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1 THE ORGANIZATION AND OPERATION OF A FOOD COMPANY 3144 Steven S Seideman Extension Food Processing Specialist Cooperative Extension Service The University.

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Presentation on theme: "1 THE ORGANIZATION AND OPERATION OF A FOOD COMPANY 3144 Steven S Seideman Extension Food Processing Specialist Cooperative Extension Service The University."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 THE ORGANIZATION AND OPERATION OF A FOOD COMPANY 3144 Steven S Seideman Extension Food Processing Specialist Cooperative Extension Service The University of Arkansas

2 2 The Organization and Operation of a Food Company The purpose of this series is to explain the basic organization of a food company and how they operate internally to give you the foods you enjoy everyday. Although we will present an organizational structure that is very formal, companies differed greatly in structure but all are derived to cover the basic functions.

3 3 Why Have an Organizational Structure? In this highly specialized culture, many departments have to work together to come across in a unified manner to procure raw materials, manufacture, market, sell and distribute their products. Each of the above functions (procurement, manufacturing etc) along with other functions must each be good at what they do and are managed independently but serve the companys overall mission.

4 4 What is the Purpose of a Company? According to the Harvard School of Business, The purpose of a company is to get and keep a customer. The purpose is not to make a profit although it is implied that if you lose money, you will not be in business very long and will not be able to keep the customer.

5 5 A Word About Profit A number of people think that companies make a lot of profit, which in general is not necessarily true. They believe this because they hear or see the gross sales numbers. This is not profit but the value of the products that they sell. If you believe companies make a lot of profit, buy their stock because profit is generally returned to the stockholders in the form of dividends or it is reinvested in the company which means the stock price should go up.

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7 7 Organizational Structure The purpose of an organizational structure is to organize the outcome of the major functions of company. It is generally believed that a manager can only effectively manage 4-7 people depending on what is being managed and how good the manager is. Therefore, a President cannot effectively manager all functions of a food company. To understand the idea behind organizational structures, lets first go through a basic Army organizational structure,

8 8 The Army Organizational Structure

9 9 The Armys Organizational Structure Note that any basic Army unit whether it be company, battalion or brigade has this same basic organizational structure. It has a leader (Commander) and his backup (Executive Officer). It covers the basic functions needed to carry out the mission (Personnel, Intelligence, Operations, Logistics and Civil Affairs).

10 10 What if a Food Company was Organized like the Army? See the next organizational Structure

11 11 If a Food Company was Organized like the Army

12 12 Food Company Organized like Army Note that the functions would line up fairly well. BUT the major functions of a food company are not the same in real life because the mission is different. The mission of the Army is to impose their will upon the enemy. In food companies, the mission is to get and keep a customer.

13 13 The Theoretical Structure of a Food Company The next slide will show a basic, theoretical structure of a food company. Since food companies differ widely in size, products and ways in which theygo to market, organizational structures will differ greatly but this structure does point out the major functions common to almost all food companies.

14 14 Typical Organization of a Food Company

15 15 The Basic Structure Note that finance, marketing, sales and manufacturing are all covered. These are the corner stones of any food company and must be carried out for the company to function. Lets now discuss each of these major functions in greater detail and then go through the less major but important other functions.

16 16 Food Company Functions Major Functions *Finance & Accounting *Marketing *Sales *Manufacturing/ Production Minor Functions *Product Management *Customer Service *Research & Development *Quality Control *Human Resources *Purchasing


18 18 Finance & Accounting Finance & Accounting is very important. Track sales, issue reports on sales, production costs, control capital for expansion etc. Most company presidents came out of finance and accounting. In most companies, the VP of Finance & Accounting is the successor to the president. They understand the financial community, the principles of accounting and how the stock market works which is what the owners (shareholders) are most concerned about.

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20 20 Marketing Most major food companies spend millions per year on marketing. Work on how to increase sales. Some companies are market driven-marketing decides what to sell and sales sells it. Work on advertising, coupons, fact sheets, promotions etc. Very creative group. In some companies, marketing people are product managers-manage the category line. P&L responsibility.

21 21 Sales The front line troops. The purpose of a business is to get and keep a customer. Work to get increased sales of what production can make. Often organized in retail, food service and international sales groups. Often work as sales representatives, assisting customer to increase sales. Some companies are sales driven. Marketing works to help sales. Large account representatives work with major retailers, brokers and restaurants.

22 22 Photo courtesy of University of Nebraska

23 23 Manufacturing/ Production Make the finished product from raw materials to the quantity requested by sales. Follow specifications. Many plants may have 25-500 SKUs Spend capital to decrease production costs. Plants are very expensive-often run 2 shifts per day. The hidden heroes of most food companies. Broken down into departments such as HR, packaging, maintenance, QA/QC, safety, distribution/ warehouse, etc

24 24 Photo courtesy of USDA

25 25 Photo courtesy of USDA

26 26 Photo courtesy USDA

27 27 Minor Functions

28 28 Product Managers Some companies have product managers who are responsible to manage a product line. Some companies use marketing to perform this function. They are also responsible for inventory control, price points, etc

29 29 Customer Service Talks to customers and handles complaints. May actually take orders from customers when sales are true sales representatives. May report to sales or marketing.

30 30 Research & Development Work with sales and marketing on new products and line extensions. May work with manufacturing on new equipment and technology transfer. May report to marketing, manufacturing or sales. Increased role lately as large customers want to talk to technologists. Work closely with sales. In high tech industries, R&D may be higher in the structure ( e.g. the computer industry).

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32 32 Quality Control Usually reports to plant manager in manufacturing. Inspects incoming raw materials, conducts inspections while product being made such as temperature measurements and operational sanitation and inspects finished products. Cannot inspect in product quality. Must be manufactured in. New important role in food safety. Usually has chemical and microbiological laboratories.

33 33 Photo courtesy of USDA

34 34 Human Resources Provide for the human resources needed to run manufacturing. Usually reports to the plant manager. Recruits, interviews perspective employees, does payroll, sets up educational classes, files and audits evaluations, works in matters of lawsuits etc.

35 35 Purchasing/ Procurement Buys raw materials and ingredients for production. Must coordinate purchasing with production plans to manufacture. Usually part of manufacturing. Now practicing just in time delivery Movement to strategic purchasing. One supplier for several plants.

36 36 Food Companies Differ Food companies differ widely in size, product line and personality/ culture. No set organizational structure but the functions are all there in some form or another. Some companies are privately held (owned by individuals) and some are publically traded (on the stock market).

37 37 Personality/Culture Like people, companies have personalities. These personalities are a culture adapted by upper management as to what they value and believe in. The President usually dictates culture. They can be sales, marketing, technology or production driven/ oriented depending on the product line and how management wants to go to market.

38 38 Personality/Culture Part of the personality/culture of a company is understanding its priorities. The overall goals are 1) to get and keep a customer followed by 2) building shareholder wealth. Building shareholder wealth means that the company is increasing in dividends paid out to shareholders or the increase in the value of the stock on the stock market. To increase shareholder wealth, we have to prioritize what we think will improve the companies performance.

39 39 Performance Criteria 1)Increase Market Share - new products, advertising, etc. Things we do to increase sales volume. 2)Food Safety-may not increase shareholder wealth but a major recall can certainly kill it. 3)Quality-Adherence to a specification. 4)Yield-Important to high raw material items like meat versus flour. 5)Labor- Things such as automation, cost savings projects, etc

40 40 Conclusions The purpose of a company is to get and keep a customer. Food processing companies are organized in a way to maximize the performance of the basic functions of accounting, marketing, sales and manufacturing. The minor functions such as product management, customer service, research and development, QA/QC, human resources and purchasing/procurement are incorporated into the organizational structure based on the companys culture, personalities and goals.

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