Presentation on theme: "Human Trials Gold standard: Controlled, double-blind; versus greater potential of whole food diet Vitamins/minerals/etc. for learning and behavior (Controlled,"— Presentation transcript:
Human Trials Gold standard: Controlled, double-blind; versus greater potential of whole food diet Vitamins/minerals/etc. for learning and behavior (Controlled, double-blind, successful, but needs follow-up with whole diet) Mediterranean diet for the prevention of cardiovascular diseases (Controlled, but not blind; uses whole foods with resounding success)
Title: The Mediterranean-style diet for the prevention of cardiovascular diseases Author(s): de Lorgeril M, Salen P Source: PUBLIC HEALTH NUTRITION 9 (1A): 118-123 Sp. Iss. SI, FEB 2006 Abstract: Objectives: To discuss present knowledge about Mediterranean diet and cardiovascular diseases. Design: Review of existing literature. Setting and Results: Epidemiological studies as well as randomised dietary trials suggest that Mediterranean diet may be important in relation to the pathogenesis (and prevention) of CHD. For instance, a striking protective effect of an ALA-rich Mediterranean diet was reported in the Lyon Diet Heart Study with a 50 to 70% reduction of the risk of recurrence after 4 years of follow-up in CHD patients. According to our current knowledge, dietary ALA should represent about 0.6 to 1% of total daily energy or about 2 g per day in patients following a Mediterranean diet, whereas the average intake in linoleic acid should not exceed 7 g per day. Supplementation with very-long-chain omega-3 fatty acids (about 1 g per day) in patients following a Mediterranean type of diet was shown to decrease the risk of cardiac death by 30% and of sudden cardiac death by 45% in the GISSI trial. Conclusions: In the context of a diet rich in oleic acid, poor in saturated fats and low in omega-6 fatty acids (a dietary pattern characterising the traditional Mediterranean diet), even small doses of omega-3 fatty acids (about 1 g EPA+DHA the form of fish oil capsules or 2 g alpha-linolenic acid in canola oil and margarine) might be very protective. These data underline the importance of the accompanying diet in any dietary strategy using fatty acid complements. Addresses: de Lorgeril M (reprint author), Univ Grenoble 1, NVMCV, Grenoble, France Univ Grenoble 1, NVMCV, Grenoble, France; E-mail Address: email@example.com
Title: The effect of vitamin-mineral supplementation on juvenile delinquency among American schoolchildren: A randomized, double blind placebo-controlled trial Schoenthaler SJ, Bier ID JOURNAL OF ALTERNATIVE AND COMPLEMENTARY MEDICINE 6 (1): 7-17 FEB 2000 Abstract: … Objectives: To determine if schoolchildren, aged 6 to 12 years, who are given low dose vitamin-mineral tablets will produce significantly less violence and antisocial behavior in school than classmates who are given placebos. Design: A stratified randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial with pretest and posttest measures of antisocial behavior on school property. Settings and Subjects: Two "working class," primarily Hispanic elementary schools in Phoenix, Arizona. Approximately half of the potential schoolchildren participated, i.e., 468 students aged 6 to 12 years. Intervention: Daily vitamin-mineral supplementation at 50% of the U.S. recommended daily allowance (RDA) for 4 months versus placebo. The supplement was designed to raise vitamin-mineral intake up to the levels currently recommended by the National Academy of Sciences for children aged 6 to 11 years. Results: Of the 468 students randomly assigned to active or placebo tablets, the 80 who were disciplined at least once between September 1st and May 1st served as the research sample. During intervention, the 40 children who received active tablets were disciplined, on average, 1 time each, a 47% lower mean rate of antisocial behavior than the 1.875 times each for the 40 children who received placebos (95% confidence interval, 29% to 65%, <5.020). The children who took active tablets produced lower rates of antisocial behavior in 8 types of recorded infractions: threats/fighting, vandalism, being disrespectful, disorderly conduct, defiance, obscenities, refusal to work or serve, endangering others, and non-specified offenses.
The effect of vitamin-mineral supplementation on the intelligence of American schoolchildren: A randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled trial Schoenthaler SJ, Bier ID, Young K, Nichols D, Jansenns S JOURNAL OF ALTERNATIVE AND COMPLEMENTARY MEDICINE 6 (1): 19-29 FEB 2000 Design: A double-blind, placebo-controlled trial using stratified randomization within each teacher's class based on pre-intervention nonverbal intelligence. Settings and Subjects: Two "working class," primarily Hispanic, elementary schools in Phoenix, Arizona, participated in the study. Slightly more than half the teachers in each school distributed the tablets daily to 245 schoolchildren aged 6 to 12 years. Intervention: Daily vitamin-mineral supplementation at 50% of the U.S. daily recommended allowance (RDA) for 3 months versus placebo. Outcome Measures: Post-test nonverbal IQ, as measured by the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised (WISC-R), while controlling for pretest nonverbal IQ as a covariate. Four Main Results: First, a significant difference of 2.5 IQ points (95% CI: 1.85-3.15) was found between 125 children given active tablets and 120 children given placebo tablets (p = 0.038). Second, this finding is consistent with the mean 3.2 IQ point net gain found in the 12 similar but less rigorous studies. Third, a significantly higher proportion of children in the active group gained 15 or more IQ points when compared to the placebo group (p < 0.01). Fourth, although 81 matched pairs produced no difference at all in nonverbal IQ gain, the modest 2.5 IQ point net gain for the entire sample can be explained by the remaining 24 children who took active tablets, and had a 16 point higher net gain in IQ than the remaining 19 placebo controls. Conclusions: This study confirms that vitamin-mineral supplementation modestly raised the nonverbal intelligence of some groups of Western schoolchildren by 2 to 3 points but not that of most Western schoolchildren, presumably because the majority were already adequately nourished. This study also confirms that vitamin-mineral supplementation markedly raises the nonverbal intelligence of a minority of Western schoolchildren, presumably because they were too poorly nourished before supplementation for optimal brain function. …
Recommendations Use olive and canola oils as major oils; add some fish / fish oil supplements (look for high EPA and DHA content listed rather than just total omega-3) Increase diversity of grains (rye, oats, barley, wild rice all have more favorable ratio of n-6:n-3 than wheat and corn) or skip wheat altogether? Go for whole grains. (Gluten-free: rice, corn, potatoes, oats, millet, tapioca) For protein, go for poultry, fish, and wild game as well as all kinds of beans Diet soda or less refined alternatives Copious helpings of fruits and vegetables at each meal Add plenty of herbs and spices Organic choices for e.g. strawberries, spinach, grapes Get 20 min per day (or more depending on skin type) of sunlight Clear your schedule and practice aggressive stress reduction; get plenty of sleep (early to bed and early to rise)