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Lifestyle Choices and Hypokinetic Conditions

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1 Lifestyle Choices and Hypokinetic Conditions
Chapter 3 Lifestyle Choices and Hypokinetic Conditions

2 Objectives Be able to discuss the major hypokinetic diseases afflicting Americans List the 4 major cardiac risk factors and the 3 unalterable cardiac risk factors Know the warning signs for a heart attack Be able to discuss 3 ways to combat obesity Be able to discuss ways to prevent osteoporosis and achieve a high peak bone mass Explain 3 ways to prevent low pack pain List and discuss 4 lifestyle choices that prevent hypokinetic conditions

3 Introduction There has been a shift from infectious diseases to diseases associated with too little movement The CDC has determined that lifestyle is the single largest factor affecting longevity of life Our daily decisions determine the longevity and quality of our life Find an activity that is enjoyable, set goals, and enlist the help and support of friends and family

4 Hypokinetic Conditions
Conditions that result from too little activity Increasing weekly caloric expenditure reduces overall health risk Caloric expenditure from both lifestyle activity and planned exercise can have a significant impact on health 500-1,000 calories by 22% 1,000 – 2,000 calories even more 2,000 – 3,500 by 35-54% Beyond 3,500 – higher risk of injuries and burnout

5 Types of Hypokinetic Conditions
Cardiovascular Disease Obesity Cancer Diabetes Low Back Pain Osteoporosis

6 Childhood Obesity Childhood obesity is a national epidemic
America’s children are more sedentary and at higher risk for developing hypokinetic diseases than their parents or grandparents It is imperative to promote improved health through physical activity

7 What is CVD? The Cardiovascular System
The main function of the CVS is to deliver oxygen and nutrients to tissues and organs. The major components of the CVS include: Heart Blood vessels Blood

8 CVD cont… “catch-all” phrase that includes several disease processes
Heart muscle may become damaged or lose its ability to contract effectively The vessels supplying the heart with oxygen may become blocked or damaged Vessels outside the heart become damaged and decrease the ability to provide oxygen to other parts of the body

9 Types of Cardiovascular Disease
Arteriosclerosis Atherosclerosis Peripheral Vascular Disease Hypertension Heart Attack Stroke

10 Risk factors for CVD Cigarette Smoking Hypertension Cholesterol
Physical Inactivity Obesity Fat distribution Diabetes Triglycerides Stress Age Gender Heredity Certain populations

11 Preventing CVD The following risk factors can be altered: Diet
Drug use Smoking history Cholesterol levels Obesity High blood pressure Physical inactivity

12 The Effects of Exercise on CVD
Improved CV fitness and health LBM Strength & Muscular endurance Stronger heart muscle  Heart Rate oxygen to the brain  LDL-C  HDL-C Delayed development of atherosclerosis  work capacity Improved peripheral circulation Improved coronary circulation  risk of heart attack  risk of stroke  risk of hypertension Greater chance of surviving a heart attack Greater oxygen carrying capacity of blood

13 Arteriosclerosis Thickening & hardening of the arteries
Hardened, non-elastic arteries do not expand with blood flow Can cause high blood pressure High blood pressure + arteriosclerosis = aneurysm Aneurysm in vessel to brain = stroke

14 Atherosclerosis Long-term build up of fatty deposits on the interior walls of the arteries (also known as plaque) Arteries become narrowed, and blood flow through them is decreased May create a partial or total blockage, causing increased blood pressure, heart attack, or stroke Responsible for 85% of CV deaths

15 Peripheral Vascular Disease
Disease of the peripheral vessels Restriction in blood flow usually caused by arteriosclerosis and atherosclerosis in the vessels of the extremities Common signs: leg pain, cramping, numbness, tingling, coldness, and loss of hair to affected limbs

16 Hypertension High blood pressure “Silent Killer”
Normal blood pressure 120/80 Hypertension 140/90 or above

17 Heart Attack Myocardial infarction
Artery to the heart becomes blocked or flow is decreased Can be small or massive Some studies show that exercise increases collateral circulation

18 Heart Attack cont… Symptoms & Warning Signs chest discomfort
discomfort in other areas of the upper body shortness of breath other signs

19 Damaged Heart Muscle

20 Stroke “Brain attack” Occurs when vessels supplying blood to the brain become damaged Types: Thrombosis Embolism Cerebral Hemorrhage Compression


22 Stroke cont… Symptoms & Warning Signs:
Sudden numbness or weakness of the face, arm or leg, especially on one side of the body Sudden confusion, trouble speaking or understanding Sudden trouble seeing in one or both eyes Sudden trouble walking, dizziness, loss of balance or coordination Sudden, severe headache with no known cure

23 Risk Factors for Cardiovascular Disease
Cigarette Smoking Hypertension Cholesterol Physical Inactivity

24 Uncontrollable Risk Factors
Age Gender Heredity

25 Other Contributing Factors
Obesity Diabetes Stress Triglycerides

26 Risk factors cont… Additional risk factors for hypertension:
Certain ethnic groups Salt Additional risk factor for strokes and heart attacks in females: Smoking and oral contraceptives increase risk in women What are your risk factors for CVD????

27 Obesity 20% or more over ideal body weight
Body fat greater than 25% males, and 32% for females BMI of 30 or more Obesity is associated with an overall premature death rate Increased risk for diabetes, cardiovascular disease, colon, and breast cancer

28 Who is Obese? 97 million people are overweight 30 million are obese
Between 1960 and 1994 the prevalence of adult obesity increased from 13% to 22.5% Twice as many children were overweight in the 1990s as in the 1960s Fat distribution is related to health risks (Apples vs. Pears)

29 Causes of Obesity Caloric intake exceeds caloric expenditure
Genetic predisposition Glandular disorders

30 Physiological Response to Obesity
More blood vessels are needed to circulate blood Heart must pump harder, which increases blood pressure Extra weight can be tough on the musculoskeletal joints, causing various problems Increases most cancer risks “Yo-yo” dieting arthritis, gout, bone & joint diseases, varicose veins, gall bladder disease, as well as complications during pregnancy

31 Preventing Obesity Activity is the optimal way to manage current weight or successfully lose weight Planned exercise as well as increased lifestyle activity Maintain a healthy diet throughout your life

32 Activity & Obesity 2-3% success rate for people who lose weight to actually maintain weight loss Those who are successful are usually committed to a regular exercise routine Weight gain occurs with inactivity Even a small weight loss helps increase the basal metabolic rate

33 Cancer Characterized by the uncontrollable growth and spread of abnormal cells 1 in 3 Americans will get cancer in their lifetime 80-90% can be avoided by lifestyle changes (diet, exercise, smoking, sun exposure) Physical fit individuals have an a decreased risk of reproductive organ cancers, colon, and rectal cancer

34 Diabetes Inadequate insulin production by the pancreas or inadequate utilization of insulin by the cells Type II diabetes is associated with obesity and adult onset Obese children and teenagers may be at risk Prevention includes lifestyle changes

35 Exercise & Diabetes Exercise controls body fat
Exercise improves insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance

36 Low Back Pain Chronic discomfort due to an injury but most often due to a lack of physical fitness 8/10 Americans will suffer from back related pain Major cause of disability in ages in the United States Causes include improper lifting, faulty work habits, heredity and disease

37 Low Back Pain cont… Prevention includes: staying active
using common sense when lifting heavy objects managing weight decreasing occupational risks using proper posture while sitting, standing, or walking

38 Exercise & Low Back Pain
Helps enhance posture, balance, strength, and flexibility Strengthen abdominal muscles Stretch hip flexors and hamstrings Reduce excess weight around the torso and abdominal region

39 Osteoporosis Characterized by low bone density and structural deterioration of bone tissue Can lead to increase bone fragility and increased risk of fractures to the skeletal structure “Silent Disease”

40 Osteoporosis cont… Childhood and teenage years
Peak bone mass is attained at approximately age 30 Adequate calcium intake and regular physical activity are critical for young adults

41 Risk factors - Osteoporosis
Mostly women, but can affect males as well Risk increases with age Small, thin boned women Genetic factor Postmenopausal Caucasian and Asian women Poor diets – lack of calcium and Vitamin D Inactive lifestyles Individuals with eating disorders

42 Preventing Osteoporosis
Regular physical activity Engage in daily weight bearing aerobic activity Weight training (10-12 reps, 2 sets, 2 X/week) Calcium Vitamin D Limit caffeine and phosphate containing soda Avoid high protein diets Estrogen replacement therapy Calcium: (green leafy veggies and dairy) Vitamin D: (a balanced diet and sunlight)

43 Exercise and Osteoporosis
The stress caused by working against gravity during activity strengthens and causes bones to become more dense Bones deteriorate just as muscles deteriorate without the stimulation of movement

44 Mental Health Disorders
Occasional or chronic dysfunctional feelings and diminished sense of self-worth which can limit full participation in life Types of mental health disorders: schizophrenia, depression, bi-polar disorder, general anxiety disorders and panic disorders 1 out of 2 Americans will suffer from some sort of mental health disorder at some point in their lifetime

45 Exercise and Mental Health Disorders
Exercise has been shown to be effective in treating mild to moderate depression Strength training and aerobic exercise are equally effective in relieving depression, can reduce anxiety in patients with panic disorder, and can be an important treatment for people with schizophrenia

46 Exercise and Aging Aging is a natural and inevitable process
Quality of life may be compromised by habits and lifestyle choices made earlier in life

47 Exercise and Aging cont…
Chronological age is our true age in years Biological age can be younger than chronological age with good nutrition, adequate rest on a regular basis, stress management techniques, and consistent exercise What will be your biological age 10, 20, or 30 years from now?

48 Prevention of Hypokinetic Conditions
Lifestyle activity is easier to incorporate into a hectic schedule Planned exercise can be more of a challenge

49 Planning your Activity Program
Establish why you want to exercise Write down reasonable long-term goals Write down short-term goals that support the long term goals Record the behaviors that need to change in order to support the goals Write in a log: feelings, food, activity, and goal progress Develop a weekly plan for the activity that supports your goals Tell your friends and family about your goals and ask for their support Reward yourself when any goals are met When goals are not met, check your log. What can you change to more effectively support your goals? Periodically re-evaluate goals.

50 Summary CVD, obesity, cancer, diabetes, low back pain, osteoporosis are major hypokinetic diseases Cigarette smoking, hypertension, high cholesterol, and inactivity are major cardiac risk factors, while age, gender, and genetics are unalterable risk factors The warning signs of a heart attack include chest discomfort, discomfort in other areas of the upper body, and shortness of breath The keys to combating obesity include exercise, a healthy diet, and avoiding excess weight gain

51 Summary cont… To achieve a high peak bone mass and prevent osteoporosis, incorporate weight bearing physical activity, maintain a diet high in calcium and vitamin D, avoid high protein diets, and limit caffeine and phosphate containing soda. To prevent low back pain, stay active, manage weight, use common sense when lifting heavy objects, decrease occupational risks, and incorporate proper posture while sitting, standing, and walking. The following are 4 lifestyle choices that prevent hypokinetic conditions good nutrition, adequate rest, stress management, and exercise.

52 Local Contacts and Websites
Texas A&M Health Center American College of Sports Medicine American Heart Association

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