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Chapter 17 Ranching in Texas

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 17 Ranching in Texas"— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 17 Ranching in Texas 1850-1890

2 Section 1 The Beginning of the Cattle Kingdom
Beginning in the Spanish era of Texas, cattle were raised on the grassy prairies of the state. These roaming herds were the beginning of the cattle kingdom.

3 The Cattle Industry The Texas climate and geographic features were perfect for raising cattle Cattle could graze on the grass of the prairies Cattle industry grew rapidly in late 1800s When Native Americans were forced onto reservations, settlers began to move into West Texas…cattle industry grew also

4 Spanish Origins When Spanish explorers and priests came from Mexico into Texas, they brought cattle with them In 1700s, Spanish explorer, Jose de Escandon, set aside land for people Started a charro culture (kind of a cattle culture) Charros = Mexican cowhands who used horses and ropes to round up cattle They would brand the cattle Brand = a mark burned on the hide of cattle to show ownership

5 Cattle Brands See Page 363 for Cattle Brand Info
See Page 363 for Cattle Brand Info

6 Longhorns Spaniards brought cattle with them
Some of this cattle roamed wild in Texas and multiplied A new breed was formed—the Texas Longhorn Longhorns had Huge horns (used horns to protect themselves) Could easily adapt to environment Little water and food and could handle hot and cold weather

7 Longhorn Cattle

8 Texas Longhorn Cattle Video
Westward Expansion for Students: Old Texas and the Trail Drivers. CLEARVUE & SVE, 1997. Full Video. 7 April 2011. <>.

9 Early Ranchers When Mexico controlled Texas, Mexican government would give settlers land if they would raise cattle Cowhands developed own way of working with cattle James Taylor White = first cattle baron in Texas

10 Early Ranchers, cont By 1850s, cattle was “driven” to railroads to be shipped to market On path of cattle drives, farmers were mad…cows ruined crops, etc Cattle carried disease called Texas Fever…caused by ticks Ranchers learned to “dip” cattle in chemicals to kill ticks Because it was expensive to transport cattle to markets, ranchers started having cattle killed for the cattle hide (for leather) and for fat from meat to make soap and candles

11 Texas Herds During the Civil War
Texas cattle should have been used for food for Confederate soldiers But, Union controlled the Mississippi River so cattle couldn’t cross river to get to soldiers Cattle industry declined in Texas during Civil War Ranchers fighting in war Cattle roamed free and numbers multiplied Cattle wasn’t worth much because people couldn’t afford to buy them…value of cattle decreased

12 Section 2 The Cattle Trails
As railroads expanded westward across the United States, markets for beef opened. Texas cattle owners drove their herds along cattle trails to the railroads.

13 A Market for Beef Demand for beef increased after Civil War
Beef was shipped to markets in North & East Stockyards: a pen where livestock is kept before being butchered or shipped to market Packinghouses: a warehouse where beef is prepared for shipment

14 A Market for Beef, con’t Ranchers made a lot of money selling the cattle. Needed a way to get cattle to stockyards Joseph McCoy built first cowtown in Abilene, Kansas Cowtown: a town that serves as market or shipping point for cattle Let ranchers know that they could drive cattle through Indian territory to Abilene, Kansas Cattle would be put in holding pens there till the herds could get on trains for north and east

15 The Development of Cattle Trails
See map on page 367 First great cattle trail = Chisholm Trail Started in 1867 by Cherokee trader named Jesse Chisholm Between about 6 million herd of cattle were driven from Texas to Abilene, KS More trails developed as more railroads were built Western Trail (aka Dodge City Trail) San Antonio across the Red River to Dodge City, Kansas Pecos Trail (aka Goodnight Loving Trail) Followed the Pecos River into New Mexico and then went into Wyoming

16 Cattle Trails,

17 Cattle Trails Video

18 Life on the Trail Trail Drive
Began with a Roundup: the process of herding together cattle that are scattered Cattle rounded up and branded (took several weeks) Scouts rode ahead to find best route and to alert trail boss of dangers, etc Trail Boss —in charge of everything Cowhand Duties Pointers: rode at side of lead cattle to direct herd Flankers: rode beside herd to keep cattle from straying Other cowhands rode in rear of herd to keep cattle from falling behind

19 Life on the Trail, con’t Cowhand duties, con’t
Wranglers: took care of the extra saddle horses Each cowboy had several horses; they would switch out horses several times/day to keep horses rested Camp Cook: cooked all meals Sourdough biscuits, beef, beans and coffee After a meal, he would take Chuck Wagon: a wagon that carries cooking equipment and food for the cowhands At night, the cowhands would gather around campfire and sing Read A Real Life Story on page 366


21 Cattle Drives Video

22 After the Cattle Drive Video

23 An Expanding Cattle Range
Usually cattle were driven each spring to railroad and sold The ones that got there earliest got the most money for their cattle So, they started having cattle drives in the fall and staying through winter to spring to be first to sell cattle These winter herds expanded cattle kingdom out of Texas into other parts of US…usually Wyoming and Montana

24 Read Old Yeller excerpt
Video Bibliography Westward Expansion for Students: Old Texas and the Trail Drivers. CLEARVUE & SVE, 1997. Full Video. 7 April 2011. <>. Read Old Yeller excerpt Page

25 Section 3 The End of the Open Range
The expansion of large ranches multiplying herds of livestock, and barbed wire all served to close the open range in Texas.

26 The Great Spreads 4 Large Ranches King Ranch JA Ranch
Founded by Richard King and Mifflin Kennedy In South Texas They split up the ranch and King, his wife and his son-in-law expanded the ranch to over a million acres in size JA Ranch Founded by Charles Goodnight and John Adair In Palo Duro Canyon Used canyon walls as part of ranch and got water from Red River One million acres and 100,000 head of cattle Charles Goodnight’s wife, Moll’, was first white woman to live on the Texas Plains

27 The Great Spreads, con’t
Large Ranches, con’t Matador Ranch Founded by A.M. Britton and H. H. Campbell In Motley County (in Panhandle) Scottish company, Matador Land and Cattle Company, bought it and expanded it XIT Ranch Largest ranch in Texas In Panhandle, along New Mexico border Over 3 million acres”, covered ten counties XIT stands for “Ten in Texas” or just straight lines made it hard for cattle rustlers to change brand Cattle Rustler: a cattle thief

28 Sheep and Goat Ranching
Sheep and goats were also raised on ranches Sheep brought by Spanish explorers Rancher, George Wilkins Kendall, started raising sheep for wool After Civil War, big demand for wool…more sheep ranches started

29 Sheep and Goat Ranches, con’t
Goats Ranchers started raising goats for mohair…from silky coats of Angora goats Mohair used for yarn for clothes Goat ranching mostly on Edwards Plateau…still producing mohair today

30 Barbed Wire and Windmills
As more Texans were raising cattle, the grass supply diminished Also, ranchers couldn’t keep their cattle separated And, farmers started farming land the ranchers needed Result: conflicts over land

31 Barbed Wire & Windmills, con’t
Open Range Ranching: no fences But, there was a growing need for fences In 1873, Joseph Glidden invented barbed wire So, ranchers started using barbed wire for fences FYI: XIT Ranch used 6000 miles of barbed wire for fences Many people were against fences and started wire cutting…eventually became illegal to cut fences

32 Barbed Wire
Barbed Wire

33 Barbed Wire & Windmills, con’t
With invention of windmills, ranchers could pump water from underground…used this water for animals By 1890s…old ways of cattle industry were going away Too many cattle and not enough grass Cattle industry became way to make money rather than a way of life

34 Windmills

35 Charles Goodnight Map of XIT Ranch Joseph Glidden
Map of XIT Ranch Joseph Glidden

36 Angora Goats

37 The Myth and Reality of the Cowhand
Myth: it was glamorous and exciting…Wild West Shows exaggerated how it really was to be a cowboy Reality: very different Not glamorous but a hard way of life Many cowhands were African Americans, Tejanos, and even women….they were ignored

38 American Cowboys Video

39 Range of Cultures Many cultures contributed to ranching industry
African Americans Daniel Webster Wallace former slave former trail boss Owned ranch Bose Ikard Worked as JA Ranch for Charles Goodnight Vaqueros Tejano cowhands (1 out of 10 cowhands was a vaquero) Many vaqueros also owned ranches in South Texas Women Some worked ranches alongside husbands Some became independent ranchers *Margaret Borland: had 10,000 acre ranch near Victoria *Lizzie Johnson Williams: owned ranch and well respected for ranching knowledge (see page 376) *Both of these women rode on cattle drives

40 Daniel Webster Wallace
Lizzie Johnson Williams Daniel Webster Wallace Margaret Borland Read Bill Pickett, Bulldogger (page 377)

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