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Agenda 1.Housekeeping: readings, team name & e-e-mail, etc. 2.News 1.Surveillance data miningSurveillance data mining 2.Shopping basket analysisShopping.

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Presentation on theme: "Agenda 1.Housekeeping: readings, team name & e-e-mail, etc. 2.News 1.Surveillance data miningSurveillance data mining 2.Shopping basket analysisShopping."— Presentation transcript:


2 Agenda 1.Housekeeping: readings, team name & e-e-mail, etc. 2.News 1.Surveillance data miningSurveillance data mining 2.Shopping basket analysisShopping basket analysis 3.Segmentation marketing 1.Basics of segmentation 2.Geographics 3.Demographics 4.Lifecycle 5.Cohorts 6.Psychographics & behavior 4.Team discussion questions 1.Profile yourself as consumer 2.Profile your customers: How does this enable you to respond to their needs better 5.Next week: consumer behavior– why we buy what we buy

3 Use the various consumer profiling methods to: 1.Profile yourself as a consumer (use VALS-2, Prism, and other demographic, psychographic, and lifestyle descriptors). 2.What are the implications for marketers (e.g., how is this reflected in how they do/can market to you more effectively)? 3.Profile the customers in your business (or department). 4.How does this information about your customers enable you to provide better products/services to them? 5.What more do you need to know? How could you find out? Group discussion questions for tonight

4 You might understand the parts, but might miss the whole chicken What is ?

5 Demographic/Geographic refers to age, sex, income, education, race, martial status, size of household, geographic location, size of city, and profession. Life stage refers to chronological benchmarking of people's lives at different ages (e.g., pre-teens, teenagers, empty-nesters, etc.). Lifestyle refers to the collective choice of hobbies, recreational pursuits, entertainment, vacations, and other non-work time pursuits Psychographics refers to personality and emotionally based behavior linked to purchase choices; for example, whether customers are risk- takers or risk-avoiders, impulsive buyers, etc. Belief and value systems includes religious, political, nationalistic, and cultural beliefs and values. Behavior analysis includes what behaviors consumers actually engage in (after all is said and done) Methods of Seg-men-ta-tion


7 Requirements for segmentation Question: What are some criteria that could be used to ensure that a segmentation has utility? Identifiable : the differentiating attributes of the segments must be measurable so that they can be identified. Relevant/Accessible : the segments must be reachable through communication and distribution channels. Substantial: the segments should be sufficiently large to justify the resources required to target them. Unique needs : to justify separate offerings, the segments must respond differently to the different marketing mixes. Durable : the segments should be relatively stable to minimize the cost of frequent changes.

8 Pitfalls of Segmentation appeal to segments that are too small misread consumer similarities and differences become cost inefficient spin off too many imitations of their original products or brands become short-run rather than long-run oriented unable to use certain media (due to small segment size) compete in too many markets confuse people become locked in to a declining market too slow to seek innovation possibilities for new products


10 ClaritasClaritas (Prizm demographic profile by Zipcode) SRI VALS Survey (lifestyle profiling)VALS Sample Segmentation Services & Systems AGSAGS Demographic Database Family Lifecycle Family Lifecycle & Retailing RicercarRicercar geodemographic profiling MosaicMosaic Segmentation Yankelovich Nielson

11 Demographic Profile


13 Business segmentation can help companies align their sales territories based on the opportunities on the ground. The BEFOREmap shows territories determine by geometryfour quadrants dividing the central area while the AFTERmap shows territories that vary in size based on the number and potential value of target businesses (the red dots indicating the locations of target businesses). By mapping its business prospects by size and industry type in Lexington, Kentucky, a company can better realign its sales territories based on the concentrations of its high- quality prospects.

14 Demographic analysis Demographic data packs PRIZM market segments Prizm ZIP profile PRIZM– Potential Rating Index for Zip Marketers

15 Mosaic segments A Affluent Suburbia 01 Very high-income, families with older children in suburban areas 02 Very high-income, large families in suburban areas 03 Very high-income, young, suburban families with children 04 Empty-nest, high-income, suburban couples 05 High-income, families with older children in suburban areas 06 Large, high-income families in major market suburbs 07 High-income families with children in suburbs 08 Suburban, high-income families with older children




19 In your discussion team: Describe yourself as a target market using the descriptors from the various methods of profiling we have covered. Given your description, how would a marketer most optimally contact and engage you? Sample Profile

20 Cluster analysis Cluster analysis builds hierarchical trees based on similarity among individuals compared across several dimensions of questions

21 Cluster Analysis of Recreational Groups


23 Types Applications VALS-2 survey 9% 11% 16% 13% 12% 13% Strugglers Actualizers Principles Status Action Fulfilled

24 Social Technographics Ladder (2008) Forrester categorizes social computing behaviors into a ladder with six levels of participation; we use the term "Social Technographics" to describe analyzing a population according to its participation in these levels.


26 Segmentation of blog users by political party There is a persistent tendency for Democrats to participate more fully in social technologies. Looking at the index (all adults = 100), you can see that Democrats are at least 10% more likely to do just about anything involving social technologies. The Republicans are the opposite -- they're a lot LESS likely to participate

27 Segmentation of democratic blog users by who they voted for One in three Obama voters is a Joiner, which may be helping the strategy. Edwards voters (62% Spectators) are the most likely to be consuming social applications; Clinton voters are the least, with only 49% Spectators and 42% Inactives. 34% of Gore voters are Critics -- he ought to connect with them in some sort of community or forum to make them a force for his issues in the general election. Obama, Clinton, and Edwards voters are all rich with Creators (at least 22% of their supporters) -- energize those voters and they'll start getting the Spectators excited.

28 Segmentation of republican blog users by who they voted for Note the relatively anemic levels of Creator participation -- no Republican gets above 16%. The Creators are the voters who energize everybody else with their contribution.



31 Target Market & the 4 Ps

32 How STP adds value to a firm Marketing resources are focused to better meet customers needs and deliver more value to them Customer develop preference for brands that better meet their needs and deliver more value Customers become brand/supply loyal, repeat purchase, share favorable experiences Brand supplier loyalty leads to increased market share and creates a barrier to competition Fewer marketing resources needed over time to maintain share due to brand or supplier loyalty Profitability (value to the firm) increases

33 The Intergenerational Cohort Approach (see Meredith, G. E., Schewe, C. D., & Karlovich, J. (2001) Defining Markets, Defining Moments: America's 7 Generational Cohorts, Their Shared Experiences, and Why Businesses Should Care

34 Depression Cohort (Born from 1912 – 1921; Came of age during the Great Depression; Aged 79 – 88 in 2000): This groups coming of age experience consisted of economic strife, elevated unemployment rates and having to take menial jobs to survive. Financial security what they most lacked when coming of age rules their thinking. Marketing Tip : Having lived through the Depression, this cohort prefers to pay more for a smaller serving, rather than throw something away. As a result, single-serving products are now becoming popular. Maxwell House Filter Pack Singles, Pillsbury single-serve cakes, and Orville Redenbacher single- serve microwave popcorn are all examples.

35 World War II Cohort (Born from 1922-1927; Came of age during World War II; Aged 73-78 in 2000): Sacrifice for the common good was widely accepted among members of this Cohort, as evidenced by women working in factories for the war effort and men going off to fight. Overall, this cohort was focused on defeating a common enemy, and their members are more team-oriented and patriotic than those of other generational cohorts. Marketing Tip : The1940s were an intensely romantic period. Therefore romance (candlelight dinners, hand-holding, soft music) can provide a wonderful context for advertising messages. In ads for Lazy-Boy recliners, the company uses a scene of a couple sitting on the porch of a Victorian- type home; the man is dressed in clothes of the 40s, while the woman, clearly his sweetheart, is looking down demurely as he speaks to her. Older adults immediately relate to the ad, which goes on to emphasize how long the company has been in businessanother strong selling feature for this cohort.

36 Post-War Cohort (Born from 1928-1945; Came of age after WWII; Aged 55-72 in 2000): These individuals experienced a time of remarkable economic growth and social tranquility, a time of family togetherness, the Korean conflict, McCarthyism, school dress codes, and moving to the suburbs. Overall, this cohort participated in the rise of the middle class, sought a sense of security and stability, and expected prosperous times to continue indefinitely. Marketing Tip : Post-War grandparents are healthy, active, educated and endowed with sizeable nest eggs. Spending by grandparents on their grandchildren is on the rise. Yet, toy stores are so focused on capturing the young parent market that they ignore this fact. A good example of a company taking advantage of this market is Genesis Direct of Secaucus, NJ, which markets a catalog called Gifts For Grandkids. The company provides a quarterly newsletter that offers tips that subtly help grandparents carry out their roles.

37 Leading-Edge Baby Boomer Cohort (Born from 1946-54; Came of age during the turmoil of the 60s; Aged 46-54 in 2000): This group remem- bers the assassinations of John and Robert Kennedy and Martin Luther King, Jr. It was the loss of JFK that largely shaped this cohorts values. They became adults during the Vietnam War and watched as the first man walked on the moon. Leading-Edge Boomers were dichotomous: they championed causes (Greenpeace, civil rights, womens rights), yet were simultaneously hedonistic and self- indulgent (pot, free love, sensuality). Marketing Tip : You can reap major rewards by tying your product to health and wellness values. Retailers can joint-venture with hospitals to offer on-site health seminars that have a direct nutritional link to providing health and wellness. Offering tips in newsletters on health and fitness is another way to enhance satisfaction. Financial institutions should consider designing financial instruments (like Christmas Club) that promote saving strictly for health, wellness and fitness purposes.

38 Trailing-Edge Baby Boomer Cohort, or Generation Jones (Born from 1955-1965; Came of age during the first sustained economic downturn since the Depression; Aged 35-45 in 2000): This group witnessed the fall of Vietnam, Watergate and Nixons resignation. The oil embargo, and the raging inflation rate and the more than 30 percent decline in the S&P Index led these individuals to be less optimistic about their financial future than the Leading-Edge Boomers. Marketing tip : Technology is making it easier to telecommute, and more and more Trailing-Edge Boomers are finding ways to work from home. Marketers looking to serve this labor force should offer telecommuters ways to get out of the house. Fitness clubs could offer special packages to attract home-based workers, many of whom have the flexibility to work out during the day and make up the time later in the evening. Restaurants could host telecommuter roundtablesmonthly or bimonthly luncheons that would give home-based workers the opportunity to meet and network with new people.

39 Generation X Cohort (Born from 1965-1976; Came of age during a time of instability and uncertainty; Aged 24-34 in 2000): These are the latchkey children of divorce and have received the most negative publicity. This cohort has delayed marriage and children, and they dont take these commitments lightly. More than other groups, this cohort accepts cultural diversity and puts quality of personal life ahead of work life. Theyre free agents, not team players. Despite a rocky start into adulthood, this group shows a spirit of entrepreneurship unmatched by any other cohort. Marketing Tip : Because this cohort is very street smart when it comes to advertising, oversold sales pitches full of hype will fall flat. They need to be spoken to in a way that says, Youre different. We respect that. Chryslers Neons Hi campaign, which showed the car with the simple message Hi written above it, was very effective with Xers mainly because it dropped all pretensions and talked directly to the customer in a non-threatening way.

40 Generation Y Cohort (Born from 1977-?; Came of age during the Information Revolution; Aged 23 and under in 2000): We call the youngest cohort Generation Y, or Y-Gen, because the advent of the Internet is a defining event for them, and be- cause they will be the engine of growth over the next two decades. While still a work in progress, their core value structure seems to be quite different from that of Gen-X. They are more idealistic and social-cause oriented, without the cynical, Whats in it for me? free- agent mindset of many Xers. Marketing Tip : This is the most diverse cohort of all. One third are from a minority group compared to one fourth of the total population. In marketing to this group, reflect greater diversity in your ads. The Gap and Benetton have been particularly effective in mirroring diversity in their advertising. Even Ralph Laurens wasp-ish lines of clothing have embraced racial and ethnic diversity.



43 In online communities, who are the influencers? Social Network Analysis The Hypernetworked World


45 Profile of Motor Boat Owner Segmentation

46 Reds, Blues, and Tweens 1.Who are political independents in Minnesota; How would you characterize them? 2.Given this description, how could each major political party appeal to them for the next election?

47 If you were going to gather information for segmenting beer drinkers, how would you go about it?

48 Using one or more of the profiling methods discussed, identify several of your target market segments for a business. Describe one in detail in a paragraph and be prepared to present in class. Team activity: Segmentation Task

49 Additional Slides (not used)

50 Clinic Cynic: Generally distrustful of medical profession with poor adherence to treatment. Suspicious of ads and their promises. Fairly involved in wellness. Responds to issues as they occur Avoider: Refrains from using healthcare services. Does not participate in competitive sports or good nutrition. Shows the most healthy apathy. Moderately receptive to ads; dominated by males. Generic: Shops around to save healthcare dollars. Most likely to experiment with alternative healthcare delivery. Active, information seeker, open to advertising. Adherence adversely affected by costs. Family centered: Puts family health above all other health issues. Enjoys role as family health decision maker. Moderate information seeker but attends to ads. Traditionalist: Willing to pay more for quality healthcare. Can be very brand-driven. Easiest to satisfy. High rates of chronic disease but underuse of Rx. Low receptivity to ads. Loyalist: Moderation in all healthcare opinions and behaviors, and average interest in health information, fitness and nutrition. Interested in saving money but will often pay more for care of better quality. Ready User: Least likely to avoid healthcare services; undeterred by expense. Frequent use of Rx. Good nutrition but rarely does heavy exercise. Attends to ads, although somewhat skeptical. Independently Healthy: Active in exercise, sports, and good nutrition. Likely to try different providers and healthcare alternatives. Looks for long-term benefits. Fairly involved in seeking healthcare information. Naturalist: Propensity for nontraditional healthcare. Concerns with nutrition and staying active, but not sports. Skeptical of ads & providers. Contrary opinions, high expectations, hard to satisfy.












62 Segments for Broadband & Wireless


64 Positioning strategies can be based on:


66 Team activity: You as customer – Reflect on CSS graduate students as a market segment. How would you describe yourself as a target group?

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