Presentation on theme: "YOUTH IN SPAIN REPORT 2008. Index and Authors: zVOLUME 1: YOUTHS IN A CHANGING SOCIETY: demography and transition to adult life Andreu López Blasco zVOLUME."— Presentation transcript:
Index and Authors: zVOLUME 1: YOUTHS IN A CHANGING SOCIETY: demography and transition to adult life Andreu López Blasco zVOLUME 2: ECONOMY, EMPLOYMENT AND CONSUMPTION: youth transitions within the context of globalisation Almudena Moreno zVOLUME 3: STATE OF HEALTH OF YOUTHS Domingo Comas zVOLUME 4: CULTURE, POLITICS AND SOCIETY María Jesús Funes zVOLUME 5. GENDER INEQUALITY. YOUNG IMMIGRANTS z Sònia Parella YOUTH IN SPAIN REPORT 2008
1. YOUTHS IN A CHANGING SOCIETY z In the last few years, the share of youths in Spain has been gradually falling. In 2000, the population between 15 and 29 years of age made up 22.7% of the total population, in 2004 it made up 21.3% and in 2007 it fell to 19.7% (8,791,377 youths). z One piece of relevant data that illustrates this falling tendency is the difference between the ages that delimit the youth phase: in 2007, the number of young people aged 29 (786,000) nearly doubled the number of those aged 15 (438,000). z Therefore, in the last eight years our country has seen its youth population fall by three percentage points and, according to demographic projections, it is expected to continue falling over the next ten years.
1.YOUTHS IN A CHANGING SOCIETY z 1.1. Leaving the parental home Young people make the decision to leave home at an earlier age (Results of a comparative analysis of 4 Youth Reports: 1996, 2000, 2004 and 2008) z Young people become independent in greater numbers and at an earlier age. Thirty-seven percent do not live in the parental home. In 2004, the share was 32% z Young people live with their partners at an earlier age. Thirty-six percent live in their own place. z The percentage of young people who live in their own place has gradually increased between 1996 and 2008, particularly among women. z Approximately 12% of young people have children (an average of 1.4 children). The higher young peoples academic achievement, the later the age of paternity/maternity (as of 26 years of age). z Women between 25 and 29 years of age with high academic levels and with children are mostly in employment.
1.YOUTHS IN A CHANGING SOCIETY. z 1.2. Youths and the knowledge society The number of young people staying on in the education/training system falls: z 57.36% of young people are no longer studying. z The average age in which young people leave education is 18.1 years and there has been no variation between 2004 and 2008. z Between 18 and 20 years, 28.24% z Between 21 and 24 years, 23.73% z The following are still in education:
1.YOUTHS IN A CHANGING SOCIETY. z 1.3. Joining the labour market z In recent times youth employment has been increasing, particularly among young women. z The percentage of young people with university degrees and in employment (both men and women) has also increased significantly in the last few years, rising from 51% in 2004 to 74% in 2008. z In the last four years the number of stable employment contracts among young workers has risen, from 40% of the youth employment contracts in 2004 to 44% in 2008. z Between 86% and 89% of men between 25 and 29 years of age and between 70% and 85% of women in the same age group who are already in employment are able to mainly or exclusively live off their incomes.
2. ECONOMY, EMPLOYMENT AND CONSUMPTION z2.1. Economic situation of young people z According the last 2006 Youth Eurobarometer (15-24 years), whilst only 5% of young Danes, 6% of young Swedes and 17% of young Finns obtain their money from a relative, 49% of young Greeks, 50% of young Italians and 34% of young Spaniards obtain part of their money from a relative. zIt is also worth highlighting that 48% of young Spanish people affirm that their main source of income is a regular job, a percentage higher than the EU-15 average (44%), according to the above-mentioned source.
2. ECONOMY, EMPLOYMENT AND CONSUMPTION z2.1. Economic situation of young people z In 2008, there has been a setback in the number of fully financially independent young people, falling from 24% in 2004 to 21% in 2008. However, there has been an increase in the percentage of semi-financially independent young people, rising from 21% in 2004 to 29% in 2008. z On another front, the number of young people who are totally financially dependent on the family has also fallen from 38.5% in 2004 to 34.6% in 2008.
2. ECONOMY, EMPLOYMENT AND CONSUMPTION z2.1. Economic situation of young people z In terms of what young people would like to do but cant because of lack of money, it is worth highlighting that 38% of employed young people cannot buy a house, despite having a job, because of insufficient funds. This piece of data reinforces the fact that housing is the material good most highly sought after by young people and, at the same time, the most inaccessible.
2. ECONOMY, EMPLOYMENT AND CONSUMPTION z2.2. Employment situation of young people z According the LFS data, in 2008 (3rd quarter) there were 1,053,300 youths in unemployment. The youth unemployment rate stands at 18.7%, with hardly any variations between women (19.0%) and men (18.5%). z Despite women continuing to face more problems than men in gaining access to the labour market, female employment is gradually gaining ground: whilst the female employment rate was 59% in 2004, it rose to 64.8% in 2008. z The rate of temporary employment contracts continues to be high among young people, in 2008 temporary contracts make up 50.8% of youth employment contracts.
2. ECONOMY, EMPLOYMENT AND CONSUMPTION z2.2. Employment situation of young people z As mentioned in the previous Youth Report, the higher the education achievement, the lower the unemployment rate and the greater the adaptation between the jobs held by young people and their education/training backgrounds. z The data appears to confirm the relationship between unemployment and social origin. The higher the job status of the father, the lower the unemployment rate of his children. z Young peoples average net salary is 964 euros, with marked differences between both sexes. The average net salary of young men is 1,077 euros and 827 euros for young women, entailing a difference of 30% in favour of young men. In short, the average salary of both young men and women has increased from 2004 although the gender gap has also increased in the same period.
3. STATE OF HEALTH OF YOUNG PEOPLE z3.1. Young people and traffic z Most young people affirm that they drive motor vehicles. Two- thirds drive a car and many ride mopeds before coming of age. Young men ride motorbikes and drive cars at an earlier age than young women. z The majority of young people claim that they observe the highway code. The following are some of their affirmations: x I never drive after drinking 3 or 4 alcoholic drinks or taking drugs (87.9%) x When I drive I always fasten my seat belt (83.3%) x I never drive after drinking 1 or 2 wines or similar drinks (71.6%) x I never talk on the mobile whilst driving (69.2%) x I always ensure that my passengers fasten their seat belts (64.4%) x I always give way at zebra crossings (54.3%) xI always stay within the indicated speed limit (30.8%)
z3.2. The evolution of sexual behaviour z Young people feel increasingly less inhibited about talking about intimate aspects of their sexuality. In 2004, 65% agreed to answer questions about their sexuality (two out of three) and in 2008, the share was 74.4% (three out of four). This change highlights that they feel more free to talk about the subject. z The majority of young people have had sexual relations, particularly as of the age of eighteen. In this respect, the differences between young women and young men are disappearing. The average age of the first sexual relation is 16 years and ten months. Since 2004, the average ages of initiation for both sexes have fallen by nearly one year. 3. STATE OF HEALTH OF YOUNG PEOPLE
z3.2. The evolution of sexual behaviour z The use of means of protection to prevent pregnancies and sexually transmitted infections remains stable, although there has been an improvement among young Spanish people and a setback among young immigrants. z This explains the increase in the percentage of unwanted pregnancies (rising from 9.9% in 2004 to 12.1% in 2008). Whilst among Spanish young women the percentage has seen a slight fall to 9.6%, the rate stands at 23.3% for young foreign women. z Extending the right to sexual education to collectives of young immigrants, even if not in schooling, is therefore a priority need. 3. STATE OF HEALTH OF YOUNG PEOPLE
4. CULTURE, POLITICS AND SOCIETY z4.1. Own time for leisure and consumption z This change in television preferences highlights different profiles of young people: y Sports and football. Increases among young men with lower levels of education and among single men. y Series and soap operas. Increases especially among younger women(15 - 19 years), among those with lower levels of education, unemployed women, married women and immigrant women. zAlso worth highlighting is the increase in the percentage of young people who do not read a single book in the entire year, rising from 31% in 2004 to 40% in 2008. zYoung peoples T.V. preferences have changed since 2004. The percentage of those who watch news programmes has fallen slightly (from 8.1% to 5.9%) and the percentage of those who watch films has fallen significantly (from 24.8% to 12.2%), whilst more watch football, series and soap operas.
4. CULTURE, POLITICS AND SOCIETY z4.2. Public time: politics and participation z In 2008 there has been a growing lack of interest in politics among young people. The number of those who showed an interest in political affairs has fallen from 23.2% in 2004 to 18% in 2008; whilst the number of those who showed no interest at all in politics has increased (from 38% to 50%). z More young people show a greater commitment to and identification with solidarity and ethics (not ideological) than towards party politics. z Young people in our country appear supportive and in favour of helping people who live in worse conditions in and outside our country. Thirty-nine percent affirm that they collaborate in support initiatives, even if not as participating members of an organisation.
4. CULTURE, POLITICS AND SOCIETY z4.2. Public time: politics and participation z Young people in Spain lean towards non-institutionalised participation and towards self-managed, non-organised involvement and commitment (more fragmented and intermittent). z In terms of the use of ICT for political participation, the majority of young people tend to be in favour of this technology to facilitate participation and enhance knowledge and follow-up on political initiatives. z What they value the most is the possibility offered by the web of sharing opinions with people with similar interests. This may entail generating debate forums, and creating and consolidating opinions, pointing to areas of deliberative democracy and to well-informed citizens.
4. CULTURE, POLITICS AND SOCIETY z4.3. New information and communication technology (NICT) z In the last four years (SYR 2004) the percentage of young people with a P.C, a games console, internet and a mobile telephone for personal use has increased (nearly generalised). z However, at the same time, the gap between men and women has also increased in favour of men; except in the case of mobile telephones where the previous difference in favour of women has disappeared, with both sexes remaining equal. z The difference between Spanish and foreign nationals in terms of availability of ICT for personal use is significant in favour of young people of Spanish origin with regard to games consoles, P.C.s and Internet connection. However, there are no differences with regard to mobile telephones.
z5.1. Gender inequalities 5.1.1. Gender inequalities in raising children and family relations z The data on family relations shows that two out of three young people admit that household chores are done only or mostly by women. z In global terms, 84% of young women and 72% of young men say that their ideal home would be the family model where both partners work and share the household chores. zBoth young men and young women (42.1% and 46.5%, respectively) manifest that having children is an obstacle in the way of a womans professional life. On the other hand, only 21.2% of young men and 14.1% of young women consider that paternity is an obstacle in the way of a mans professional life. 5. GENDER INEQUALITIES. YOUNG IMMIGRANTS
z5.1. Gender inequalities 5.1.3. Youths, gender and education system. zYoung women invest more time in education than young men and achieve higher education levels: 17.2% of young women have finished higher education, compared with 14.1% of young men. zMore young men than young women drop out of school early: 41.8% of the young women and 48.9% of the young men who are currently not in education dropped out of the education system before the age of eighteen. zAlthough the number of young women in university education exceeds the number of men, degrees in Health Sciences, Social Sciences, Legal Sciences and Humanities continue to be dominated by women, whilst technical degrees continue to be dominated by men. 5. GENDER INEQUALITIES. YOUNG IMMIGRANTS
z5.1. Gender inequalities 5.1.4. Inequalities in the labour market Young peoples relation with economic activity highlights differences between men and women: yThe share of men in employment is 61.1% compared with 53% for women. yUnemployment and inactivity is higher among women: unemployment affects 12.6% of the young women interviewed (compared with 9.6% of the young men) and inactivity affects 34.5% of the young women (compared with 29.2% of the young men). zThe labour market differences between men and women highlight occupational segregation. The data shows a series of professions dominated by women, which coincide with the lowest paid professions (horizontal segregation). 5. GENDER INEQUALITIES. YOUNG IMMIGRANTS
z5.2. Young immigrants in Spain 5.2.1. The families of young immigrants z92% of Spanish young people by birth and 67% of young foreigners do not have children. zThe share of young foreigners living alone is slightly lower than that of young Spaniards. However, this does not mean that they emancipate from the family home in fewer numbers. On the contrary, more than two thirds of all young Spaniards live in the parental home, compared with 28.6% of young foreigners. z In general terms, in the family relations we can see a less permissive attitude from parents of foreign young people than from those of Spanish young people. z In terms of family relations, young foreigners manifest a closer attachment to traditional gender roles. 5. GENDER INEQUALITIES. YOUNG IMMIGRANTS
According to the data of the INJUVE survey for 2008, we can see that the percentage of young people who remain in the education system is nearly 50% for young Spaniards and only 20.7% for young foreigners. z Among the young people currently in the education system, we find a smaller share of foreigners at university: 34.6% of the young Spanish people by birth and only 22.3% of the young foreigners. zThe reasons stopping young people from remaining in the education system are also different according to nationality: 37% of the young people of foreign origin allege economic reasons, either their own or their familys. Migratory processes undoubtedly reduce the possibilities of remaining in the education system. 5. GENDER INEQUALITIES. YOUNG IMMIGRANTS z5.2. Young immigrants in Spain 5.2.2. Young immigrants and the education system
zThe percentage of young foreigners who are active in the labour market is much higher (74.3%) than that of young Spaniards (58.5%). z 34% of young foreigners and 21% of young Spaniards by birth affirm that they did not hold an employment contract in their first job, highlighting a greater share of immigrants in the underground economy. zWhist the majority of the young foreigners in unemployment are looking for any job (85.7%), the percentage falls to 58.3% among young Spaniards in unemployment. 5. GENDER INEQUALITIES. YOUNG IMMIGRANTS z5.2. Young immigrants in Spain 5.2.3. Young immigrants, the labour market and transition to financial independence
zWe can see a greater share of foreign nationals in the lower occupational categories (33.8% of foreign nationals are in unskilled jobs compared with just 12.3% of Spaniards) as well as a lower share in the most skilled groups. zOnly 5.9% of foreigners consider that their current jobs are closely associated with the subjects they studied (compared with 21.5% of Spanish nationals). z41.4% of the foreigners found their jobs through friends/acquaintances (21% of Spaniards). Formal networks are less relevant among foreign nationals. zMore young foreigners than young Spaniards live exclusively off their incomes: 33.1% compared with 19.3%. 5. GENDER INEQUALITIES. YOUNG IMMIGRANTS z5.2. Young immigrants in Spain 5.2.3. Young immigrants, the labour market and transition to financial independence
z Certain more costly leisure practices are more popular among young Spaniards than foreigners. z Among the young women who have had sexual relations, 23% of the foreign nationals have had an unwanted pregnancy compared with 10% of the Spanish nationals. z In the area of religion, 49% of young foreigners describe themselves as Catholic, compared with 64% of young Spaniards. Likewise, the percentage of young people who describe themselves as atheist is 9% among Spaniards and 2.4% among foreigners. 5. GENDER INEQUALITIES. YOUNG IMMIGRANTS z5.2. Young immigrants in Spain 5.2.4. Life experiences and values of young immigrants