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Realism and Impressionism

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1 Realism and Impressionism

2 List three nineteenth-century phenomena that the authors believe contributed to the greater consciousness of modernity, “the state of being modern.” Extensive technological changes. Increased exposure to other cultures. The rapidity of these changes. The effect the “Modernist” consciousness had on artists included changes leading to an acute sense of the world’s lack of fixity or permanence. Modern artists were and are aware of the relationship between their art and art of previous eras. Modernism implies certain concerns about art and aesthetics that are internal to art production, regardless of whether or not the artist is producing scenes from contemporary social life.


4 Realism

5 Formal qualities distinguish his work included a palette of dirty browns and grays with sparing use of bright color. He depicted common laborers and workers. Although hailed as the father of Realism, Courbet did not like to be called a Realist. What we can gather from his statements, his goals as a painter were to create a living art based on the customs of people and appearances of real and existing objects of his time. He did not believe in painting abstract concepts such as angels. Gustave Courbet The Stone Breakers 1849 oil on canvas 5 ft. 3 in. x 8 ft. 6 in.

6 The work differs from contemporary Romantic work in that the heroic, the sublime, and the dramatic are not found in his work, only the mundane realities of daily life and death. It captures the ordinary rhythms of contemporary life. Two features of Courbet’s Burial at Ornans that horrified contemporary critics: The subject’s ordinariness mixed with the monumental scale of a traditional history painting. The starkly antiheroic composition. Gustave Courbet Burial at Ornans 1849 oil on canvas 10 ft. x 22 ft.


8 Subject matter in which Millet specialized was the people and occupations of the everyday world, especially peasants. His work viewed by members of the French Middle class with disdain and suspicion. The middle class regarded the peasantry as similar to the dangerous, newly defined working class, which was becoming socialist. His sympathetic depiction seemed to many to be a political manifesto. Jean-François Millet The Gleaners 1857 oil on canvas 2 ft. 9 in. x 3 ft. 8 in.

9 Although Daumier did many fine paintings, he is primarily known for his work in the medium of lithographs. Honoré Daumier Rue Transnonian 1834 lithograph 12 x 17 1/2 in.

10 The type of subject matter with which he was primarily concerned was social criticism and political protest. Honoré Daumier Nadar Raising Photography to the Height of Art 1862 lithograph 10 3/4 x 8 3/4 in.

11 The Third-Class Carriage
Honoré Daumier The Third-Class Carriage ca oil on canvas 2 ft. 1 3/4 in. x 2 ft. 11 1/2 in.

12 The artist's major concern when he painted the work was that he was using art to call attention to art, synthesizing the history of painting with references to many painting genres and showing form as a function of paint and light rather than as a matter of line. He was moving away from illusion and toward an open acknowledgement of painting’s properties, such as the flatness of the painting surface. Aspects of the picture that shocked the public was the nude figure had a distressingly unidealized figure type and also seems disturbingly unabashed and at ease, looking directly at the viewer without shame or flirtatiousness. Rather than portraying a traditional pastoral scene, it seemed to the public to represent the promiscuous in a Parisian park. Le Déjeuner sur l'herbe, the painting that caused such a scandal at the Salon des Refusés of 1863, was painted by Édouard Manet.. Édouard Manet Le Déjuner sur l’Herbe 1863 oil on canvas 7 ft. x 8 ft. 10 in.

13 Technical features that contributed to Manet’s perceived “audacity” are that his brush strokes are rougher and the shifts in tonality are more abrupt than those found in traditional academic painting. Édouard Manet The Fifer 1866 oil on canvas 160 x 97 cm

14 The public thought that Olympia depicted a shameless, defiant prostitute. The presence of the black maid referred to racial divisions and seemed to evoke depravity, inferiority, and animalistic sexuality. Édouard Manet Olympia 1863 oil on canvas 4 ft. 3 in. x 6 ft. 3 in.

15 Classical figures painted by Bouguereau differ from those painted by Manet in that Bouguereau depicted classic mythological subjects with a polished illusionism. The nymphs are ideally beautiful and playful. The style is naturalistic but not Realist. Édouard Manet Olympia 1863 Adolphe-William Bouguereau Nymphs and Satyr 1873

16 Similarities: Differences:
Olympia reclines across the middle of the canvas from left to right, looking at the viewer, the Venus of Urbino also lays in a similar manor but further down the canvas, allowing for other aspects of the composition, like the two figures in the background to gain enough room for perspective and stability. Other similarities include the fact that both have servants, an animal at the end of the bed, jewellery, possession of flowers (although in different places), the bed and the pose. Differences: Prominently the colour schemes are quite opposite to one and other, both reflective of their time and period but also subject matter. Titian paints in romantic warm flattering pinks and peaches, almost dream like, suiting the idea of virginity and romance. Manet paints in cooler more austere and blunt blues, greens and whites, fitting the subject of her profession and reflecting her cold, matter of fact expression. Titian Venus of Urbino 1538 Édouard Manet Olympia 1863

17 The style American Winslow Homer painted was considered to be Realism.
The Veteran in a New Field 1865 oil on canvas 2 ft. 1/8 in. x 3 ft. 2 1/8 in.

18 The American public found Thomas Eakins's Gross Clinic brutally Realistic and hard to look at due to its graphic depiction of surgery. Thomas Eakins The Gross Clinic 1875 oil on canvas 8 ft. x 6 ft. 6 in.

19 Eadweard Muybridge was most famous for Photographing the motion of a horse with all four feet off the ground, which started his investigations into his photographic studies of the successive stages of human and animal motion. Eadweard Muybridge Horse Galloping 1878 collotype print

20 Walking and Throwing a Handkerchief
Eadweard Muybridge Walking and Throwing a Handkerchief gelatin-silver print

21 Walking and Throwing a Handkerchief
Eadweard Muybridge Walking and Throwing a Handkerchief gelatin-silver print

22 Etienne Jules Marey Chronophotograph 1883 gelatin-silver print

23 Sarget’s painting technique differed from that of Eakins in that it was a looser, more dashing Realist style than that of Eakins’ carefully rendered details. He was known for a fluent brushing of paint in thin layers and an effortless achievement of quick and lively illusion. John Singer Sargent The Daughters of Edward Darley Boit 1882 oil on canvas 7 ft. 3 3/8 in. x 7 ft. 3 5/8 in.

24 Three characteristics of his style:
The African-American artist Henry Ossawa Tanner studied with Eakins before moving to Paris. Three characteristics of his style: Depicts the dignity of the lives of ordinary people. Careful study from nature. Expressive lighting and loose strokes of color mixed with great detail. Henry Ossawa Tanner The Thankful Poor 1894 oil on canvas 2 ft. 11 1/2 in. x 3 ft. 8 1/4 in.

25 Three Woman in a Village Church
Wilhelm Leibl Three Woman in a Village Church oil on canvas approximately 2 ft. 5 in. x 1 ft. 1 in.

26 Academic Art Art sanctioned by the academies, established art schools that provided instruction for art students and sponsored exhibitions. They exerted great control over the art scene. The role the salons played in the artistic life of nineteenth-century France was that they often exhibited works rejected by the academies.

27 Bouguereau created the figure of his mythical beast-man by combining Realist depictions of a goat's hind quarters and horns and a horse's ears and tail with the upper body of a man. Adolphe-William Bouguereau Nymphs and Satyr 1873 oil on canvas 8 ft. 6 in. high

28 The gladiator looks toward the vestal virgins in the stands as they all feverishly point their thumbs down, pollice verso, indicating the death of the loser. But the final decision is left to the emperor, who sits in his viewing box, slowly eating from his bowl of figs. Jean-Léon Gérôme Police Verso 1872 oil on canvas x cm


30 The earlier style that influenced Rosa Bonheur's Horse Fair was Naturalism: Realism without the social and political subjects. Rosa Bonheur The Horse Fair oil on canvas 8 ft. 1/4 in. x 16 ft. 7 1/2 in.

31 Impressionism Four painters considered to be Impressionists.
Claude Monet Gustave Caillebotte Camille Pissarro Pierre-Auguste Renoir Four characteristics of Impressionism. Focused on a single moment. Incorporated the qualities of sketches—abbreviation, speed, and spontaneity. Clearly evident brush strokes. Acknowledged the paint and the canvas surface.

32 Claude Monet Impression: Sunrise
1872 oil on canvas 1 ft. 7 1/2 in. x 2 ft. 1 1/2 in.

33 Cowherd on the Route du Chou, Pontoise
Camille Pissarro Cowherd on the Route du Chou, Pontoise 1874 oil on canvas 21 5/8 x 36 1/4 in.

34 Snow Effect at Eragny, Road to Gisors
Camille Pissarro Snow Effect at Eragny, Road to Gisors 1885 oil on canvas 33 x 41cm

35 Gauguin's glowing colours convey the exotic character of the Martinique landscape. His brushstrokes are visible, but fuse into flatter areas of colour. Paul Gauguin Martinique Landscape 1887 oil on canvas

36 The amazing “reality” of photographs helped to supplement working directly from a model. Parallels between photography and Impressionism include the cutting off figures at the frame’s edge and the flattening spatial effect of high viewpoints. Hippolyte Jouvin The Point Neuf, Paris ca albumen stereograph

37 Hippolyte Jouvin The Point Neuf, Paris
ca albumen stereograph

38 Monet’s Saint-LazareTrain Station reflect the new urban Paris
In subject matter; The expanding railway network was bringing more people into Paris and tall buildings were becoming a major part of Paris. In style; The agitated paint application contributes to the sense of energy and conveys the atmosphere of urban life. Claude Monet Saint-Lazare Train Station 1877 oil on canvas 2 ft. 5 3/4 in. x 3 ft. 5 in.

39 Caillebott’s Paris: A Rainy Day reflects this wide open space
Haussmannization refers to Baron Georges Haussmann, who was responsible for overseeing the rebuilding of Paris. By demolishing ancient structures, he created wide-open avenues more accessible to the flow of pedestrian and vehicular traffic. Caillebott’s Paris: A Rainy Day reflects this wide open space Gustave Caillebotte Paris: A Rainy Day 1877 oil on canvas approximately 6 ft. 9 in. x 9 ft. 9 in.

40 After a chronic eye infection limited the amount of time Camille Pissarro could spend outdoors, he began a series of views of Paris seen from hotel windows. Hoping to show the beauty of the bustling city, he painted this view down the Avenue de L'opera and other vistas at different hours and seasons, and under varying weather conditions. Camille Pissarro La Place du Théâtre Français 1898 oil on canvas 2 ft. 4 1/2 in. x 3 ft. 1/2 in.

41 The Great Wave off Kanagawa
Katsushika Hokusai The Great Wave off Kanagawa 1857 color woodblock print 9 7/8 x 14 3/4 in.

42 Ando Hiroshige Plum Garden, Kameido
1857 color woodblock print 36 x 24 cm

43 Renoir prefered to paint leisure activities.
Pierre-Auguste Renoir Le Moulin de la Galette 1876 oil on canvas 4 ft. 3 in. x 5 ft. 8 in.


45 One logical discrepancy used by Manet in A Bar at the Follies-Bergere to call attention to the pictorial structure of the painting itself was the mirror creates confusion of spatial relationships such as the horizontality of the bar and the displaced reflection of the barmaid. Édouard Manet A Bar at the Folies-Bergère 1882 oil on canvas 3 ft. 1 in. x 4 ft. 3 in.

46 Japonisme. The beauty and exoticism of the Japanese aesthetic, as understood by Westerners and as seen in Japanese kimonos, fans, lacquer, etc. Edgar Degas Ballet Rehearsal 1874 oil on canvas 1 ft. 11 in. x 2 ft. 9 in.

47 The care with which Degas observed his model is reflected not only in the sculpture itself, but also in the unusual number of surviving sketches of the model in charcoal and pastel, as well as in a preparatory sculptural study of the figure in the nude. Edgar Degas Little Fourteen-Year-Old Dancer bronze, paint, tulle, satin, wood

48 Arbitrarily cut-off figures Patterns of light splotches
Ways in which Degas’ work shows the influence of photography and of Japanese prints; Arbitrarily cut-off figures Patterns of light splotches Spatial projections as influenced by Japanese wood-block prints. Edgar Degas L’absinthe 1876 oil on canvas 36 1/4 x 26 3/4 in.

49 Stylistic features Berthe Morisot shared with other Impressionists;
The mood of relaxed leisure and the stylistic elements of open brushwork and plein air (outdoor) lighting. Berthe Morisot Villa at the Seaside 1874 oil on canvas 1 ft. 7 3/4 in. x 2 ft. 1/8 in.

50 List two devices he used to capture the vibrating quality of light:
Short, choppy brush strokes. The juxtaposition of colors on a canvas fuses from a distance and produces a more intense hue than the same colors mixed on the palette. The Impressionists that most systematically investigated the roles of light and color in representing atmosphere was Monet. Claude Monet Rouen Cathedral: The Portal (in Sun) 1894 oil on canvas 3 ft. 3 1/4 in. x 2 ft. 1 7/8 in.

51 In 1892–93, Monet painted more than thirty views of Rouen Cathedral
In 1892–93, Monet painted more than thirty views of Rouen Cathedral. Moving from one canvas to another as the day progressed, Monet painted the facade with highly textured brushstrokes that both convey the aspect of sculpted stone and make the atmosphere and light palpable Claude Monet Rouen Cathedral: The Portal oil on canvas each approximately 3 ft. 3 1/4 in. x 2 ft. 1 7/8 in.

52 Edgar Degas The Tub 1886 pastel 1 ft. 11 1/2 in. x 2 ft. 8 3/8 in.

53 Little Girl in a Blue Armchair
Mary Cassatt Little Girl in a Blue Armchair 1878 oil on canvas 35 x 51 in.

54 Mary Cassatt's favorite subjects were women and children.
The Bath ca oil on canvas 3 ft. 3 in. x 2 ft. 2 in.

55 Three influences seen in Toulouse‑Lautrec's At the Moulin Rouge and the features that reflect each influence. Degas: Oblique and asymmetrical composition. Japanese prints: spatial diagonals. Photography: Figures cut off at the frame’s edge. Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec's At the Moulin Rouge oil on canvas, 48-7/16x55-1/2 inches The Art Institute of Chicago.

56 Whistler called his paintings "arrangements" and ''nocturnes“ because he felt nature contains the elements, in color and form, of all pictures, just as the keyboard contains the notes of all music. It is up to the artist to choose and arrange the elements beautifully. James Abbott McNeil Whistler Nocturne in Black and Gold (The Falling Rocket) ca oil on canvas 1 ft. 11 5/8 in. x 1 ft. 6 1/2 in.

57 Giorgionne da Castelfranco Pastoral Symphony Édouard Manet
Compare Manet's Le Dejeuner sur l’herbe with Giorgione/Titian's Pastoral Symphony . In what ways are they similar, and in what ways do they differ? Why do you think the Parisian public was shocked by Manet’s work but considered Giorgioni’s work to be a classical masterpiece? Giorgionne da Castelfranco Pastoral Symphony ca. 1508 Édouard Manet Le Déjuner sur l’Herbe 1863



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