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Chapter 2 Nutrition Tools – Standards and Guidelines

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1 Chapter 2 Nutrition Tools – Standards and Guidelines
Nutrition: Concepts & Controversies, 12e Sizer/Whitney

2 Learning Objectives Explain how RDA, AI, DV, and EAR serve different functions in describing nutrient values and discuss how each is used. List the major categories of the Dietary Guidelines for Americans and explain their importance to the population. Describe how foods are grouped in the USDA Food guide and MyPyramid.

3 Learning Objectives Describe the concept of the discretionary calorie allowance, and explain how it can be used in diet planning. Plan a day’s meals that follow the pattern of the USDA Food Guide within a given calorie budget. Define the term functional foods, and discuss some potential effects of such foods on human health.

4 Nutrient Recommendations
Standards for healthy people’s energy and nutrient intakes Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI) Dietary components with set values Values EAR RDA AI UL

5 Nutrient Recommendations
Goals of DRI committee Setting recommended intake values – RDA & AI Used by individuals for nutrient intake goals RDA – solid experimental evidence AI – scientific evidence and educated guesswork Facilitating nutrition research & policy – EAR Requirements for life stages and genders

6 Nutrient Recommendations
Goals of DRI committee Establish safety guidelines – UL Identification of potentially toxic levels Danger zones Preventing chronic diseases Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Ranges (AMDR) proportions

7 The Naïve View Versus the Accurate View of Optimal Nutrient Intakes

8 Understanding the DRI Intake Recommendations
Differences between individuals Adequate intake over time Attempt to get 100% of DRI recommended intake Put DRI recommended intakes into perspective DRI are designed for healthy people

9 Establishing DRI Values – An RDA Example
Balance study Accounting for needs Making a decision

10 Setting Energy Requirements
Estimated Energy Requirements (EER) Not generous Reflects a balancing act Energy to support health and life Energy derived from foods

11 Daily Values Found on food labels Apply to the “average” person
Eating 2,000 to 2,500 calories a day Allow for comparisons among foods Not nutrient intake goals Have not changed in response to new research DRI values have changed over the years

12 Dietary Guidelines for Americans
Science-based advice Promote health Reduce risk of major chronic disease Apply to most people age 2 and older

13 Dietary Guidelines for Americans
Choose nutritious foods Based on USDA Food Guide Supplements Limit potentially harmful dietary components Fat, sugar, cholesterol, salt, and alcohol

14 Dietary Guidelines for Americans – Key Recommendations

15 Dietary Guidelines for Americans – Key Recommendations

16 Dietary Guidelines for Americans – Key Recommendations

17 U.S. Diet and Dietary Guidelines Compared
Healthy Eating Index (HEI) Yields a score Current American diet: 58 out of 100 Americans need to choose less of these Americans need to choose more of these Many need to reduce calorie intake

18 Diet Planning with the USDA Food Guide
Food group plan Help people achieve goals Specifies portions Foods are sorted by nutrient density Seven groups Variety Among the food groups and within each group

19 USDA MyPyramid Food Guide

20 USDA MyPyramid Food Guide

21 USDA MyPyramid Food Guide

22 USDA MyPyramid Food Guide

23 How Does the U.S. Diet Stack Up?

24 Discretionary Calorie Concept
Discretionary calorie allowance Weight maintenance vs. nutrient supplies Sources Nutrient-dense foods

25 Diet Planning Application
USDA Food Guide Amounts needed from each food group Healthful diet for given number of calories Physical activity Higher calorie need Greater discretionary calorie allowance Vegetable intakes Week timeframe

26 MyPyramid Recommended Daily Intakes from Each Food Group

27 Weekly Amounts from Vegetable Subgroups

28 Sample Diet Plan

29 MyPyramid: Steps to a Healthier You
Online educational tool Guides users through diet planning Dietary changes Small steps make substantial impacts Flexibility of the USDA Food Guide Mixed dishes Vegetarians

30 MyPyramid: Steps to a Healthier You

31 Portion Control Portion sizes may be difficult to judge U.S. trend
Larger portion sizes More fat and sugar Tips on weights and measures Cups Ounces Tablespoons and teaspoons ‘Medium’

32 U.S. Trend Toward Colossal Cuisine

33 A Note About Exchange Systems
Useful for almost everyone Estimates values for whole groups of foods Focus on energy-yielding nutrients

34 Checking Out Food Labels
Requirements for food labels Common or usual name Manufacturer, packer, or distributor contact information Net contents Nutrient contents (Nutrition Facts panel) Ingredients Descending order by weight

35 Nutrition Facts Panel Serving size Servings per container
Common measures allow for comparison Servings per container Calories/calories from fat Nutrient amounts and percentages of DVs Fat, cholesterol, sodium, total carbohydrate, protein Vitamins and minerals Vitamin A, vitamin C, calcium, and iron

36 What’s on a Food Label?

37 More About Percentages of Daily Values
‘% Daily Value’ is based on 2,000 calorie diet Two types of Daily Values Some are intake goals to strive for Some constitute healthy daily maximums Daily Values greatest use Comparing foods

38 Claims on Food Labels Nutrient claims Health claims
Food must meet specified criteria Examples “Good source” of a nutrient “High” in a nutrient Health claims Standards Qualified claims

39 Claims on Food Labels Structure/function claims
Requires no prior approval Notification of FDA is sufficient Required label disclaimer Examples

40 Are Some Foods “Superfoods” for Health?
Controversy 2

41 Phytochemicals Nonnutrient components of plants
Flavonoids Emerging as potential regulators of health Antioxidants Regulate protein synthesis Mimic hormones Alter blood chemistry

42 Phytochemicals Blueberries Chocolate Flaxseed Garlic Antioxidants
Flavonoids and antioxidants Flaxseed Lignans and phytoestrogens Garlic Antioxidant organosulfur compounds

43 Phytochemicals Soybeans and soy products Tomatoes
Chronic diseases Downsides Tomatoes Antioxidant lycopene Tea, wine, pomegranate, and whole grain Yogurt Supplements

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