Presentation on theme: "Who was the strongest contender for the leadership of the Party?"— Presentation transcript:
1 Who was the strongest contender for the leadership of the Party?
2 starter activity One murder is a tragedy, a million is a statistic. What does this quote tell us about Stalin’s personality?
3 Your taskLook at the list on p.135 and choose 6 that would have been advantageous to becoming a leader of the USSR in Be prepared to explain your reasons.
4 Your taskStudy the information about Stalin on p.136 and construct a scales chart highlighting the successes and failures in his career or his character.
5 PlenaryOn balance do you think Stalin’s weaknesses were outweighed by his strengths? Write a short judgement paragraph supporting your answer.
6 Your taskYour teacher will assign you a contender for the party leadership. You will become an expert on the strengths and weaknesses of different contenders for the party leadership. Research your own leader from the list below and then complete a table your teacher gives you.StalinTrotskyZinovievKamenevBukharinRykovTomsky
7 Stalin - strengthsGenuine working-class background (mother a seamstress & washerwoman/ father a cobbler)Hardworking – won a place at seminaryAdmired Lenin’s writings (as a youth)Party activistFundraiser (raiding banks)Reputation for toughness (‘man of steel’)
8 Stalin - strengths Editor of Pravda Opportunist – 1919, used roll as Head of Peasants’ Inspectorate to familiarise himself with workings of govt.Careerist – rapid promotion to Orgburo, Politburo & General Sec.
9 Stalin - weaknesses October Revolution – played little part Antagonised leading Communists, e.g. Sverdlov & TrotskyReputation for ‘industrious mediocrity’, ‘a grey blur which flickered obscurely but left no trace’ (Sukhanov, 1917, died 1940 in a gulag)
10 Trotsky - strengths Rivalled Lenin in intellect & charisma Great oratorPopular with youth & committed CommunistsSuperb organiser (October Revolution, Civil War)Commissar for War – strong military support
11 Trotsky - weaknesses Personal weaknesses - arrogant & aloof Lacked political skills – didn’t foster support among fellow Communist leadersRadical & potentially divisive viewsPoor public perception – seen as outsider & lacking party loyaltyIll health (possibly malaria) – absent for key meetings & events (Lenin’s funeral)
12 Zinoviev - strengths Longstanding Bolshevik – active since 1903 Close to Lenin – arrived in Petrograd with Lenin, April 1917Party Sec. in St Petersburg – able to build powerbaseChairman of CominternMember of PolitburoGood orator
13 Zinoviev - weaknesses Opposed armed uprising in Oct. 1917 Disagreed with Lenin about formation of new govt. – exclusion of other socialistsLacked popular appeal – E.H.Carr, ‘weak, vain & ambitious’Not an intellectual
14 Kamenev - strengths Active member of Bolshevik Party since 1905 Worked closely with Lenin fromMajor contributor to party doctrineParty Sec. in MoscowCommissar for Foreign TradeMember of PolitburoModerateE.H.Carr, ‘Intellectually superior to Stalin & Zinoviev’
15 Kamenev - weaknesses Opposed Lenin’s April Theses Opposed armed uprising of October 1917Wanted socialist coalition govt.E. H. Carr, ‘lacked vision’
16 Bukharin - strengths Appealed to youth Major figure in party before 1917Close to Lenin – called him ‘the golden boy of the Bolshevik Party’, ‘the favourite of the whole Party’Contributor to PravdaMember of PolitburoIntellectual & epicurean
17 Bukharin - weaknesses Led opposition to Treaty of Brest-Litovsk Criticised Lenin & Trotsky over trade union debateLacked political skills
18 Rykov - strengths Working class background Chairman of Vesenkha Chairman of SovnakomStrong speakerSupporter of NEP & opponent of War Communism
19 Rykov - weaknesses Personal weaknesses – alcoholic Too outspoken Lacked political acumen
20 Tomsky - strengthsImportant figure in trade union movement – active member of metalworkers’ unionChairman of Central Council of Trade UnionsWorking-class background
21 Tomsky - weaknesses Lacked senior position within party Opposed Lenin over trade union debate (1920)
22 Your taskIgnore what you might know about who succeeded Lenin after his death. In 1924 who was the most likely candidate. Write a judgement paragraph, using detailed factual evidence to support your answer.
23 starter activityRead the soundbites by the leadership contenders and decide who is speaking.Soundbites
24 What were the main issues in the leadership struggle?
25 Your taskRead p Summarise the key issues surrounding the leadership contest. Use the following headings to help structure your notes:Nature of leadershipNEP and industrialisation‘Permanent Revolution’ versus ‘Socialism in One Country’
26 Nature of leadership Collective leadership or rule by committee Reversal of centralisation process of Civil WarFear of dictatorshipFear of Trotsky (Commander of Red Army, Commissar for War)Need for a moderate candidateTo what extent were Russians justified in thinking there might be a dictatorship?
27 NEP and industrialisation Consensus on need to industrialiseConcern over negative effects of NEP – rich superclass, property dealing, land speculation, gambling, prostitutionArguments over next stage of NEPHigh unemploymentWages out of step with price increasesRe-emergence of food shortagesPeasants beginning to hoard produce again
28 What do we mean by left and right-wing politics What do we mean by left and right-wing politics? How would this apply to the Communist Party? Who would be on the left and who would be on the right?
29 NEP and industrialisation Disagreement over when & how to end NEP experimentTrotsky, Zinoviev & Kamenev (left): end NEP, militarisation of labour, forced requistioning of grainBukharin, Rykov & Tomsky (right): continue NEP, develop consumer economy to encourage manufacturing industry
30 ‘Permanent Revolution’ versus ‘Socialism in One Country’ Hard-line Communism – militarisation of labour, collective farming etcTrotskyNeeded international support -world Communist revolution requiredSocialism in one countryModerate Communism – flexible response to USSR’s needsStalinNationalist appeal
31 Your taskIn the light of your research into the key issues of the leadership contest, which of the candidates do you now think was most likely to succeed? Write a short judgement paragraph explaining your reasons using detailed, factual evidence.
32 Your taskStudy chart 9C on p. 142 and list the ways Stalin built up his power base. Which was the most important?
33 Stalin with his wife Nadya Party SecretaryControlled business of Politburo (policy making body of Communist Party)Controlled agendas & discussionsControlled information sent out to party membersStalin with his wife Nadya
34 Positions in Orgburo & Secretariat Orgburo (Party administration department)Controlled appointments within PartyPlaced supporters in key positionsMade appointments & dispensed favours to regional party secretaries
35 Control of Party Organisation Controlled selection of party delegates to annual congresses where policy decided and Central Committee chosenDeliberately chose delegates hostile to opponents, e.g. Trotsky (1924 congress)Stalin’s position attracted powerful supporters, e.g. Zinoviev & Kamenev
36 Control of Party Membership Purged party of radical elements, e.g. students & soldiersSupervised ‘Lenin Enrolment’ (1924/5) doubling membership to 1 millionNew membership were non-ideological & poorly educated, drawn to Stalin’s nationalist policies
38 Your task starter activity Even today politics is defined by those who are ‘on the right’ and those who are ‘on the left’. What do these terms mean for politicians today? What do you think they meant for politicians in Russia after the Bolshevik Revolution?The House of Commons
39 Two wings of Communist Party ZinovievBukharinKamenev
40 Two wings of Communist Party Left WingIndividuals like Zinoviev, KamenevLiked Trotsky but didn’t want a dictatorshipLiked traditional Bolshevik idealsSuspicious of NEP & return of capitalism‘Permanent Revolution’Right WingIndividuals like BukharinLiked NEPLiked industrialisation & expansion of Russian economySocialism on one country
41 Your taskCreate a timeline showing achievements and set backs. Mark on the timeline any points at which his career might have been stopped when Lenin was alive or during the power struggle.SuccessesFailures
42 Stalin’s six steps to power! 1. Before Lenin’s funeral Stalin tricks Trotsky into not coming. People think Trotsky can’t be bothered to turn up. Stalin, meanwhile, makes a stirring speech praising Lenin and saying he was Lenin’s disciple.Why was it so important to be seen at Lenin’s funeral?
43 What sorts of criticisms do you think Lenin might have made of Stalin? 2. May 1924, just before 13th Party Congress, Central Committee decided not to publish Lenin’s testament, as it contained criticisms of them as well as Stalin & may have overly favoured TrotskyWhat sorts of criticisms do you think Lenin might have made of Stalin?
44 Why was Commissar for War such a powerful post within the Politburo? 3. In 1924, 13th Party Congress, Zinoviev & Kamenev join forces with Stalin to defeat Trotsky. Stalin (party secretary) packs Congress with supporters. Trotsky lost the vote due to his support for ‘ban on factions’ and soon his job as Commissar for the War.Why was Commissar for War such a powerful post within the Politburo?
45 4. 1924, Zinoviev & Kamenev attack Trotsky on his support for Lenin 4.1924, Zinoviev & Kamenev attack Trotsky on his support for Lenin. Trotsky publishes ‘Lessons of October’ challenging their loyalty to 1917 Revolution. Stalin sits back & watches opponents destroy each other.Stalin played a very clever political game. Why didn’t his rivals do the same?
46 5.1926, Stalin turns on Zinoviev & Kamenev, joining forces with Bukharin and the right of the party attracted by nationalist ‘Socialism in One Country’ policy. Stalin supporters pack the Congress and Zinoviev and Kamenev lose vote of no confidence & their jobs in the Politburo. Trotsky, Kamenev & Zinoviev form ‘United Opposition’ movement and in 1927 expelled from party.Stalin played a very clever political game. Why didn’t his rivals do the same?
47 What were the main risks in expelling these men from the Communist Party? , Stalin attacks Bukharin and supporters of the NEP. Proposes rapid industrialisation & militarised labour (views of the left he has smashed!) Bukharin, Rykov & Tomsky out-voted, expelled from Politburo
48 By 1929, his 50th birthday, Stalin was undisputed leader of the USSR. What do you think Stalin’s next steps would be in further securing his position?
51 DiscussionDo you think Trotsky was partly to blame for his own death?
52 Your taskRead the sources and identify reasons they provide as to why Stalin eventually became leader. Use the table below to guide you.Importance of control of partyPoliciesStalin’s personal characteristicsWeaknesses of opponentsLuck
53 Your taskList the reasons why Stalin succeeded to the leadership of the party and the reasons why Trotsky failed.What evidence would you use to support these judgements?Write an essay entitled, ‘Why did Stalin rather than Trotsky emerge as the leader of the USSR in 1929’.