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Sport in the Twentieth Century

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1 Sport in the Twentieth Century
Chapter 13 Sport in the Twentieth Century Mechikoff /Estes, A History and Philosophy of Sport and Physical Education, Fourth Edition © 2006, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

2 Sport in America Model for sport in place by late 1800s
Movement to the cities supported the push for sport and recreational activities Technological advancements were used in the sport world Telegraphs, radio, and television contributed in the spread of sport information Sports journalism developed

3 Sport and Playful Activities
Became increasingly accepted because Americans felt more Comfortable with the body Became free of religious restrictions Became related to the physical aspect of humans

4 Attitude Towards Sport
Many different views Generalizations difficult to make Sport is practiced in rural and urban areas Sport exists in premodern and modern form Sometimes viewed as exercise of body only Also viewed as means of achieving integration of mind and body Changes in attitude occurred and are illustrated by trends in sports

5 College Football Evolved into the most popular sport on American college campuses “King of Intercollegiate Athletics” Coaches became national heroes Bowl games began with Rose Bowl in 1902 Trophies and awards were granted Heisman Trophy

6 Intercollegiate football, 1902
Football game, 1902 Image source: Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division, Washington, D.C. Intercollegiate football, 1902

7 College Football Integration of football programs began in the late 1800s 1892: first game between two black colleges Safety of the game was in question 1905: 18 football players were killed Pres. Roosevelt called meeting to reform the game Agreement to keep football Formed a governing agency for football Recruiting violations were also a problem

8 College Football 1910: governing agency was renamed the NCAA
Held an educational role Adopted minimum eligibility rules 38 charter members who developed the forward pass rule

9 Professional Football
Played as early as 1894 Players were blue-collar workers and former college football players Struggled to gain legitimacy 1920: the American Professional Football Association (APFA) was formed Jim Thorpe was the first president Teams were first of modern professional football

10 Professional Football
APFA name changes to National Football League (NFL) Early struggle for respect and popularity Key players and advertising help build fan base 1946: Color barrier broken when Kenny Washington and Woody Strode join the Los Angeles Rams

11 Professional Football
1960: American Football League (AFL) is formed 1966: First Super Bowl 1970: Merger of AFL and NFL

12 Baseball Hugely popular at all levels (professional, community, school) Reflected societal trends: whites played in the Major League and African Americans played in the Negro League Jackie Robinson joined the Brooklyn Dodgers in 1947, the first black to play in the Major League Eddie Kelp, a white man, briefly played in the Negro League Both men were the object of racial taunting

13 Baseball First Negro League World Series, 1924
First Negro League World Series, opening game, October 11, 1924, Kansas City; Group portrait of players from the Kansas City Monarchs and Hilldale Daisies baseball teams Image source: Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division, Washington, D.C. First Negro League World Series, 1924

14 Basketball 1891: Dr. James Naismith invented basketball at Springfield College (originally the YMCA) Game was an instant success YMCA became the “hotbed” of basketball High school and colleges adopted the sport Popular with both men and women Colleges, YMCA, and the AAU all had different sets of rules

15 Basketball 1915: Joint Committee developed
Representatives from the NCAA, AAU, and YMCA Agreement on uniform rules Game caught on quickly around turn of 20th century 1896: first basketball leagues formed in Denver 1901: Eastern colleges formed Intercollegiate League American military introduced the game around the world during World War I

16 New York University, winner of AAAU basketball championship, ca. 1920
New York University Team, Winner of AAAU Basketball Championship, ca. 1920 Image source: Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division, Washington, D.C. New York University, winner of AAAU basketball championship, ca. 1920

17 Boxing Outlawed in many states in early 20th century
Popular sport for betting Matches often took place in remote locations to avoid bans on boxing and gambling

18 Boxing: Jack Johnson (1879-1946)
First African American heavyweight champion ( ) Often barred from fighting champion white boxers Flouted social conventions of the time Authorities misapplied the Mann Act; Johnson convicted Johnson lived abroad but eventually returned to the U.S. and served his sentence

19 Boxing Jack Johnson (left); Jack Dempsey (right)
Jack Johnson in the ring with Marty Cutler (left); Jack Dempsey, 1921 (right) Images source: Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division, Washington, D.C. Jack Johnson (left); Jack Dempsey (right)

20 Volleyball 1895: William Morgan developed the game Massachusetts YMCA
Originally called “minonette” and played over nine innings July 1896: first published account of game Game was promoted by the YMCA Also adopted by the American military

21 Women and Sport Attitudes reflect cultural biases about play and sport
Sport builds manliness—so not for women Dance became integral component of physical education programs Some women’s colleges did provide athletic programs Female physical educators discouraged competitive events

22 Women and Sport Key early figures Mildred “Babe” Didrikson Zaharias
Blanche Trilling Mabel Lee Agnes Wayman Mildred “Babe” Didrikson Zaharias Success in 1932 Olympics and as professional golfer Undermined idea that women were unsuited for athletic competition

23 Women and Sport 1957: Formation of organization to administer women’s athletics, eventually called Association for Intercollegiate Athletics for Women (AIAW) 1972: Title IX All teams in high schools and colleges are open to both sexes Equal opportunities and financial support must be provided : NCAA takes control of women’s intercollegiate sports, AIAW disbands

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