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Word Recognition: Phonics and Comprehension Presented by Dr

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1 Word Recognition: Phonics and Comprehension Presented by Dr
Word Recognition: Phonics and Comprehension Presented by Dr. Elaine Roberts, PH.D. University of West Georgia

2 Books Published: Keys to Literacy Instruction in the Elementary Grades, Coffey & Roberts, Kendall Hunt Publishing Keys to literacy instruction for the Net generation: Grades 4-12, Roberts & Coffey, Kendall Hunt Publishing

3 Components of a Balanced Literacy Diet
Motivation for literacy Concepts of print Word/World knowledge Language development Listening/thinking skills Sight words Phonemic awareness and letter-sound connections Letter formation Spelling Schema development Authentic READING Fluency (read in conversational tone) Text structures Comprehension strategies And REAL WRITING experiences

4 REMEMBER Word recognition is the foundation of Reading
Comprehension is the goal of Reading

5 Phonemic Awareness: Phoneme Segmentation Assessment
Ask: “What are the sounds (phonemes) in… (target word)? Show the number of sounds in the target words by moving the appropriate number of disks. For example: “What are the sounds in the word run?” Answer: r — u — n Your turn-go, grab, drum

6 Robert’s Spelling Error Guide
Ehri Word Bear et al. Recognition Stage Spelling Stage Example Pre-alphabetic Early Letter Name bed = b (visual cues) Partial Alphabetic Letter Name bed = bad (phonetic cues) drive = grive Full alphabetic Within Word Pattern ship = (distinct spellings) sip, ship Phonics and spelling are highly correlated. I developed the spelling error guide with examples to indicate the common elements of the word recognition phases and spelling stages. Please read through the guidce and remember that many students with reading problems often become stuck at the partial alphabetic stage. The analogy strategy with key words helps them develop needed phonics skills and increase reading comprehension at all grade levels.

7 Roberts’ Spelling Error Guide, cont
Roberts’ Spelling Error Guide, cont. (Adapted from Bear, Invernizzi, Templeton, & Johnston, 1996; Ehri, 1992) Ehri Word Bear et al. Recognition Stage Spelling Stage Example Consolidated Syllable Juncture popping =popping (chunks of letters) plesure = plesour, pleasure

8 Common Phonics Patterns in English Syllables
Syllables that end in a consonant: CVC (sat, napkin); the vowel is usually short. Syllable that ends with a vowel: CV (me, spider), V (a, halo, baby); the vowel is often long. Final e: CVCe (take, home, cupcake); the vowel is often long while the final e is silent. Vowel digraph (ai, ee, ea, oa, etc.) as in team, green, lean, peanut; the 1st vowel is often long and the 2nd one is silent, but this does not apply to many vowel teams. Consonant digraph (sh, ph) as in shut, paragraph R controlled vowel (ar, ur, ir, or, er) as in far, fur, for; the vowel is neither long or short. Plus-ir, ar, ur often sound like er in one syllable words as in the word car, fur. 6. Consonant plus le, as in little, purple, treble = pur/ple Diphthongs (oi, oy) as in boil, toy; the vowels make a unique sound Schwa=vowel makes “uh” sound=awake Blend= Two or three conson+-ants come together and blend their sounds (brick, flip) Soft and hard c and g-activity on website This slide is the most common phonics patterns the in nutshell that all teachers and students need to learn. Frequently, English words break the “rules” and students enjoy discovering if words make or break the rules. Read through the list and visit the website to determine and build your phonics knowledge.

9 1. Ways to Segment Words 2. How to Add ing as a suffix (from Graves, Juel,Graves, deWitz, 2011, p.190) Segment Words by… Planet Cats Morphemes planet Syllables Plan et cats Onsets & rimes (spelling patterns) Pl an et k ats Phonemes P l a n et K a t s How to add ing to words Double the consonant then add ing Just add ing VC words =get getting VCC words=ask asking

10 Dividing Words Into Syllables: Hand and Chin strategy
Between 2 medial consonants: ig/nore, hap/py After medial consonant between 2 vowels: ov/en Words ending in le=consonant + le: re/li/a/ble, bab/ble Prefixes and suffixes: un/done, trans/for/ma/tion, hap/pi/ness Applications with digraphs: both/er Discuss then check It is essential for students to know who to chunk words into syllables for decoding and spelling words. It helps them notice features of words in each syllable. The most common methods for dividing words into syllables is on this slide. I use multisensory teaching of how to divide words into syllables by having students place a hand under their chin, pronounce the word, and discuss where the word is chunked into syllables by noting a new syllable each time their chin drops. For example, hold you hand under your chin and pronounce the word ignore. Note where your chin drops…between the middle consonants g and n. This tells you one of the rules/generalizations for dividing words into syllables. Try the hand under chin method to discover the rest of the syllable generalizations. I always have available for students to check their answers.

11 Frequently Used Prefixes
un inter re fore in, im, ir, il (not) de dis trans en, em super non semi in, im (in or into) anti Over (too much) mid mis Under (too little) sub pre

12 The Analogy Strategy Steps of the analogy strategy:
Examples of chunking unfamiliar words using the analogy strategy: Spelling patterns are underlined. Vowels are often long and short-ask students to check the vowel Vowels=A,E, I, O, U and sometimes y and w! C at Re/spon/si/ble Steps of the analogy strategy: Teach 1-5 key words each week and study onset-rime (rime is also called spelling patterns) of key words Create word families from the key words Use the key words in language experience stories Use the key words in a variety of activities during the week (word analysis, related games and connect to reading and writing for comprehension) Place the key word on a Word Wall as a reference for decoding unfamiliar words with the same spelling patterns If you were on a deserted island and only had a book and shells, you could teach a person to read using the analogy strategy with key words for phonics ! I am a strong advocate for the strategy…It is one of my favorite strategies since I have seen children and adults with reading problems learn this strategy and go from non readers to avid readers and writers during my experiences in reading clinics and consulting with schools.

13 C A R V I N E* S E E N k au r 3 v i n 3 s e n2 C A N T E N T R O U N D
Word Analysis and Word Detectives…Ask Students: How Many Sounds Do You Hear in the word? How Many Letters are in the Word? Why? Check the vowels C A R V I N E* S E E N k au r v i n s e n2 C A N T E N T R O U N D k a n t e n t r ou n d 4 Ask: Tell me about the vowel…what is your rule? What is the phonics generalization/rule? Does it break the rule? Word analysis is an engaging way to help students discover if words make or break phonics rules. Irene Gaskins et al call the students Word Detectives when they analyze words. For example, notice the 1st word car. Ask the students to tell you how many sounds they hear in the word using their fingers to count the sounds. Next, write the word so they can see that the word may contain the same or more letters than they heard. They then become detectives to determine why there are more letters than sounds. You can ask them the sound that c makes in car and draw a line straight down from the c and write the letter k since the c sounds like a k (hard c). Then ask them what sound does a make? Is it long or short? They should say no because it is r controlled and does not make the long or short sound-it sounds like au-draw a line down and write au. Finally ask them what sound does the make-theyhear the r sound so draw a line down and write r. Then ask: Tell…

14 Talk to Yourself Chart (Gaskins et al)
1. The keyword is ______________ .(vine) 2. Stretch the word. I hear __________________ sounds. (3) 3. I see ________ letters because ______. (4, the e is silent) 4. The spelling pattern is ____________. (ine) 5. This is what I know about the vowel: _______________ . (the i is long because of e at the end of the word-CVCe) 6. Another word on the word wall with the same vowel sound is ________.(ride) The next 2 slides have talk to yourself charts by Gaskins et al that represent the word analysis we studied on the last slide. Select a key word such as vine and go through the steps of each chart. It is an excellent way for you to observe if students understand the steps of the analogy strategy. Even better, it is a great way for students to use metacognition-think alouds about their thinking during learning.

15 Partner-sharing Chart
Person 1: (Select a single syllable key word for this activity-it can come from a one syllable or multi-syllable word) 1. My word is _________________ . 2. My word wall word is _______________ . 3. The words are alike because ____________ . 4. Do you agree? Person 2: Give one of these answers: Yes/No, because _____________. Switch roles.

16 Day 1: Using the Analogy Strategy for Word Recognition
Introduce 1-5 key words to be used during the week (Ex. Cat, grab, her, red, take) and learn the spelling patterns: at, ab, er, ed, ake. Use the 1-5 key words in word families with the same spelling patterns and check the vowels Practice saying “If I know________ then I know ________” cat, hat, sat grab, cab, drab her, better red, sled, bed take, cake, rake Use the 1-5 key words and some of the words in their word families in a Language Experience Story that is fun to write. The next 2 slides breaks the steps of the analogy strategy into day by day instructional plans that you can use to teach students based on their needs.

17 Day 2 of the Analogy Strategy:
Analyze the key words t a k e t a k (Tell me about the vowel-is it long, short, or makes a unique sound. Why?) Review the 1-5 key words to be learned during the week (i.e., cat, grab, her, red, take-note there is only one key word for each spelling pattern). Discover words with the same spelling patterns during reading across the content areas-Have students create goal charts to motivate them to use the words during reading, spelling, writing, and during discussions. Use the key words in sentences and challenge sentences (model), for example: Please take the cake out of the oven. We went skating after the party. (Note the at in “skate” makes a different sound than at in “cat”-students share their discovery about the difference) Please __________ the cat outside.

18 Elkonin Boxes…Use with word analysis
v i ne b oa t

19 Please write _____discoveries per night in your Language Log.
Autographs Student Name___________ Please return the autograph sheet on ____________ Each autograph below the title certifies that the student has read the Word Detectives Story with/to an adult one time. There should be one autograph under the story title for each reading. Autograph Goal and example ___________________________________________________ Please write _____discoveries per night in your Language Log. Book Title:_______________________ Book Title _______________________________

20 What do I say when my child says, “What is this word?”
Parent Questions What do I say when my child says, “What is this word?” Consider the word: First ask, “what have you tried?” If the word is a simple one-syllable word, you could say…”Look at every letter in the word.” “Stretch the word.” (e.g. best, tip, stick) If the words seems to have a common spelling pattern like –et or –and, say… “Look at every single letter in the word.” “Find the vowel.” “What is the spelling pattern?” (vowel and all letters after it in the syllable-r-ide…ide is the spelling pattern). “Do you know a word with the same spelling pattern?” “If I know _______, then I know ___.” (e.g. brand, pet, grill) If the word seems irregular and the sentence may help, say… “Let’s read the sentence to see if you get any clues.” (e.g. onion, karate)

21 Apply in a Game Play What’s in My Head? My word is on the board.
My word begins like “table”. My word rhymes with “lake”. Please __________ the cat outside.

22 *cat bed ride boat up yes steal *on
Vowel Word Wall Aa Ee Ii Oo Uu Yy *cat bed ride boat up yes steal *on *Examples of multi-syllabic words and their single syllable key words: at/tach/ed =cat, re/ spon/ si/ble =on. Spelling patterns are also called rimes (the vowel and letters after it in a syllable). The spelling patterns are underlined. Struggling readers need to focus on phonics, spelling and vocabulary and connect to comprehension during reading and writing Great resource: Gaskins et al article about word recognition and the analogy strategy: Procedures for word learning: Making discoveries about words, The Reading Teacher Journal.

23 The analogy strategy for phonics, spelling, writing, and comprehension Running records information Analogy strategy lessons with reading and writing &lpg=PA13&dq=analogy+strategy+for+phonics+and+writin g&source=bl&ots=gXwk0k8pfv&sig=ke9jrd2e669z0igdj4ECp dJbJA0&hl=en&sa=X&ei=bWe3UfbLEIno8wSy4oFg&ved=0C DgQ6AEwAg

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