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The Landscape of the Gods

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1 The Landscape of the Gods
Ancient Greece

2 Greeks have a seafaring culture, they have an adventurous spirit

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4 Greek Architecture is the foundation of many architectural styles seen around the world today
Temple of Poseidon,c.440 BC Cape Sounion, Greece

5 Module #3 Ancient Greece / Hellenistic Realm

6 First Greek Civilization: Crete
The largest island in the Aegean Sea. Prospered as a high culture for some time before the presence of the Mycenaeans. Influenced the faith and vision of the Mycenaeans before being conquered by them about 1450 BC Used a language called Linear A, to this day undecipherable. Module #3 Ancient Greece / Hellenistic Realm

7 Linear A Linear A script of the Minoans ( BC). The script had about 100 symbols, each representing a syllable. This script included explicit representation of a basic vowel set that was useful for representing vowel sounds at the start or end of words. The related Linear B script came into use about 1450 BC and was used in mainland Mycenaean Greece to represent spoken archaic Mycenaean as well as the indigenous spoken languages (Eteocretan) of the Aegean islands. Linear B script had about 90 symbols representing syllables and also utilized pictographic symbols that clarified ambiguities and indicated contexts. (source) It has been suggested that such a non-Indo-European script made it tricky to represent the spoken proto-Greek language. Linear B script was mostly used in Greek administrative centers for temporary trade and tax records. After the Doric tribes invaded and disrupted the Mycenaean civilization, the use of Linear B was lost. After a "dark age" of about five centuries, Classical Greek speaking people such as the Ionians developed the modern Greek alphabet, incorporating the Phoenician alphabetic script's characters and a complete vowel set. Module #3: Ancient Greece/Hellenistic Realm

8 Module #3 Ancient Greece / Hellenistic Realm
The Myceneans People who likely came from Asia Minor about 1600 BC. Built a number of independent citadel towns and used a form of early Greek named Linear B. Building types included these citadels/ palaces, tombs and treasuries..but no temples. Module #3 Ancient Greece / Hellenistic Realm Module #3: Ancient Greece/Hellenistic Realm

9 Linear B Linear A script of the Minoans ( BC). The script had about 100 symbols, each representing a syllable. This script included explicit representation of a basic vowel set that was useful for representing vowel sounds at the start or end of words. The related Linear B script came into use about 1450 BC and was used in mainland Mycenaean Greece to represent spoken archaic Mycenaean as well as the indigenous spoken languages (Eteocretan) of the Aegean islands. Linear B script had about 90 symbols representing syllables and also utilized pictographic symbols that clarified ambiguities and indicated contexts. (source) It has been suggested that such a non-Indo-European script made it tricky to represent the spoken proto-Greek language. Linear B script was mostly used in Greek administrative centers for temporary trade and tax records. After the Doric tribes invaded and disrupted the Mycenaean civilization, the use of Linear B was lost. After a "dark age" of about five centuries, Classical Greek speaking people such as the Ionians developed the modern Greek alphabet, incorporating the Phoenician alphabetic script's characters and a complete vowel set. Module #3: Ancient Greece/Hellenistic Realm

10 Module #3 Ancient Greece / Hellenistic Realm
The Megaron The term megaron refers to a single-storey structure comprising a rectangular hall with a circular central hearth, and a front porch. This composition becomes the central core of many later palaces and temples. Module #3 Ancient Greece / Hellenistic Realm

11 The Megaron This composition becomes the central core of many later palaces and temples. Module #3: Ancient Greece/Hellenistic Realm

12 http://employees. oneonta
Module #3: Ancient Greece/Hellenistic Realm

13 The Greek Temple Megaron, Mycenae Samos Selinus Temple of Zeus,
Olympia Only priests and selected Individuals could enter. Lavish artistic exterior for public rituals which were celebrated at the altar in front of the temple.

14 The Greeks, the Polis & unification under Alexander the Great
The Greeks were inquisitive with a great desire to perfect the human intellect and there physical power

15 The Greeks, the Polis & unification under Alexander the Great
Greece was not a single country for most of its historical existence but a group of city-states called polis

16 The Greeks, the Polis & unification under Alexander the Great
Call to unite the Greek cities into a confederation led by the Macedonian leader, King Philip II, then his son, Alexander the Great. ( BC) The conquests of Alexander marked the end of the Classical polis

17 Module #3 Ancient Greece / Hellenistic Realm
Learning Outcomes: Module #3 Ancient Greece / Hellenistic Realm Module #3: Ancient Greece/Hellenistic Realm

18 Alexander the Great's Empire

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20 End of the Classical Polis
Former independent city-states became engulfed in a vast political construct which also included alien peoples and races, including old empires such as Persia and Egypt. Former equilibrium lost; new rulers maintain control through brute power. Greek gods eclipsed by Alexander, a mortal deified before his death.

21 Democracy The Greek city was founded on two concepts
The Athenian Statesman Pericles in the Agora The Greek city was founded on two concepts The right of private property Individual freedom

22 The Agora The Akropolis was the domain of the Gods. The Agora was the
domain of the people. The Agora was Athen’s civic centre which included government and commerce. “Architecturally, the story moves from the fortress to the marketplace, from the citadel to the Agora” Nuttgens

23 Agora, Athens Communal Heart of the Greek City
“High ground was the place for aristocracy and low ground the place of democracy” Greek Philosopher

24 Doric Corinthian “What brought unity to Greek architecture was the column and the lintel” Nuttgen Ionic Composite

25 Module #3 Ancient Greece / Hellenistic Realm
The Doric Order Originally (6th c. BC) No bases Drums plain Height 4.5 to 5 times lower diameter Column 8x as high as its capital Module #3 Ancient Greece / Hellenistic Realm

26 The Doric style is rather sturdy and its top (the capital), is plain
The Doric style is rather sturdy and its top (the capital), is plain. This style was used in mainland Greece and the colonies in southern Italy and Sicily.

27 The lintels, or entablatures, spanning the columns are also distinct, the Doric having a row of projecting blocks, or triglyphs, between sculpted metopes. The Doric column has a dish-shaped top, or capital, and no base, while the Ionic has paired volutes at its capital and carved rings at its base. Module #3: Ancient Greece/Hellenistic Realm

28 The Doric Order (con’d)
Ulimately (5th c. BC) Height 5.5 to 5.75 times lower diameter Column 11 to 12 x as high as its capital. Upward taper of column reduced so the lower part of the capital (“echinus”)not as forceful. Fluting introduced. Module #3 Ancient Greece / Hellenistic Realm

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30 Temple of Hera,c.530 BC Paestum, Italy

31 Module #3 Ancient Greece / Hellenistic Realm
The Ionic Order More delicate and ornate (more “feminine” than the Doric) Characteristics Taller & thinner (height 9-10x diameter) Rests on a base Flutes come together at the ends “volutes” at the capital spread to gather loads of architrave Module #3 Ancient Greece / Hellenistic Realm

32 The Ionic style is thinner and more elegant
The Ionic style is thinner and more elegant. Its capital is decorated with a scroll-like design (a volute). This style was found in eastern Greece and the islands.

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34 The Ionic Temple Temple of Artemis, Ephesus
Nothing remains of the Ionian shrines beyond bases and a few columns. Temple of Artemis was one of the seven Wonders of the Ancient World.

35 Corner treatment for the Ionic Order

36 Temple of Athena Nike Goddess of Victory
Callicrates, Temple of Nike Apteros, c BC Acropolis, Athens

37 Module #3: Ancient Greece/Hellenistic Realm

38 Module #3 Ancient Greece / Hellenistic Realm
The Corinthian Order Capital is composed to represent natural foliage (acanthus). This motif first used on tombs. Never developed its own distinctive entablature. Mythological rather than architectonic inspiration. Module #3 Ancient Greece / Hellenistic Realm

39 Module #3: Ancient Greece/Hellenistic Realm

40 The Corinthian style is seldom used in the Greek world, but often seen on Roman temples. Its capital is very elaborate and decorated with acanthus leaves.

41 It was also the latest, not arriving at full development until the middle of the 4th cent. B.C. The oldest known example, however, is found in the temple of Apollo at Bassae (c.420 B.C.).

42 The Greeks made little use of the order; the chief example is the circular structure at Athens known as the choragic monument of Lysicrates ( 335 B.C.). Choragic Monument of Lysicrates

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44 The Composite Order Capital is a combination of the acanthus leaf design and the volute Ten diameter high columns Volutes are larger The Romans created this combination of the Ionic and Corinthian Orders

45 Mixing of the Orders It was at Athens that the orders (Doric and Ionic) were first mixed. This was the case on the Akropolis in the Propylaia and Parthenon, as well as in the inner colonnade of the stoas.

46 Acropolis, Athens, plan

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48 Acropolis, Athens

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51 The layout of the Acropolis places each building at an angle to each other creating a beautiful perspective as you walk the grounds

52 The Greek Architects also manipulated the levels of the ground to create a sense of unity as you moved around the complex

53 Athena’s shining bronze statue in the Acropolis was used by sailors as a beacon as they set course for Piraeus, Athen’s port

54 Propylaea Periclean gateway to the Athenian Acropolis.
Propylaea ('Gateway').  The Temple of Athena Nikê ('Athena Victory')

55 Propylaea Plan The galleries are used as a main gateway for the worshippers. The middle isle is where the sacrificial animals are made to pass

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57 Propylaea http://www.mlahanas.de/Greeks/Temples/Propylaea.html
Section Architect: Mnesikles 437 – 432 BC

58 Propylaea original pentelic marble new pentelic marble Built with white Pentelic marble and accentuated by gray Eleusinian marble or limestone

59 The Propylaea never got to be finished after the Peloponnessian war started in 431 BC

60 Acropolis, Propylaia Reconstruction

61 Module #3 Ancient Greece / Hellenistic Realm
The Erechtheum was used more frequently than the Parthenon in celebrating the rituals for the goddess Athena Erechtheum, Athens BC Module #3 Ancient Greece / Hellenistic Realm Module #3: Ancient Greece/Hellenistic Realm

62 Erechtheum, Athens BC

63 A continuous colonnade was not made possible due to the varying level of the hillside where the Erechtheum is located

64 This accorded the designer to demonstrate an igeneous design for a half-height treatment for the adjacent column of the facade

65 Module #3 Ancient Greece / Hellenistic Realm
The Caryatid Porch Erechtheum, Acropolis c BC Athens Module #3 Ancient Greece / Hellenistic Realm Module #3: Ancient Greece/Hellenistic Realm

66 The Caryatids has been replaced by fibre-glass casts since the original has been eroded through the years by pollution Module #3: Ancient Greece/Hellenistic Realm

67 Module #3 Ancient Greece / Hellenistic Realm
The Parthenon Module #3 Ancient Greece / Hellenistic Realm Module #3: Ancient Greece/Hellenistic Realm

68 The Parthenon Plan

69 Module #3 Ancient Greece / Hellenistic Realm

70 What the Ancients Knew: Golden Ratio

71 1. The strucutre of the Parthenon, the number of pillars is smaller than in the original building.
2. Krepidoma 3. Stylobat 4. Cellawall 5. Internal Pillars 6. Roof Tiles 7. External Pillars (Peristasis) 8. Epistyl 9. Triglyph 10. Metope

72 Greek Temple Partial Section

73 Building the Parthenon: Erecting the Columns
How many marble blocks were used to construct the Parthenon’s internal walls? How many marble drums were used to erect each column of the Parthenon? How much did each marble drum weigh, give the range? How was a marble drum lifted up to its position in the column? How were the drums aligned to its centre? The columns of the Parthenon taper, bulge at the centre and tilt, Why do you think this is so? Nearly 3000 11 4 to 10 tons A nodule was left at the perimeter of the drum so that a rope can be placed and hoisted up into position using a wooden crane A wooden block (impolia, consists of two squares and a cylindrical block) This is done so to counter the optical illusion that is created in tall structures were it is perceived as if it is tilting forward the viewer. This makes it more pleasing to the human eye.

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75 Building the Parthenon: Tilting Columns

76 The Parthenon's Optical Illusions 3:40

77 Greek Refinements

78 “Entasis” Fluting Slight “bulging” of the shaft profile.
Expressed load-bearing function and gave look of vitality. Fluting Helped convey feeling of compression. Distinguished shaft from smooth masonry of the cella. Done after erection. Normally 20 flutes per columns.

79 Analogies with human body… contrasts with Egypt
There is a correspondence between the proportions of a Doric column and the human frame. It is “this humanly inspired reasonableness of built form that distinguishes the Greek temple from the crushing gigantism of Egyptian structures”.

80 Building the Parthenon: At the Summit
How many were employed to construct the Parthenon? 200 men; 50 sculptors, 150 regular stone mason. Hundreds more in the quarrying and transportation of the columns.

81 A representation of a crane in ancient Athens used in constructing the Parthenon

82 Module #3 Ancient Greece / Hellenistic Realm
Restoration work at the Parthenon Module #3 Ancient Greece / Hellenistic Realm

83 The Greek Stoa As distinctive a Greek building type as the temple, but more flexible in form and function.

84 The Greek Stoa The Stoa came to use about the same time as the “full blown” stone temple, 7 c. BC

85 The Greek Stoa Began its life as a freestanding portico in the vicinity of sanctuaries where they provided protection from the weather.

86 The Greek Stoa Later was used for a full range of functions: courts, banquets, education, shopping.

87 The Greek Stoa Gave shape to an open space by defining an “edge”. Most important component of Greek planning.

88 Stoa of Athens Long rectangular buildings open one side to face agora
Internal row of columns, small chambers at back for stores

89 Bouleterion Priene, 200 BC Seats 700; truss roof 14.5m

90 Module #3 Ancient Greece / Hellenistic Realm
Buildings of Assembly Like other Greek cities, Athens grew from kingship to a full system of democracy. The Bouleuterion was where the council of elected representatives met—the “Boule” Module #3 Ancient Greece / Hellenistic Realm

91 Module #3 Ancient Greece / Hellenistic Realm
At the end of the 5th c. BC a new Bouleuterion was raised to the west of the existing one. This new one placed the seating in a semi-circular plan and used the natural slope of the hillside. This was a formula which had been de- veloped in the previous 100 years for outdoor assemblies. Module #3 Ancient Greece / Hellenistic Realm

92 Hypostyle Hall, Pergamon
Probably a merchant’s exchange ca BC. One of few cases of Greek use of clerestory light. Demonstrated limitations of post-and-lintel con-struction in the creation of large unobstructed spaces.

93 http://fvankeur. myweb. uga. edu/classical/plan/corinthian_elements
Module #3: Ancient Greece/Hellenistic Realm

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95 The Greek Amphitheatre
Began as audience seating and a circular floor of beaten earth as a stage area, the “orchestra”. Over time became more elaborate as the literary and technical aspects of the Greek theatre became more developed. Theatre at Epidauros, ca. 300 BC

96 EpidaurusTheater by Night
Module #3: Ancient Greece/Hellenistic Realm

97 Theatre, Epidauros skene orchestra theatron
Seating 17,000; 118 m diameter; 55 semi-circular rows

98 Module #3 Ancient Greece / Hellenistic Realm
Module #3 Ancient Greece / Hellenistic Realm Module #3: Ancient Greece/Hellenistic Realm

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100

101 Seven Wonders of Ancient Greece

102 Athenian Housing (4th-5th c. BC)

103 The last 2 groups turns into stone!
In Greek mythology, Medusa (Greek: Μέδουσα (Médousa), "guardian, protectress"[1]) was a gorgon, a chthonic female monster; gazing directly upon her would turn onlookers to stone. in your answers, The last 2 groups turns into stone! Module #3 Ancient Greece / Hellenistic Realm Module #3: Ancient Greece/Hellenistic Realm

104 What “Order” is this Greek Temple made of?
This is just a test round, nobody turns into stone yet. Module #3: Ancient Greece/Hellenistic Realm

105 What do you think this image represents?
Module #3: Ancient Greece/Hellenistic Realm

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107 http://www. aktuelarkeoloji. com/forum/viewtopic. php
Module #3: Ancient Greece/Hellenistic Realm

108 http://www. aktuelarkeoloji. com/forum/viewtopic. php
Module #3: Ancient Greece/Hellenistic Realm

109 Name the parts of this Order
1 2 3 5 4 6 7 9 8 10 13 12 11 14 Module #3: Ancient Greece/Hellenistic Realm

110 Name the parts of this Order
1 2 4 3 5 6 7 9 8 10 11 13 12 Module #3: Ancient Greece/Hellenistic Realm

111 Module #3: Ancient Greece/Hellenistic Realm

112 Module #3: Ancient Greece/Hellenistic Realm

113 A most curious survival of this is found in the Greek temples (Fig. 8)
A most curious survival of this is found in the Greek temples (Fig. 8). Here this space, with the truss or beam ends showing, became the frieze. The beam ends were duplicated, ornamented, and called triglyphs, while the intervening spaces, or metopes, were filled with slabs carved in relief with skulls, or shields, or trophies of the chase and of war, a practice that is continued by architects in the classic to this day. Module #3: Ancient Greece/Hellenistic Realm

114 Name the parts of this Order
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 13 8 9 10 11 12 Module #3: Ancient Greece/Hellenistic Realm

115 What leaf used as the inspiration for this Order?

116 Name the parts of this Order
Module #3: Ancient Greece/Hellenistic Realm

117 What do we call these columns?
And in what temple can they be found? Module #3: Ancient Greece/Hellenistic Realm

118 Name the parts of this plan of a Greek Temple
1 5 9 4 8 6 7 2 3 10 Module #3: Ancient Greece/Hellenistic Realm

119 Module #3 Ancient Greece / Hellenistic Realm
Sources of photo images: A History of Architecture, Spiro Kostof, Oxford University Press Architecture from Prehistory to Post-Modernism, Marvin Trachtenberg and Isabelle Hyman, Prentice Hall Inc. Kathryn Andrus-Walck, Department of Visual and Performing Arts, the University of Colorado at Colorado Springs. Module #3 Ancient Greece / Hellenistic Realm


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