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Presentation on theme: "6/8/2014Bryan James Cowley MA1 NUTRITION. 6/8/2014Bryan James Cowley MA2 SAN JOSE UNIFIED SCHOOL DISTRICT SCIENCE CONTENT STANDARD, BENCHMARKS, AND KNOWLEDGE."— Presentation transcript:

1 6/8/2014Bryan James Cowley MA1 NUTRITION

2 6/8/2014Bryan James Cowley MA2 SAN JOSE UNIFIED SCHOOL DISTRICT SCIENCE CONTENT STANDARD, BENCHMARKS, AND KNOWLEDGE SKILLS S2THE STUDENT UNDERSTANDS AND APPLIES THE CONCEPTS OF LIFE SCIENCE S2(9-10)B11Understands the scientific basis for maintaining optimal human health as well as current sociological hazards S2(9-10)B11.1Understands general causes for disease (e.g., genetic, birth defects, infectious agents, chemical, poor nutrition). S2(9-10)B11.2Understands the role of various agents (e.g., bacteria, virus, protozoans) in infectious diseases, effective means of treatment (e.g., antibiotics, radiation) and prevention (e.g., avoiding contact, vaccination). S2(9-10)B11.3Understands cause, prevention and effects of HIV/AIDS. S2(9-10)B11.4Understands human mechanisms for combating disease (e.g., skin, tears, immune system, production of antibodies, white blood cells, lymphocytes, inflammation, allergic reactions). S2(9-10)B11.5Understands the how drugs, alcohol and tobacco affect the human body (e.g, depressants, addiction, birth defects). S2(9-10)B11.6Understands the role of nutrition, rest and exercise in maintaining optimum human health.

3 6/8/2014Bryan James Cowley MA3 TEENAGE OBESITY

4 6/8/2014Bryan James Cowley MA4 ZAbout one quarter of American children are obese (body weight in excess of 20% of norm) ZPrevalence of obesity has risen overall in America ZMost overweight children become overweight adults Z Children need to eat breakfast before school ZParents need to be involved in the treatment of juvenile obesity ZOverweight children and adolescents ZOften are rejected by peers ZPerform poorly in sports ZTend to like their bodies less than children of normal weight How Many Children in the United States Are Obese?

5 6/8/2014Bryan James Cowley MA5 ZHeredity ZIdentical twins raised apart ZNumber of fat cells (adipose tissue) ZHunger drive is connected to number of fat cells ZMore fat cells – feel hunger sooner ZEnvironmental factors ZObese parents may model poor dietary and exercise habits ZSedentary habits ZTV watching Zencourages snacking, Zexposes children to commercials for food and Zis low physical activity ZStressors and emotional reactions The Causes of Obesity

6 6/8/2014Bryan James Cowley MA6 ZMost children in the United States are not physically fit ZTwo thirds fail to meet presidential standards ZReasons for decline in fitness? ZSedentary leisure activities (e.g., TV, computer games) ZParticipation in sports declines after age 10 ZFit children usually have parents who exercise and encourage them to exercise Are Children in the United States Physically Fit?

7 6/8/2014Bryan James Cowley MA7 Helping Children Lose Weight

8 6/8/2014Bryan James Cowley MA8 ZDo not insist the entire family eat at the same time ZSubstitute low calorie foods ZDo not push child to finish the plate ZHave low calorie snacks available ZDo not cook, eat or display fattening foods ZInvolve child in more activities ZDo not take child food shopping ZDo not snack in front of T.V. ZPositive reinforcement ZPractice what you preach Helping Children Lose Weight

9 6/8/2014Bryan James Cowley MA9 Health in Adolescence

10 6/8/2014Bryan James Cowley MA10 Physical Fitness ZMost adolescents in U.S. rarely get enough exercise ZSome get exercise through organized sports (football most popular with boys and basketball most popular with girls) ZSports participation can enhance self-esteem, teach initiative & teamwork

11 6/8/2014Bryan James Cowley MA11 ZMany U.S. teens eat fast-food diets that are high in fat and sodium and lack calcium and iron ZRapid growth ZAverage girl – 2,200 calories ZAverage boy – 3,000 calories ZNeed for calcium – bone growth ZNutritional deficits ZIrregular eating habits ZFast food or junk food Nutritional Needs of Adolescents

12 6/8/2014Bryan James Cowley MA12 EATING DISORDERS

13 6/8/2014Bryan James Cowley MA13 ZExtreme disturbances in eating patterns ZAnorexia and bulimia: both primarily affect adolescent girls and are influenced by experience (cultural standards for appropriate body weight), family dynamics, and heredity Eating Disorders

14 6/8/2014Bryan James Cowley MA14 ZAnorexia Nervosa ZCharacterized by fear of being overweight ZDistorted body image and refusal to eat Z4 to 5% mortality rate Eating Disorders

15 6/8/2014Bryan James Cowley MA15 ZBulimia ZCharacterized by recurrent cycles of binge eating and purging Eating Disorders

16 6/8/2014Bryan James Cowley MA16 ZPsychoanalytic perspective ZAnorexia is an effort to remain prepubescent ZFamily control issues ZChild abuse, sexual abuse are risk factors ZSocial-cognitive perspective ZPersonal perfectibility (an unreachable goal) ZGenetic factors Origins of Eating Disorders

17 6/8/2014Bryan James Cowley MA17 ZAntidepressants ZFamily therapy ZCognitive-behavioral therapy Treatment and Prevention of Eating Disorders

18 6/8/2014Bryan James Cowley MA18 DIET

19 6/8/2014Bryan James Cowley MA19 Zenough kilocalories (fuel) to satisfy our energy needs Zraw materials for making the bodys own macromolecules Zessential nutrients that the body cannot make A healthy diet satisfies three needs

20 6/8/2014Bryan James Cowley MA20 Diet influences cardiovascular disease and cancer BEHAVIORAL RISK FACTORS UNAVOIDABLE RISK FACTORS Fatty diet Lack of exercise Smoking High blood cholesterol High blood pressure CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE Aging Family history Being male

21 6/8/2014Bryan James Cowley MA21 ZThe human body tends to store excess fat molecules instead of using them for fuel ZA balanced diet includes adequate amounts of all nutrients Body fat and fad diets

22 6/8/2014Bryan James Cowley MA22 ZFad diets are often ineffective & harmful

23 6/8/2014Bryan James Cowley MA23 ENERGY

24 6/8/2014Bryan James Cowley MA24 ZOnce nutrients are inside cells, they can be oxidized by cellular respiration to generate energy ZThis energy is in the form of ATP Chemical energy powers the body

25 6/8/2014Bryan James Cowley MA25 ZThe energy a resting animal requires each day to stay alive is its basal metabolic rate (BMR)

26 6/8/2014Bryan James Cowley MA26 ZMore energy is required for an active life Excess energy is stored as glycogen or fat

27 6/8/2014Bryan James Cowley MA27 Six elements of nutrition 1.Vitamins 2.Minerals 3.Carbohydrates 4.Proteins (made from amino acids) 5.Fats 6.Water

28 6/8/2014Bryan James Cowley MA28 VITAMINS

29 6/8/2014Bryan James Cowley MA29 ZMost of these vitamins function as coenzymes (work together with other nutrients) ZThey have no caloric or energy value ZCannot function properly without minerals ZTwo types: Fat soluble & Water soluble A healthy diet includes 13 vitamins

30 6/8/2014Bryan James Cowley MA30 (Water-soluble vitamins)

31 6/8/2014Bryan James Cowley MA31 (Fat-soluble vitamins)

32 6/8/2014Bryan James Cowley MA32 MINERALS

33 6/8/2014Bryan James Cowley MA33 ZMinerals are elements other than carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen ZThey play a variety of roles in the body ZMinerals are stored in bone and muscle tissue Essential minerals are required for many body functions

34 6/8/2014Bryan James Cowley MA34 ZThe body cannot make minerals ZThere are two groups of minerals ZMacro ZMicro ZBody requires large amounts of Bulk or Macro minerals (Calcium,Magnesium,Manganese) ZThe body requires small amounts of micro or trace minerals (Zinc, copper, selenium, iodine, potassium) Minerals

35 6/8/2014Bryan James Cowley MA35

36 6/8/2014Bryan James Cowley MA36 CARBOHYDRATES

37 6/8/2014Bryan James Cowley MA37 Carbohydrates (C 6 H 12 O 6 ) The bodys main source of energy Digestion converts starches and sugars to glucose If the body lacks sufficient Carbohydrates it will use protein as a fuel Excessive carbohydrates are converted to fat To avoid this kind of fat replace high glycemic foods (soda, sugar, white starches) with low glycemic foods (whole grains, fruits, vegetables, legumes)

38 6/8/2014Bryan James Cowley MA38 PROTEINS

39 6/8/2014Bryan James Cowley MA39 Proteins (made from amino acids) Proteins are found in meat, fish, dairy products and legumes (beans) They function to build and repair tissue Two types of protein, complete and incomplete Complete provides a balance of all 8 amino acids Incomplete needs to be combined with other complete forms to be effective

40 6/8/2014Bryan James Cowley MA40 Proteins (made from amino acids) Amino Acids Of the 23 known Amino Acids 8 of them are considered essential These 8 are derived only from food and not manufactured within the body.

41 6/8/2014Bryan James Cowley MA41 Proteins (made from amino acids) These 8 essential amino acids are: Histidine (infants and children) Isoleucine Leucine Lysine Methionine Phenylalanine Threonine Tryptophan Valine

42 6/8/2014Bryan James Cowley MA42 ZThe eight essential amino acids that adults require must be obtained from food ZThey are easily obtained from animal protein ZThey can also be obtained from the proper combination of plant foods Vegetarians must be sure to obtain all eight essential amino acids ESSENTIAL AMINO ACIDS Methionine Valine (Histidine) Threonine Phenylalanine Leucine Isoleucine Tryptophan Lysine Beans and other legumes Corn

43 6/8/2014Bryan James Cowley MA43 FATS

44 6/8/2014Bryan James Cowley MA44 Fats There are primarily two types of fat, saturated and unsaturated Saturated fats are produced primarily from animal sources and have a high cholesterol Unsaturated fats (mono or poly unsaturated) are from vegetable sources which contain no cholesterol

45 6/8/2014Bryan James Cowley MA45 Fats (Cholesterol) Cholesterol is used to transport fat to cells throughout the body. Cholesterol can clog arteries with plaque deposits over time. There are two types of cholesterol HDL (high density lipoprotein) and LDL (Low density lipoprotein). HDL helps the body to remove LDL. As a general rule more HDL is good and less LDL is good

46 6/8/2014Bryan James Cowley MA46 WATER

47 6/8/2014Bryan James Cowley MA47 Water One half to 4/5 the bodies weight MOST IMPORTANT nutrient. Body can function for a few weeks without food but only days without water Required for digestive process. Removes waste You should drink about eight 8 ounce glasses (one 2 liter bottle) each day

48 6/8/2014Bryan James Cowley MA48 STAGES OF NUTRITION

49 6/8/2014Bryan James Cowley MA49 Six Stages of Nutrition 1.Diet 2.Digestion 3.Absorption 4.Circulation 5.Assimilation 6.Elimination

50 6/8/2014Bryan James Cowley MA50 Six Stages of Nutrition Diet

51 6/8/2014Bryan James Cowley MA51 Six Stages of Nutrition Digestion

52 6/8/2014Bryan James Cowley MA52 Six Stages of Nutrition Absorption

53 6/8/2014Bryan James Cowley MA53 Six Stages of Nutrition Circulation

54 6/8/2014Bryan James Cowley MA54 Six Stages of Nutrition Assimilation

55 6/8/2014Bryan James Cowley MA55 Six Stages of Nutrition Elimination

56 6/8/2014Bryan James Cowley MA56 FOOD LABELS

57 6/8/2014Bryan James Cowley MA57 ZFood labels provide important nutritional information about packaged foods What do food labels tell us?

58 6/8/2014Bryan James Cowley MA58 Table 21.20


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