Presentation on theme: "Effects of Feeding Strategy on Market Cow Performance, Carcass Quality and Economics 1 M. M. Thompson 1 *, C. S. Schauer 1, T.R. Maddock 2, C. L. Wright."— Presentation transcript:
Effects of Feeding Strategy on Market Cow Performance, Carcass Quality and Economics 1 M. M. Thompson 1 *, C. S. Schauer 1, T.R. Maddock 2, C. L. Wright 3. 1 Hettinger Research Extension Center, NDSU, Hettinger, ND 2 NDSU Dept. of Animal Sciences, Fargo, ND 3 SDSU Dept. of Animal and Range Sciences, Brookings, SD 2008 Beef Cattle and Range Report
Background Sale of market (cull) cows can contribute 15-30% additional income annually to cow- calf producers Estimate 6-8 million market cows harvested annually (Stalcup, 2008) Spring calving cows sold in fall (post weaning, pregnancy check) supply large, returns low
Background Enhance market cow value by feeding extra 60 to 100 days (Strohbehn et al., 2004) Goal: white fat get as many cows to Premium white No 1 & 2 grades Cull cow prices based on expected USDA carcass grade: Canner very thin body condition BCS = 2-3 Cutter thin body condition score BCS = 4 Utility moderate body condition BCS = 5 Commercial fleshy body condition BCS = 6+
Background Cull cows require more nutrient dense rations with smaller particle size and softer feed (Drake, 2008) Cull cows have lower feed efficiency and lower digestion (Nader, 2008) Little research on use of self feeders to feed market cows
Background Feeding strategies and economic profit for market cows needs re-examined (Niemela et al., 2008) feed costs fuel costs input costs
Study Objective Evaluate traditional and self fed market cow feeding systems feedlot performance carcass traits profitability within each feeding system
Experimental Protocols 68 mature market cows purchased mid Oct. 2007 (Bowman, ND) 48 cows selected (wt = 1313 lb, BCS = 5.71) and randomly allotted to pens (4 cows/pen) Pens randomly assigned to one of three diet treatments: (1) corn-mixed hay (HAY) (2) barley-barley silage (SILAGE) (3) self-fed diet using controlled intake system (LIMIT)
Experimental Protocols Four step up rations ( energy density) fed to HAY and SILAGE cows to achieve final finishing diets (30 days) Day 76- all cows commingled into one group and placed into a large pen (Lagoon) Cows fed TMR ration from day 76 - 104 (29 days) until shipped auction market or slaughter
Experimental Protocols One cow removed from study (SILAGE) One cow selected from each pen and marketed live evaluate local auction markets cull cow prices Feed samples collected, composited by treatment and analyzed for chemical nutrients
Experimental Protocols Cow performance, carcass traits, and economic data analyzed statistically Treatment means considered different at P < 0.05 level
Diet Ingredient Compositions Percent Dry Matter Basis ItemHaySilageLagoon Days fed0 – 750 - 7576 - 104 Ingredient composition, % Alfalfa haylage8.5-- Barley silage-16.125.0 Calcium carbonate0.7 0.5 Whole barley-67.222.5 Cracked corn71.4-22.6 Finish supplement a 2.01.81.9 MGA ® pellet b 18.104.22.168 Mixed hay12.711.825.0 Soybean meal (48% CP)2.1-- a Supplement contains 1000 gram/ton Rumensin ®. b Supplement contains 0.00011% Melengestrol Acetate.
Diet Nutrient Compositions Percent Dry Matter Basis Nutrient a HaySilageLagoon DM, %76.9269.2275.0 CP, % DM11.714.513.7 Ne m, Mcal/lb DM0.820.800.90 Ne g, Mcal/lb DM0.550.540.52 Ca:P2.762.812.54 a Nutrient analysis results from composited diet samples.
Ingredient Compositions of Self-Fed Diets Percent Dry Matter Basis ACCURATION a IMPACT b ItemDay 1 - 21Day 22 - 46Day 47 - 75 Ingredient composition, % Cracked corn34.8060.8078.50 MGA ® pellets c 2.80 Purina supplement22.214.171.124 Grass hay (bales)10 12:12 mineral0.3 - a Supplement contains 130 gram/ton Rumensin ®. b Supplement contains 227 gram/ton Rumensin ® and 90 gram/ton Tylan ®. c Supplement contains 0.00011% Melengestrol Acetate.
Diet Nutrient Compositions of Self-Fed Diets Percent Dry Matter Basis Nutrient a ACCURATIONIMPACT Day 1 - 21Day 22 - 46Day 47 - 75 DM, %88.1987.5285.20 CP, % DM23.722.914.8 Ne m, Mcal/lb DM0.920.930.87 Ne g, Mcal/lb DM0.610.620.58 Ca:P, % DM1.561.501.62 a Nutrient analysis results from composited diet samples.
Feed Ingredient Costs (2007) Feed ingredientCost Barley silage, $/ton 38.38 Mixed Hay a, $/ton 66.05 Finish Supplement, $/ton 379 MGA pellets ®, $/ton 364 Whole barley grain, $/bushel 3.25 Cracked corn grain b, $/bushel 3.95 - 5.25 Purina AccuRation 3HL RM 130, $/ton 431 Purina Impact 44 RM 227 T 90, $/ton 433 Calcium carbonate, $/ton 213.30 48% CP Soybean meal, $/ton 292 a Includes fee for processing hay (chopping by custom hay processor). b Includes fee for processing grain (cracking).
Feeding and Management Strategies on Market Cow Dry Matter Intake 38 28 25.6 P < 0.001 40 37.9 37.8 P = 0.56 38.8 33.5 31 P = 0.002
Feeding and Management Strategies on Market Cow Performance P = 0.01 P = 0.14P = 0.04
Feeding and Management Strategies on Market Cow Weight Gain and BCS 5.68 5.71 5.75 7.5 7.1 P = 0.74 P = 0.55 P = 0.19 P = 0.047
Feeding and Management Strategies on Market Cow Feed Cost of Gain ItemHaySilageLimitSEM a P-value b Day 0-46 Feed cost/lb gain, $/lb0.790.832.211.440.74 Day 47-75 Feed cost/lb gain, $/lb0.820.710.700.080.52 Day 0-75 Feed cost/lb gain, $/lb0.790.801.720.150.002 a Standard Error of Mean, n = 4. b P-value for separation of treatment means; P < 0.05 considered statistically significant.
Feeding and Management Strategies on Market Cow Carcass Traits P = 0.10 P = 0.25
Feeding and Management Strategies on Market Cow Carcass Traits ItemHaySilageLimitSEM a P-value b Harvested cows c HCW, lb96292591715.060.14 Dressing percent5453540.740.88 Marbling score39839042221.810.58 Fat color (1-5) d 2.753.252.500.260.18 Muscling score (1-5) e 2.753.253.750.340.18 Total cow value, $1,038.33999.27990.3216.260.14 a Standard Error of Mean, n=4. b P-value for separation of treatment means; P < 0.05 considered statistically significant. c Cows shipped to Dakota Premium Foods, South St. Paul, MN on Feb. 13, 2008 for harvest. d Pure white = 1, Yellow = 5. e Thin = 1, Average = 3, and Thick = 5.
Input Costs for Feeding Market Cows Closeout Analysis ItemCost Yardage costs, $/cow 29.15 - 36.75 Veterinary medicine a, $/cow 11.88 - 12.59 Marketing expense (for harvest), $/cow 2.16 Marketing expense (for auction), $/cow 25.55 Cash equity, $/cow 150.00 Death loss, %0 Interest rate, %7.50 a Veterinary medicine costs include vaccination, dewormer, implant and chute charges; costs varied due to two cows treated for footrot (HAY and LIMIT).
Input Costs for Feeding Market Cows Closeout Analysis ItemCost Transportation costs Trucking costs (delivery to feedlot), $/cow 7.25 Trucking costs (delivery to sale barn) a, $/cow 6.76 - 8.45 Trucking costs (delivery to harvest), $/cow 71.25 a Transportation costs to sale barn (auction market) varied due to number of animals shipped per treatment.
Feeding and Management Strategies on Market Cow Auction and Closeout Returns ItemHaySilageLimitSEM a P-value b Auctioned cows c Sale wt, lb1656.31776.31584.552.840.08 Sale price, $/cwt59.5060.3058.800.640.34 Total cow value, $962.741005.51906.2941.780.29 a Standard Error of Mean, n=4. b P-value for separation of treatment means; P < 0.05 considered statistically significant. c Fattened market cows sold at Lemmon Livestock, Inc., Lemmon, SD, Feb. 13, 2008.
Feeding and Management Strategies on Market Cow Auction and Closeout Returns P = 0.03 Values for breakevens, profits and losses derived from CalfWEB closeout calculator, www.chaps2000.com/calfweb/ P = 0.11
Feeding and Management Strategies on Market Cow Auction and Closeout Returns P = 0.03 P = 0.15 Values for breakevens, profits and losses derived from CalfWEB closeout calculator, www.chaps2000.com/calfweb/
IMPLICATIONS A net profit was received for feeding market cows Self-feeders are a practical feeding method –LIMIT system requires time for cows to adapt –LIMIT cows gained more efficiently when consuming their final self-fed diet LIMIT cows consumed less feed and had lower labor costs than HAY and SILAGE cows Feed cost of gain highest for LIMIT cows
IMPLICATIONS Market Cow feeding requires: –Aggressive implants (Finaplex H) –MGA ® feeding –Minimum 20 to 24 inch bunk space/cow –High energy finishing diets (minimum 60- 63 Mcal NE g ) Market cow FCOG NOT competitive with feeding calves $ made from upgrading cow
IMPLICATIONS Profit HIGHLY dependent on: –Initial cow BCS –Feed cost and availability –DOF (min = 60 days; max = 100 days) –Carcass traits (quality) More research needed to evaluate other low cost methods market cow value