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Market & Marketing Research

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1 Market & Marketing Research
Lecture 4 Karen Knibbs Marketing Practice – U14210

2 Lecture Objectives By the end of the lecture, you should be able to: Define the differences between market and marketing research Understand the role and use of MR information in marketing decision making Explain the stages of the MR process and elements of a M(K)IS

3 “Not everything that can be counted counts, and not everything that counts can be counted” Albert Einstein

4 Useful statistics?!! Only one person in two million will live to be 116 or older. Artificial Christmas trees have outsold real ones every year since 1991 The hundred billionth crayon made by Crayola was Periwinkle Blue 40% of McDonald's profits come from the sales of Happy Meals. On average, 12 newborns will be given to the wrong parents daily. Most lipstick contains fish scales. American Airlines saved $40,000 in 1987 by eliminating one olive from each salad served in first class. Odds of being killed by a dog are 1 in 700,000 Copyright issue with music?? From 2m29 is ok

5 Definitions of MR I Market Research Society (Sept. 2003) - UK
Market Research Society (Sept. 2003) - UK Market Research is: The application of scientific research methods to obtain objective information on peoples attitudes and behaviour based usually on representative samples of the relevant populations. The process guarantees the confidentiality of personal information in such a way that the data can only be used for research purposes.” 2003 new classic version vs. Older version: the “collection and analysis of data from a sample of individuals or organisations relating to their characteristics, behaviour, attitudes, opinions or possessions. It includes all forms of marketing and social research such as consumer and industrial surveys, psychological investigations, observational and panel studies” Providing feedback to clients where personal data drawn when sampling from a customer database are shown at the interview stage to be inaccurate or out-of-date; 􀂃 Enabling individual complaints or dissatisfactions about customer service raised by respondents during an interview to be fed back to clients at the respondent’s request; 􀂃 Enabling clients to ensure that their customers are not “over-researched”; 􀂃 Providing information back to clients that can be used to update data items other than personal details. A new categorisation of projects has therefore been introduced to help members deal with these issues, and understand where the boundaries need to be drawn between “Classic” research and projects conducted for other purposes. The following chart and accompanying notes describe the main types of data processing categories. These categories re-define the data collection processes used in the market research industry, and clarifies the types and extent of feedback which can or cannot be undertaken or described as confidential market research as covered by the Code of Conduct.

6 Definitions of MR II Kotler & Keller (2006)
Marketing Research involves: “the systematic design, collection, analysis, and reporting of data and findings relevant to a specific marketing situation facing the company.” Brassington & Pettitt (2006) Marketing Research: “links the organisation with the environment… and involves specifying the problem [and opportunities], gathering data, then analysing and interpreting… information to identify, define…, generate, refine, and evaluate marketing actions, monitor marketing performance and improve understanding of marketing as a process…. It implements the research plan and [defines how]… the findings and their implications can be communicated.”

7 Definitions of MR III Chisnall (2004)
“… there was originally a difference between the scope of activities [covered by market and marketing research]… The responsibilities of marketing research extend comprehensively, whereas market research is limited to findings out information about the market for a particular product.” (Even the textbook gets it the wrong way around and contradicts itself! See page 7!) MR has a wider management focus and utility for the whole organisation MR should be: systematic, applied, scientific, pragmatic, objective, impersonal, factual

8 MR definition summary Market Research aims to describe and analyse markets size, structure, growth etc Strictly speaking, Marketing Research is broader than Market Research Marketing Research covers a much broader range of topics customers, products, competitors, channels, suppliers etc

9 The Marketing Research Process
Baines and Chansarkar (2002), as cited in Baines et al, (2008), p143

10 Major Components of Research Design
Baines et al (2008), p153

11 MR Research Dimensions
Continuous versus Ad hoc On-going research vs One-off Qualitative versus Quantitative Qual: Why? (motivations, attitudes, behaviours) Quant: How many, how often? Secondary versus Primary Data that already exists and was collected for another purpose vs Data collected for the specific purpose at hand Qualitative research - the collection of data that are open to interpretation, e.g. peoples’ opinions. Quantitative research - the collection of data that is quantifiable and is not open to the same level of interpretation as qualitative research, e.g. sales figures, market share data, etc.

12 Qualitative vs. Quantitative
Baines et al (2008), p152

13 Primary collection methods
Primary data can be collected in 4 ways: observational research focus-group research survey research experimental research 2 main research instruments used are: questionnaires (open-end and closed-end) mechanical instruments e.g. Eyetracking of screen use on internet/TV Sometimes called field research. Is undertaken or commissioned by an organisation for a specific purpose. The required information does not already exist. It is exactly tailored to a problem. Can be expensive and time consuming. Exploratory research - used when little is known about a particular management problem and to discover the general nature of the questions that might relate to it. Descriptive research focuses on accurately describing the variables being considered. Causal research is used when there is a need to determine the nature of a relationship between two or more variables.

14 Secondary Sources e.g. Internal sales records, MIS, Market plans, databases, customer feedback, experienced employees Government reports / Chambers of Commerce often available on website Prof. bodies / Trade Associations MRS, ESOMAR etc.. MR Agencies: Industry Reports & Country-based reports Mintel, AC Nielsen, NOP/GfK etc. GMID/Euromonitor (available via The internet: sources identified using search engines, blogs and discussion groups. Online marketing area specific articles/reports e.g. promotions: WARC, brandrepublic, CIM Sometimes referred to as desk research. Consists of data and information that is already in existence and which can be accessed by the organisation. Can be cheaper and quicker to access than primary research. May provide an organisation with information that it would not otherwise have time to gather. Secondary data may not always be up to date, be applicable to an organisation, or give the full picture.

15 Marketing Research in practice
Marketing research is concerned with investigating and understanding buyer behaviour Buying behaviour is merely one element of human behaviour; it is complex and influenced by many factors Motivations may be a mixture of business specific, personal, economic, psychological, sociological and demographic variables Behavioural sciences give insights into consumption

16 MR in the Marketing Process
MR information needed at all stages: new product idea generation and product development marketing testing launch implementation brand performance management positioning and repositioning etc

17 Main divisions of MR Product Customer Pricing Sales Promotion

18 Overview of MR divisions
Type Product Customer Pricing Sales Promotion Examples of issues needing investigation through MR Failure, reduced demand, portfolio inequity, lack of USP, poor quality Target segment profile, preference, loyalty, Macro/Micro env. issues, habits, motivation Sensitivity, ceiling, match to other mix elements, competition, incentives needed, vs. perception of quality, Increasing cost of sales, comparative mkt performance, falling sales, force organisation, distribution methods Relevant methods to audience, rising costs, reduced exposure/coverage, effectiveness, integration, Types of info. Demand, sales, market share, competitive advantage Demographics, purchase behaviours, level of influence of int./ext. factors Costs, profit objectives, mkt/competitive prices, trade /channel vs. consumer prices Value, volume, quantity sold, mkt coverage, latent potential, buyer power Media usage / availability, readership/ viewer rates, public image, awareness, perceptual positioning, brand strength

19 Typical Information Needs for marketing planning
Aggregated marketing information in quarterly, annual summaries Aggregated marketing information around product/markets (e.g. sales data) Analytical information for decision models (e.g. SWOT, segmentation analyses) Internally focused marketing information (e.g. sales, costs, marketing performance indicators) Externally focused marketing information (e.g. macro and industry trends) Historical information (e.g. sales, profitability, market trends) Future-oriented marketing information (e.g. environmental scanning information) Quantitative marketing information (e.g. costs, profit, market share) Qualitative marketing information (e.g. buyer behaviour, competitor strategy information) (Ashill and Jobber, 2001). Baines et al (2008), p160

20 Top 10 Marketing Metrics Baines et al (2008), p332

21 Mars (US) who now own Hershey Kraft (US) who now own Cadbury
Useful statistics? II Company Hershey (US) Mars (US) who now own Hershey Cadbury (UK) Kraft (US) who now own Cadbury Share of global confectionery market 4.6% 14.5% 10.2% 4.7% Source: Stanford & Helyar, (2010), Bloomberg News on, citing Euromonitor International statistics. Hershey was the biggest US confectioner until 2008, when McLean, Virginia-based Mars acquired Wrigley for $23 billion. Hershey held 4.6 percent of the global confection market in 2008, down from 4.9 percent the previous year, according to Euromonitor International. Closely held Mars held 14.5 percent. Uxbridge, England-based Cadbury had 10.2 percent and Northfield, Illinois-based Kraft 4.7 percent. Bitter taste: Hershey may lose market share as Cadbury slips away Written by Duane D. Stanford & John Helyar / Bloomberg News Saturday, 23 January :01

22 Example Metrics – UK smoothies market share by brand by value
2001 2003 2005 2006 % change £m % Innocent 3.5 16 11.2 27 47.4 60 83 62 +220 +641 PJ Smoothies 8.6 40 14.1 34 14.3 18 25 19 +64 +77 Own-label 9.0 42 14.9 36 15.8 20 23 17 +66 +54 Others 0.4 2 1.2 3 1.5 +200 +150 Total 21.5 100 41.4 79.0 134.0 +93 +224 Worst depends on definition: others has been consistently lowest sales and percentage, but in 2001, Own-label products held 42% of the market and by 2006, they only held 17%. Which is the worst performing brand? Source: Mintel report - Smoothies market - UK - October (2006)

23 For your assessed presentations in week 6-7:
“Research needs – identify types of primary/secondary information needed to get a fuller understanding of the CSF you’ve chosen and environmental forces connected to it” Are the sources credible, reliable, rigorous? Consider which sources your group will use? Primary: what questions need to be asked of whom and how?

24 MR: key criterion MR information has the purpose of supporting marketing decisions Organisations as they grow in size tend to lose close customer contact New markets entered may be geographically distant and unfamiliar New products require research into their potential appeal to customers Communications need researching - are the right messages being given and received Need to think clearly about the issue to be decided, before spending money on MR Video considers marketing research requirements for various elements of the marketing mix for the brand entering US, Brazil, Venezuela and China markets for example.

25 Marketing Information System (MIS)
Effective system of organising, structuring and managing the storage, access and dissemination of market research data Brassington & Pettitt, 2006

26 Rules for Building a MKIS
Marketing information systems (MKIS) – a system incorporating ad-hoc and continuous market and marketing research surveys, together with secondary data and internal data sources, for the purpose of decision-making by marketers. 1. Get the top management involved 2. Set the objective for the system carefully 3. Figure out what decisions your MkIS will influence 4. Communicate the benefits of the system to users 5. Hire and motivate the right people; 6. Free the MkIS from accounting domination 7. Develop the system on a gradual and systematic basis; 8. Run a new MkIS in parallel with existing procedures 9. Provide results from the system to users quickly after its initiation; 10. Provide information on a fast turnaround basis; 11. Tie the MkIS with existing data collection procedures; 12. Balance the work of the MkIS between development and operations; 13. Feed valid meaningful data into the system not useless information; 14. Design a security system to ensure different groups get different access to the information. Baines et al (2008), p161

27 Why MR is important Traditionally, small firms have close links with their customers Large-scale operations have widened the gap between producers and consumers Modern communities are knowledgeable, experienced and critical Effective penetration of markets requires specialised and sophisticated approaches to identify, assess and satisfy market demands. Effective marketing information and research enables an organisation to make better decisions on the most appropriate market entry and competitive strategies.

28 Summary Marketing research aids decision making by providing management with specific kinds of information which should form the foundation of all strategic decision making and tactical planning Marketing Research is vital in identifying, anticipating and satisfying customer needs profitably Accurate information enables intelligent decision making in pursuit of organisational objectives Information must be continuously collected, monitored, analysed and communicated all around the organisation (via a M(K)IS) All businesses can conduct research, whether in-house or via an external consultancy

29 Further reading suggestions
Baines, Fill & Page (2008) Chapter 4, as per unit handbook. Brassington & Pettitt, (2006). Principles of marketing. Harlow: Pearson. Chisnall (2004), Marketing Research. Maidenhead: McGraw-Hill. Anon, (2003).The data protection act 1998 & Market Research: guidance for MRS members September Market Research Society. Online pdf access March 1st 2010 from: Doyle, P (2000), Value Based Marketing. Chichester: Wiley. Kotler & Keller, (2006). Marketing management. New Jersey: Pearson International. Euromonitor GMID Mintel

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