cancer Cause: genetics, age, smoking, diet, diabetes
Pathology: mutations in the pancreatic cell and tumor growth Treatment: surgery, chemotherapy


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