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Tools of a Healthful Diet

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1 Tools of a Healthful Diet
Chapter 2

2 Latest nutrition recommendations from Food and Nutrition Board (US and Canada) that includes 5 sets of standards w/in the Dietary Reference Intakes Est energy requirements Includes all lifestages, does differ by lifestage (gender after age after 9, pregnancy, lactation) and are for average of few days, not single day

3 Relationship of DRIs to each other and % of population covered

4 Estimated Average Requirements (EAR) and Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDA)
EARs Only set for nutrients that have functional markers Meets needs for 50% population group RDAs Based on EARs Meet 97-98% population group Prevent deficiency and chronic disease Funtional marker- measure that can accurately evaluate if intake is adequate- ex measure enzyme activity or ability of cell to maintain physiological function- calcium does not have functional marker so no EAR, vit C you can measure max WBC saturation which is important for normal immune function to set EAR Only meets needs for 50% of pop so used for groups not individuals RDA only set if you have an EAR, typically EAR * 1.2 so it covers a higher % of population, it is goal for usual intake- take intake for week and add together, divide by 7- even if a little low it may not mean anything if person is healthy but farther they are from the RDA more likely to have deficiency and develp chronic disease

5 Adequate Intake (AI) AIs Insufficient data for an EAR
Estimate of average nutrient intake that appears to maintain a defined nutritional state (bone health) Ideally meets more than RDA Applies to chronic daily use- ex of nutrient that someone may take too much of? For niacin if you have more than 35 mg/day everyday from supplements it is likely you will have AE- for many nutrients there is no UL

6 Upper limit (UL) Uls Based on chronic intake of nutrients that are not likely to cause adverse effects in almost all individuals Based on nutrient intake from all sources Exceptions: niacin, magnesium, zinc and nickel are only nonfood sources Applies to chronic daily use- ex of nutrient that someone may take too much of? For niacin if you have more than 35 mg/day everyday from supplements it is likely you will have AE- for many nutrients there is no UL

7 EERs AMDRs Average daily caloric need for each life stage group
estimated Energy Requirement (EER) and Adequate macronutrient distribution ranges (AMDR) EERs Average daily caloric need for each life stage group AMDRs Range of intake, as a percentage of energy (for example fat is 20-35% of kcal) Values are for Carbohydrates, Fat, Protein and Essential fatty acids Too much energy consumed is not excreted but is stored as body fat- EER as based on a math formula you will earn in chap 10 (ht, wt, gender, activity level)- estimates so need to adjust based on what your wt is doing Adequate macronutrient distribution ranges

8 Nutrient Density Divide the amount of the nutrient per serving by the recommended amount Divide the calories in a serving by daily caloric need Compare the two “Empty calorie foods” or “junk foods” have low nutrient density Tool to assess nutrient quality of individual food


10 Daily Values (DVs) Nutrition standards on food labels created because DRIs are age and gender specific DV for food labels is standard set for over 4 years old Separate DV for foods designed for infants, toddlers, pregnancy and lactation Based on reference daily intakes (RDIs) and daily reference values (DRVs)

11 Recommended daily intake (DRI) and Dietary Reference Values (DRV)s
Energy nutrients-carbohydrates, protein and fat Based on a 2,000 calorie diet CHO 60%, fat 30%, sat fat 10%, protein 10%, fiber is 11.5g/1000 kcal Cholesterol, sodium and potassium do not vary with caloric intake RDIs Vitamins and Minerals Use highest value for any life stage group Based on 1968 RDA

12 How do I read a Nutrition Facts Panel?

13 Nutrition Facts Panel Standardized serving size
Based on typical American serving sizes Following nutrients must be listed Total calories, calories from fat, total fat, saturated fat, cholesterol, sodium, total carbohydrates, fiber, sugars, protein, Vitamin A and C, calcium and iron Fortified or nutrients listed in health claims must also be included.

14 Nutrition Facts Panel Helps put the MyPlate and Dietary Guidelines into action. Helps identify foods that are good sources of important nutrients and that may prevent disease.

15 What’s Included in the Nutrition Facts Panel?
1. Serving Size Should be listed using familiar measurements: cups, pieces Must be based upon the amount of food people usually eat

16 What’s Included in the Nutrition Facts Panel?
2. Servings Per Container This is important to look at every time. Servings are not the same as portions.

17 What’s Included in the Nutrition Facts Panel?
3. Calories and Calories from Fat (Kilo)calories provide a measure of energy from one serving of the food Kcal from fat provide a clue as to whether the food is high in fat

18 What’s Included in the Nutrition Facts Panel?
4. Total Fat, Saturated Fat, and Trans Fat Total Fat: Includes all fats Saturated Fat < g/day Trans Fat No recommended amount; suggested amount is zero

19 What’s Included in the Nutrition Facts Panel?
5. Cholesterol Recommendation: < 300 mg/day Blood cholesterol levels are more closely related to intakes of saturated fat than to dietary cholesterol.

20 What’s Included in the Nutrition Facts Panel?
6. Sodium Part of table salt May increase blood pressure, water retention, and calcium loss Recommendation: <1, ,300 mg/day How many miligrams of sodium are in 1 teaspoon of table salt? 1 tsp. salt = 2,000 mg

21 What’s Included in the Nutrition Facts Panel?
7. Total Carbohydrate Fast-acting energy Includes fibers sugars

22 What’s Included in the Nutrition Facts Panel?
8. Dietary Fiber No calories (non digestible) Recommendation: 11.5 grams per 1000 calories consumed

23 What’s Included in the Nutrition Facts Panel?
9. Sugars Simple sugars: use sparingly Include both naturally occurring sugars (fruit or milk sugars), as well as added sugars

24 What’s Included in the Nutrition Facts Panel?
10. Protein Most Americans over the age of 4 get more than enough.

25 What’s Included in the Nutrition Facts Panel?
11. Vitamins A and C Powerful antioxidants that may protect against cancer and heart disease Best source are fruits an vegetables

26 What’s Included in the Nutrition Facts Panel?
12. Calcium Important for bone and tooth health and healthy blood pressure levels

27 What’s Included in the Nutrition Facts Panel?
13. Iron Adequate intake prevents iron deficiency anemia

28 What’s Included in the Nutrition Facts Panel?
14. Percent Daily Value Tells which foods contribute lightly or heavily to total daily nutrient needs > 20% = High in nutrient < 5% = Low in nutrient

29 Food Label Claims 1. Nutrient Content Claims
e.g. “Fat-free” and “Low-in-fat” 2. Health Claims Describe relationship between a disease and a nutrient, food, or ingredient Must use “may” or “might” in statement Cannot make your own, food manufacturers can only use permitted health claims like “a diet with enough calcium may reduce risk of osteoporosis”

30 Food Label Claims 3. Preliminary Health Claims
Regulated but limited scientific evidence, must include a disclaimer 4. Structure/Function Claims Can appear on labels but are not FDA-approved

31 Food Label Claims In 2010 Dannon claimed in nationwide advertising campaigns that DanActive helps prevent colds and flu, and that one daily serving of Activia relieves temporary irregularity and helps with “slow intestinal transit time.”  The Federal Trade Commission thought these claims were exaggerated and sued Dannon $21M

32 he approved health claim about heart disease is supposed to mention fiber, fruits, vegetables, and a low-fat diet -- not just whole-grain foods. And the FDA warned General Mills about another statement on that same web site that linked whole grains, as part of a low-fat diet, to reduced risk of stomach and colon cancers. That's not an approved health claim.

33 Nutrient databases Many data bases exist to help estimate energy intake and nutrient intake Reflect average amounts found in analyzed samples Cannot account for: Farming conditions, Maturity and ripeness of plants, Food processing, Shipping conditions, Storage time, Cooking processes

34 Energy Density Comparison of a food’s caloric content per gram weight of the food High energy density foods (>4 kcal/g) Graham crackers, potato chips, peanuts, bacon Low energy density foods (<0.6 kcal/g) Lettuce, strawberries, grapefruit, carrots Water, fullness, weight

35 The Dietary Guidelines for Americans
The Dietary Guidelines for Americans, 2010, released on January 31, 2011, emphasize three major goals for Americans: 1. Balance calories with physical activity to manage weight 2. Consume more of certain foods and nutrients such as fruits, vegetables, whole grains, fat-free and low-fat dairy products, and seafood 3. Consume fewer foods with sodium (salt), saturated fats, trans fats, cholesterol, added sugars, and refined grains Water, fullness, weight

36 The Dietary Guidelines for Americans
The Dietary Guidelines for Americans, 2010 include 23 key recommendations for the general population and 6 additional key recommendations for specific population groups, such as pregnant women. The recommendations are intended to help people choose an overall healthy diet. Water, fullness, weight


38 Food Pyramid to My Plate
Based on Dietary Guidelines Intended for those over age 2 to provide advice about average intake and to encourage eating a wide variety of healthy foods in moderation Goal is to help people plan a diet that results in longer and healthier lives

39 Basic 7 Food Guide ( )

40 Basic 4 Food Guide ( )

41 Hassle-Free Food Guide (1979 - 1984)

42 Food Wheel: A Pattern for Daily Food Choices 1984

43 Food Guide Pyramid 1992

44 MyPyramid Food Guidance System 2005

45 Myplate June 2011

46 Food plan for 22 yo F


48 Serving Size

49 What does a serving look like?

50 Portion Vs. Serving A portion is the amount of food that you choose to eat for a meal or snack. It can be big or small—you decide. A serving is a measured amount of food or drink, such as one slice of bread or one cup (eight ounces) of milk.

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