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Why do diet deficiencies occur?

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Presentation on theme: "Why do diet deficiencies occur?"— Presentation transcript:


2 Why do diet deficiencies occur?

3 Why do diet deficiencies occur?

4 Major Diet-Deficiency Diseases Common in ELDC’s
Type Disease Symptoms Distribution Treatment Protein deficiency Kwashiorkor Retarded growth, apathy and swollen stomach, skin rashes. Deadly if untreated. Africa, S.E Asia High-Protein fluids, well balanced diet. Marasmus Severe starvation in combination with lack of proteins. Wasting of tissue. Breast-milk, cereals, fats, oils;immediate treatment. Vitamin Beri-beri Vitamin B deficiency, wasting of limbs, nervous disorders, skin sores, heart failure. S.E Asia Vitamin B-rich foods, well-balanced diet. Rickets Vitamin D deficiency, bone deformity of legs, pelvis and spine. Diet of calcium-rich food and vitamin D.



7 Kwashiorkor Clinical Manifestations: Diagnostic Signs Edema
Muscle wasting Psychomotor changes Common Signs Hair changes Diffuse depigmentation of skin Moonface Anemia Occasional Signs: Flaky-paint rash Noma Hepatomegaly Associated Laboratory: Decreased serum albumin EEG abnormalities Iron & folic acid deficiencies Liver biopsy fatty or fibrosis may occur

8 What are the symptoms? Swollen stomach Reddish discolouration of hair
Miserable appearance with ‘moonface’ Pigmentation loss in skin Retarded growth Loss of muscle mass

9 Kwashiorkor Between 1-3 yrs old Cause/origin: Very low protein
In places where starchy foods are main staple Never exclusively dietary* *an added aspect that is attributed to the advance of kwashiorkor is aflatoxin poisoning.  Aflatoxins are produced by certain molds, and are ingested in connection with moldy foods.  They can injure the liver DNA and consequently interfere with the manufacture of serum albumin. 

10 Kwashiorkor

11 Where does kwashiorkor occur?
EMDCs ELDCs ELDCs Africa, e.g. Sudan, Ethiopia and Mozambique S.E Asia

12 What is Kwashiorkor? Condition resulting from inadequate protein/food intake It occurs in children that have been weaned as diet is replaced by a diet of starches/carbohydrates It occurs most commonly in areas of famine, limited food supply, and low levels of education, which can lead to inadequate knowledge of proper diet It is a result of extreme poverty!

13 What are the treatments?
Adequate diet – with carbohydrate, fat (10% of total calories), and protein (12 percent of total calories) will prevent kwashiorkor


15 How can it be controlled?
Improve food supply Develop new crops Improve technology Educate people on balanced diets

16 Who helps to combat the disease?
International organisations and aid agencies WHO Oxfam Save the Children Fund

17 Save the Children Fund In Ethiopia they have provided food aid
Organised relief flights to get food to the areas with the greatest need Set up education programmes for villagers to encourage them to grow vitamin rich foods to supplement a staple diet of maize                       

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