Presentation on theme: "Dive into a Mediterranean Diet! Kristen Huselid Department of Dietetics, Concordia College, Moorhead, Minnesota 56562 The Mediterranean Diet, traditionally."— Presentation transcript:
Dive into a Mediterranean Diet! Kristen Huselid Department of Dietetics, Concordia College, Moorhead, Minnesota 56562 The Mediterranean Diet, traditionally found in Greece, Spain, and Italy, has become one of today's most popular diet regimens around the world. The Mediterranean Diet is not a specific diet plan, but rather, a collection of eating habits that are followed by the people living in the Mediterranean region. This region includes the following 16 countries: Egypt, Morocco, Syria, Tunisia, Turkey, Algeria, Greece, Albania, Israel, Spain, Italy, France, Croatia, Lebanon, Libya, and Malta. The eating patterns found in the countries bordering the Mediterranean Sea have been examined for over 50 years (Zadak, et al, 2006). For the past decade, the Mediterranean Diet has been receiving praise from nutrition experts around the world. Although it would be hard to dispute the health benefits of this diet, what is it about the Mediterranean dietary pattern that makes it so healthy? The Journal of the American Dietetics Association states, Consuming a Mediterranean-type diet rich in fruits, vegetables, and low-fat dairy products and reduced in sodium and saturated fat represents an ideal eating pattern (Van Horn, et al, 2008). The traditional Mediterranean Diet pattern consists of eight components: 1)high monounsaturated-saturated fat ratio 2)moderate alcohol consumption 3)high consumption of legumes 4)high consumption of plain cereal foods 5)high consumption of fruits 6)high consumption of vegetables 7)low consumption of meat and meat products 8)moderate consumption of milk and dairy products (Trichopoulou, 1997). The Mediterranean Diet is a lifestyle approach to healthy eating dominated by the addition of olive oil and by the high consumption of fruits and vegetables. Other key components include foods such as beans, nuts, fish, and whole grains. Numerous researchers have shown that consuming a Mediterranean Diet may lower mortality rates from heart disease, type II diabetes, certain cancers, obesity, and Alzheimers disease as well as lower blood pressure and cholesterol levels. Research Summary Curtis B, OKeef J. (2002). Understanding the Mediterranean Diet: Could this be the new gold standard for heart disease prevention? Postgraduate Medicine, 112(2):35-8. Estruch R, Martinez-Gonzalez MA, Corella D, et al. (2006). Effects of a Mediterranean-style diet on cardiovascular risk factors: a randomized trial. Annals of Internal Medicine, 144:1-11. Panagiotakos DB, Pitsavos C, Skoumas Y, et al. (2007). The association between food patterns and the metabolic syndrome using principle components analysis: The ATTICA Study. Journal of the American Dietetic Association, 107:979-87. Sanchez-Villegas A, Henriquez P, Bes-Rastrollo M, et al. (2006). Mediterranean diet and depression. Journal of Public Health Nutrition, 9(8A):1104–9. Schroder H. (2007). Protective mechanisms of the Mediterranean Diet in obesity and type 2 diabetes. Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry, 18:149-60. Schroder H, Marrugat J, Vila J, et al. (2004). Adherence to the traditional Mediterranean diet is inversely associated with body mass index and obesity. The Journal of Nutrition, 134:3355-61. Sofi F, Cesari F, Abbate R, et al. (2008). Adherence to Mediterranean diet and health status: meta-analysis. British Medical Journal, 337:a1344-50. Trichopoulou A, Lagiou, P. (1997). Healthy traditional Mediterranean diet: an expression of culture, history, and lifestyle. Nutrition Reviews, 55(11), 383-389. Van Horn L, McCoin M, Kris-Etherton PM, et al. (2008). The evidence for dietary prevention and treatment of cardiovascular disease. Journal of the American Dietetics Association, 108(2):287-331. Zadak Z, Hyspler R, Ticha A, et al. (2006). Polyunsaturated fatty acids, phytosterols and cholesterol metabolism in the Mediterranean Diet.[Review] Acta Medica, 49(1):23-6. Photos from: http://abcnews.go.com/print?id=7911505 & http://www.oldwayspt.org/med_pyramid.htmlhttp://abcnews.go.com/print?id=7911505http://www.oldwayspt.org/med_pyramid.html References What is the Mediterranean Diet? There is much evidence connecting adherence to a Mediterranean Diet with reductions in mortality and the prevalence of metabolic disorders such as obesity and high blood pressure, and the incidence of coronary heart disease and various types of cancer (Panagiotakos, et al, 2007). Sofi, et al. (2008) examined 8,685 men and 11,658 women over a 12-month period. Greater adherence to a Mediterranean Diet was associated with a significant reduction in: Overall mortality (9%) Mortality from cardiovascular diseases (9%) Incidence of or mortality from cancer (6%) Incidence of Parkinsons disease and Alzheimers disease (13%) Schroder (2007) studied 2758 participants, both males and females to examine the MDs protective effect on obesity and type II diabetes. Researchers concluded that high consumption of vegetables, fruits, legumes, nuts, fish, cereals and olive oil, together with moderate consumption of alcohol (predominantly wine), leads to high ingestion of dietary fiber, antioxidants, magnesium and unsaturated fatty acids. Estruch, et al. (2006) studied 80 males and 80 females in a cross-over study for 18 months. improved lipid profiles and reductions in blood pressure, insulin resistance, and systemic markers of inflammation these factors support this diet as a useful tool in prevention for those at high risk for coronary heart disease High adherence to the traditional Mediterranean Dietary pattern, characterized by high intakes of vegetables, fruits, legumes, fish, cereals, and nuts and low and moderate consumption of meat and wine, respectively, is associated with a lower prevalence of obesity in men and women in this Mediterranean population. Schroder, et al. (2004) completed a 5 year study with 1,514 men and 1,528 women. Beneficial health effects held even after controlling for age, leisure physical activity, educational level, smoking, & alcohol consumption. Sanchez-Villegas, et al. (2006) reports that the Mediterranean Dietary Pattern ensures an adequate intake of fruits, nuts, vegetables, cereals, legumes or fish, important sources of nutrients linked to depression prevention; deficiencies in vitamin B3, B6, folic acid, zinc and magnesium have all been linked to depression.