Presentation on theme: "UNIT 1 - Information People exercise to Foster a healthy lifestyle"— Presentation transcript:
1 UNIT 1 - InformationPeople exercise toFoster a healthy lifestyleImprove fitness and/or sporting performanceA BALANCED DIET is essential for this to take place.However, individuals will choose a diet which is SPECIFIC to their needs.
2 Any physical activity requires: UNIT 1 - InformationAny physical activity requires:ENERGY EXPENDITUREThe amount of energy needed depends on:The type of sport exerciseDuration of the activityIntensity of the activityThree other factors which contribute to Energy Needs are:
3 Three other factors which contribute to Energy Needs are: UNIT 1 - InformationThree other factors which contribute to Energy Needs are:AGEAs you age your metabolism slows down –You need to eat less or you will gain weightSEXMales usually need more energy than femalesLIFESTYLEThe more active you are, the more energy you needBODYTYPE
4 PHYSICAL ACTIVITY LEVEL (PAL) OR WORKING ENERGY UNIT 1 - InformationBASAL METABOLIC RATE (BMR)The amount of energy needed just to keep you alive.BMR varies from one person to the next.PHYSICAL ACTIVITY LEVEL (PAL) OR WORKING ENERGYThe amount of energy needed for physical activity/ sportTOTAL ENERGY NEEDS = BMR + PAL(measured in kilojoules/ kilocalories)GCSE Physical Education
5 FOOD FUELS THE BODY UNIT 1 - Information Provides ENERGY for physical activityREPAIRS injured tissueHelps in GROWTH of body tissueContributes to GOOD HEALTH
6 1. ENERGY BALANCE UNIT 1 - Information Energy in = Energy out Taking in (eating) = Using up (physical activity)calories caloriesWEIGHT STAYS CONSTANT
7 2. 3. UNIT 1 - Information Energy in Energy used WEIGHT GAINED WEIGHT LOST
8 BALANCED DIET UNIT 1 - Information A balanced diet is based around ‘GOOD FOODS’ e.g. eating 5 vegetables/fruits per dayA balanced diet consists of 7 componentsA balanced diet should meet the needs of the individual
9 BALANCED DIET UNIT 1 - Information Fats Carbohydrates Protein Water FibreVitaminsMineralsProtein15%Fats30% - 25%Carbohydrates55% - 60%
10 CARBOHYDRATES UNIT 1 - Information Main source of ENERGY for working musclesBroken down into GLUCOSE and stored as GLYCOGEN in the liver and musclesCarbohydrates are an IMMEDIATE energy sourceSIMPLE carbohydrates : SUGAR – biscuits, cakes, sugarCOMPLEX carbohydrates : STARCH – pasta, potatoes, breadIt is important to stock up on carbohydrate after exercise to replace that which has been usedExcess carbohydrate is stored in the body as FAT
11 FATS UNIT 1 - Information Fats are a form of STORED ENERGY, released SLOWLY when there is a lack of carbohydrates (glycogen)Extra fat is stored just under the skinExtra fat can lead to:OBESITY HIGH CHOLESTROL LEVELS(HEART / CIRCULATORY PROBLEMS)Fats are used during AEROBIC work (O2 is present)SATURATED fats: milk, meat, biscuitsPOLY UNSATURATED fats: fish, nuts
12 PROTEINS UNIT 1 - Information Used as an energy source only when carbohydrates and fat stores have depletedPROTEINS needed for the REPAIR and GROWTH of body tissues
13 WATER UNIT 1 - Information Water allows the body to maintain a CONSTANT temperature when undertaking physical activityWater absorbs heat produced during physical activity which is then carried to the skin where it is lost in the airWater as SWEAT helps to cool the body when it EVAPORATES on the surface of the skinThe more activity, the more water is lostThis can lead to 1) DEHYDRATION, 2) HEATSTROKEPerformance in physical activity is seriously affected by water loss
14 VITAMINS UNIT 1 - Information Only small amounts needed Vitamins regulate the chemical reactions of the bodyThey help with growth and repair of tissueThey help to resist infections
15 MINERALS UNIT 1 - Information Minerals are found in a variety of foods Calcium strengthens bonesOther minerals help with growth
16 FUEL FOR EXERCISE: FIBRE UNIT 1 - InformationFUEL FOR EXERCISE:The Relationship between exercise and weight levels and effects on health and performanceFIBREFibre keeps the digestive system working correctlyFibre helps in food absorptionFibre makes you feel full, so you eat lessInformation/DiscussionPractical ApplicationSECTION BGCSE Physical Education
17 ENERGY AND PHYSICAL ACTIVITY UNIT 1 - InformationENERGY AND PHYSICAL ACTIVITYCarbohydrates provide QUICK ENERGY. They supply energy for both AEROBIC and ANAEROBIC physical activityUsed for physical activity of a comparativelySHORT length of time and HIGH INTENSITY
18 ENERGY AND PHYSICAL ACTIVITY UNIT 1 - InformationENERGY AND PHYSICAL ACTIVITYFats provide SLOW ENERGYThe provision is too slow to be used when used when working hardUsed for walking and low-impact exerciseUsed for exercise of a longer duration, and MODERATE INTENSITYEnergy used will come from fats and carbohydrates in equal measuresPhysical activity of LONG DURATION and HIGHER INTENSITY is fuelled more from fat stores in the body because the glycogen store becomes depleted
19 ENERGY AND PHYSICAL ACTIVITY UNIT 1 - InformationENERGY AND PHYSICAL ACTIVITYWATER – drink plenty of water BEFORE, DURING and AFTER your physical activityPROTEIN – a little more may be needed for muscle growth and repair if training hard for long periodsCARBO LOADING – The aim of carbo-loading is to build up stores of carbohydrate so that energy can be produced for longer periods of time. This is achieved by eating up to 60% more carbohydrate and reducing physical activity on three days leading up to a competition
20 EXERCISE AND WEIGHT LEVELS UNIT 1 - InformationEXERCISE AND WEIGHT LEVELSThe Food Standards Agency gives guidance on correct weight for heightHowever, being the correct weight does not necessarily mean being fit (amount of fat in the weight is crucial)BODY COMPOSITION – “The proportion of fat in the body is compared to muscle and bone” – stated as a percentageSKINFOLD TESTS are used to estimate body compositionToo much body fat puts a strain on the body – heart and muscle condition can badly affect performance
21 EXERCISE AND WEIGHT LEVELS UNIT 1 - InformationEXERCISE AND WEIGHT LEVELSTo control body weight:HEALTGHY BALANCED DIET + REGULAR EXERCISEEnergy balance all importantFOOD INTAKE = ENERGY OUTPUTThere is a direct link between HEALTH, FITNESS, and EXERCISE.OVER WEIGHT – heavier than the Food Standards Agency guide. However, some of that extra weight might be muscle not fat.OVER FAT – a high level of fat in comparison with their body composition – can lead to obesity related diseases and also cause poor sporting performances.
22 EXERCISE AND WEIGHT LEVELS UNIT 1 - InformationEXERCISE AND WEIGHT LEVELSOBESE – normally 20% over the Food Standards Agency guide of weight for height. Health risks – Heart disease, cancer, diabetes, osteoarthritis and other problems are likely if obese.UNDER WEIGHT – ANOREXIA NERVOSA – where people do not eat as the see themselves as fat – leads to excessive weight loss.BULIMIA – people eat a lot but the vomit – weight loss which needs addressing immediately.Athletes quite often are concerned about their weight for the physical activity they take part in. This can lead to eating disorders.
23 EXERCISE AND WEIGHT LEVELS UNIT 1 - InformationEXERCISE AND WEIGHT LEVELSBODY TYPE – BODY SHAPE – BODY COMPOSITIONDetermine how effective you are at a physical activityThere are 3 SOMATO TYPES:MESOMORPH ENDOMORPH ECTOMORPHEach of the somato types can be changed byDIET, EXERCISE and TRAINING
24 EXERCISE AND WEIGHT LEVELS UNIT 1 - InformationEXERCISE AND WEIGHT LEVELSECTOMORPHLittle muscleLittle fatNarrow shoulders/hipsVery thin and leanLong arms/legsRELATIVE LINEARITY
25 EXERCISE AND WEIGHT LEVELS UNIT 1 - InformationEXERCISE AND WEIGHT LEVELSWedge-shaped bodyMESOMORPHVery little body fatWide shoulders/Narrow hipsHeavily muscled arms/legsRELATIVE MUSCULARITY
26 EXERCISE AND WEIGHT LEVELS UNIT 1 - InformationEXERCISE AND WEIGHT LEVELSWider front to back than side to sidePear-shaped bodyENDOMORPHWide shoulders and hipsLot of fat on body, arms and thighsRELATIVE FATNESS
27 EXERCISE AND WEIGHT LEVELS UNIT 1 - InformationEXERCISE AND WEIGHT LEVELSSprinterAs Usain Bolt illustrates, the perfect sprinter is tall with a muscular (mesomorphic) body, slim lower legs and narrow hips. You also need a developed nervous system, which you can develop with short (e.g. 30m) sprints at maximum effort.Middle DistanceIn middle-distance events, you’re after a high-aerobic threshold (i.e. plenty of stamina) as well as high speed. In training, volume should drop, and intensity rise, as race season approaches – but keep in mind that sudden changes cause injury.Long DistanceLike Paula Radcliffe, marathon runners tend to be ‘ectomorphs’, i.e. lean and lightweight with slim bodies and legs. Their calf muscles are also pretty skinny, too dense a muscle mass and the strain could lead to injuries like shin splints.
28 EXERCISE AND WEIGHT LEVELS UNIT 1 - InformationEXERCISE AND WEIGHT LEVELSMost people are somewhere in between these 3 extremesPeople with different Body Shapes and Types tend to be good at different sportsThe Body Type can give an individual of what work has to be carried out in terms of Fitness, Exercise and Training.ECTOMORPHMESOMORPHENDOMORPHEndurancePowerWeightHeightStrengthLimited movementType of activityContact
29 “What is a balanced diet”? UNIT 1 – Practical Application“What is a balanced diet”?Class Discussion
30 “What is the importance of each of the components of a balanced diet”? UNIT 1 – Practical Application“What is the importance of each of the components of a balanced diet”?Class DiscussionSECTION BGCSE Physical Education
31 UNIT 1 – Practical Application Choose 3 physical activities and discuss their requirements in terms of nutrition.Class Discussion1.2.3.
32 UNIT 1 – Practical Application Body composition and Height/Weight testingSomatotyping – photographs of different persons involved in physical activityAsk class to work in groups and sort out photos/cuttings into 3 body typesDescribe the characteristics.Are there any which are difficult to categorise? Why?Use Rugby as an activity and look at the demands/positions of the game.“Why body types would be most suitable for each position and why”
33 • Health – Physical, Social, Mental • Fitness • Exercise • Lifestyle UNIT 1 - Links• Health – Physical, Social, Mental• Fitness• Exercise• Lifestyle• Individual needs
34 Which components of our diet supply energy? UNIT 1 - ActivityWhat are the 3 food groups and what percentage should they contribute to our diet?Which components of our diet supply energy?Why are carbohydrates referred to as the main energy supplier?How are carbohydrates stored in the body?Give 3 factors which affect water loss.
35 To balance the energy equation what must we do? UNIT 1 - ActivityTo balance the energy equation what must we do?Give 3 ways of losing weight?What happens to the carbohydrate and fat we take in but don’t use for energy?What is the energy equation and what does it tell us?
36 Move the images below to match them with the appropriate body type. UNIT 1 - ActivityMove the images below to match them with the appropriate body type.MESOMORPHENDOMORPHECTOMORPHGCSE Physical Education
37 Describe the main characteristics of each body type. UNIT 1 - ActivityDescribe the main characteristics of each body type.MESOMORPHECTOMORPHENDOMORPHActivity
38 Define the terms ‘health’ and ‘fitness’. UNIT 1 - ActivityDefine the terms ‘health’ and ‘fitness’.Explain the relationship between health and fitness.How might exercise affect your weight?How can lifestyle affect the energy needs of a person?Why is fluid intake an important consideration for a sportsperson?Explain what is meant by diet.
39 Briefly describe the meaning of the term ‘energy balance’. UNIT 1 - ActivityExplain why some sportspeople ‘carbohydrate-load’ before endurance events, such as marathons.Briefly describe the meaning of the term ‘energy balance’.Why is knowledge of the ‘energy balance equation’ important for a sportsperson?What nutrient in our diet supplies energy during intense exercise?What term is used to describe the amount of energy needed to keep a person alive and healthy?
40 How can the level of body fat be controlled? UNIT 1 - ActivityName three factors which could affect water loss taking part in sporting activity.Why is it generally undesirable for sportspersons to have a high percentage of body fat?How can the level of body fat be controlled?Explain why CARBOHYDRATE is the major energy fuel used during vigorous exercise.
41 HEALTH - LIFESTYLE - PERFORMANCE UNIT 1 – Key Facts/GlossaryBalanced dietWater, dehydration, heatstrokeEnergy providersCarbohydrateFatsProteinVitamins, minerals, fibreHigh protein dietPALFitnessHEALTH - LIFESTYLE - PERFORMANCEExerciseBMRCarbo-loadingGood foodsEnergy balanceOver weightObesityOver fatAnorexiaSomatotypingBulimia