Fads in Weight Loss Not new Examples over the years –1820 Vinegar and Water Diet Made popular by Lord Byron –1825 Low Carbohydrate Diet First appeared in The Physiology of Taste by Jean Brillat-Savarin –1903 Horace Fletcher promotes Fletcherizing Chew food 32 times –1925 Cigarette Diet Reach for a Lucky instead of a sweet –1950 Cabbage Soup Diet & Grapefruit Diet –1970 Sleeping Beauty Diet Individuals heavily sedated for several days –1990 Cabbage Soup Diet Diet from 1950s resurfaces –1994 High Protein, Low Carb Diet Dr. Atkins version –2001 High Protein, Low Carb Diet 1994 diet updated –2005 Cheaters Diet Expected to cheat on the weekends –2007: Still popular fads…..
Weight Loss Success Reduced calorie intake from usual Increased physical activity (30-60 minutes per day) National Wight Control Registry –Follows >5000 successful dieters –Important criteria: kept weight off –Records strategies for wt loss and wt maintenance Success = Dietary restraint and physical activity
Physical activity should be moderate or vigorous and =>30 minutes a day. Grains are divided into 2 subgroups, whole grains and refined grains. Increase dark green and orange veggies and more beans and peas Eat a variety of fruit; go easy on juices Fats from fish, nuts veg oils Low Fat or Fat free milk Go lean on Protein www.mypyramid.gov Lean proteins
Weight Watchers Fundamental principle: calorie control Low calorie, balanced diet Based on daily points or exchanges –Get more points by exercising Behavior modification Offers pre-packaged foods but not mandatory; weekly fee for ongoing support Periodic (weekly) weigh-in Group approach may help
Zone 40% carbohydrate; 30% fat; 30% protein In the zone = body at peak physical state Wt loss by achieving satiety More balanced than some but more complicated than others Offers pre-packaged foods and bars May be more expensive than buying fresh, wholesome foods depending on location
Ornish Eat More, Weigh Less Very low fat (10%), high carbohydrate, moderate protein, vegetarian approach Focus on choices; not calories or measuring Heart healthy – reverse heart disease Wt loss plan less restrictive; still limits even good fats –Nuts, avocado, olive oil Wt loss benefit; CVD.
Atkins (or Low Carb Diet) Low carbohydrate; high protein, high fat Restricts fruits, vegetables, dairy, grains Mandates supplemental vitamin/mineral Eliminates food groups known for health promotion Long term (> 1 year) effects not studied
Comparison of Diets A TO Z Weight Loss Study Randomized 311 overwt/obese women –Atkins; Zone; LEARN; Ornish Primary purpose: Determine wt loss after 12 months Secondary purpose: monitor lipid profile Outcome –All groups lost weight –Atkins=10.3#; Zone=3.5#; LEARN=4.8#; Ornish=5.7# –Statistically Atkins achieved greater wt loss; –Clinical benefit? No adverse effects on lipids at 12 months; Unknown long term efffects –Changes in body comp (% fat mass) not different between groups Gardner et at. JAMA March 7, 2007 page 969-977.
Indicators of Fads Recommendations promising a quick fix Claims sounding too good to be true Simplistic conclusions from a complex study Recommendations based on 1 study; studies not reviewed by colleagues; studies that ignore that individuals are different Made to sell a product Dramatic statements Lists of Bad & Good foods Exclude one or more food groups No long terms lifestyle habits (food & physical activity)