1 Lenore Matula Vasilas Soil Scientist NRCS Soil Survey Division Hydric Soil AND THE FARM BILL Use of the Definition, Criteria, Field Indicators and Technical standardLenore Matula VasilasSoil ScientistNRCSSoil Survey Division
2 Not Covered Hydrophytic vegetation and wetland hydrology factors Mapping conventionsLegislative issues other than those specifically related to hydric soils
3 National Technical Committee for Hydric Soils 7 CFR Part NRCS responsibilities regarding wetlands.(a) Technical and coordination responsibilities. In carrying out the provisions of this part, NRCS shall:(1) Oversee the development and application of criteria to identify hydric soils in consultation with the National Technical Committee for Hydric Soils and make available to the public an approved county list of hydric soil map units, which is based upon the National List of Hydric Soils;…
4 National Technical Committee for Hydric Soils NRCSChris Smith, NHQ, chairShawn Finn, MASteve Lawrence, GAAaron Miller, NMSteve Monteith, NSSCPaul Rodrigue, MSLenore Vasilas, NHQUSACEChris NobleUSEPARalph SpagnoloUSFSVacantBLMRobert BoydUSFWSJim DickUniversityRichard Griffin, Prairie ViewWade Hurt, Univ. of FLChien-Lu Ping, Univ of AKMike Vepraskas, NCSU
5 Delineation Methodology for FSA The Corps of Engineers Wetland Determination and Delineation Manual and Regional Supplements with VariancesNRCS relies more often on off-site determinations (hydric soils list and soil survey maps)Soils information written in consultation with NTCHSSupplements adopted NTCHS Field IndicatorsSupplements adopted 14 day hydrology requirementHydric soils definition wording differencesSoon to be updated manual will eliminate many method inconsistencies between CWA and FSA and, therefore, eliminate many of the current variances
7 To be considered a hydric soil the soil must meet__________ The hydric soils definition.The characteristics of a map unit component on the hydric soil listA field indicator of hydric soilsThe technical standard.Any of the above.All the above.
8 To be considered a hydric soil the soil must meet__________ The hydric soils definition.The characteristics of a map unit component on the hydric soil listA field indicator of hydric soilsThe technical standard.Any of the above.All the above.
9 Hydric Soils All hydric soils must meet the definition. There are several ways to approach and / or verify the definition.
10 Hydric Soils Definitions Food Security Acta soil that, in its undrained condition, is saturated, flooded, or ponded long enough during the growing season to develop an anaerobic condition that supports the growth and regeneration of hydrophytic vegetation [16 U.S.C. 3801(a)(12)].NTCHSa soil that formed under conditions of saturation, flooding, or ponding long enough during the growing season to develop anaerobic conditions in the upper part (Federal Register, 1994)
11 Determining You Meet the Definition Map unit component listed as hydric on the Hydric Soils ListMeets at least one of the Field Indicators of Hydric Soils in the United StatesHas the characteristics of a problematic hydric soil and the site has been proven to also meet hydrophytic vegetation and wetland hydrology factorsMeets the Hydric Soil Technical Standard
13 Original Database Selection Criteria for the National List of Hydric Soils Originally a list of soil seriesOriginal criteria required a water table and water table dataOriginal list was queried from old SSSD database and not NASISState and Survey Area lists were lists of map units and different than the National ListOriginal state and county list had to be significantly hand edited by states
14 Current National Hydric Soil List area symbolarea namemap unit sequencemap unit symbolmap unit namecomponent name and phasecomponent percentlandformshydric ratingIA067Floyd County, Iowa343Bremer silty clay loam, 0 to 2 percent slopesBremer100Stream terracesYes984Clyde silty clay loam, 0 to 3 percent slopesClyde85InterfluvesMaxfield2FlatsMarshan, 32 to 40 inches to sand and gravelRiver valleys1088Nevin silt clay loam, 0 to 2 percent slopes51196Turlin loam, 0 to 2 percent slopesColand, occasionally floodedFlood plains14135Coland clay loam, 0 to 2 percent slopes95
15 Changes to Criteria for Populating the National List Federal Register Vol. 77, No. 40 Wednesday, February 29, 2012Based on deliberations of the NTCHS30 day public comment periodFixed issues related to changes in database and changes to format (list of series vs. list of map units)Biggest issue was water table requirement in old criteria but not in definition of hydric soil
16 Same Soil Series but Possibly Different Map Units Drained vs. UndrainedSame Soil Series but Possibly Different Map Units
17 New Criteria(1) All Histels except Folistels and Histosols except Folists; or(2) Map unit components in Aquic suborders, great groups, or subgroups, Albolls suborder, Historthels great group, Histoturbels great group, or Andic, Cumulic, Pachic, or Vitrandic subgroups that:(a) Based on the range of characteristics for the soil series, will at least in part meet one or more Field Indicators of Hydric Soils in the United States, or(b) Show evidence that the soil meets the definition of a hydric soil;(3) Map unit components that are frequently ponded for long duration or very long duration during the growing season that:(b) Show evidence that the soil meets the definition of a hydric soil; or(4) Map unit components that are frequently flooded for long duration or very long duration during the growing season that:(b) Show evidence that the soils meet the definition of a hydric soil.
18 Where to Find Hydric Soils List? The National List of Hydric Soils can be found on the NTCHS website (http://soils.usda.gov/use/hydric/)National CoverageUpdated yearlyLocal List of Hydric Soils can be found on Soil Data Mart or Web Soil Survey (http://soils.usda.gov/)Soil Data Mart data grouped by Survey AreaWeb Soil Survey has size limitUpdated as official data is updated
19 When to use the Hydric Soils Lists? General planningPreliminary data gatheringAlong with other info for off-site determinationsIdentification of potential WRP sites
20 Working on New Report in NASIS HydricAll major and minor components are hydricPredominantly HydricAll major components are hydric but some minor components non-hydricPartially HydricComplex with at least one major component hydric and one major component non-hydricPredominantly Non-hydricAll major components non-hydric and at least one minor component hydricNon-HydricAll major and minor components non-hydric
21 Field Indicators of Hydric Soils in the United States
22 Field IndicatorsField indicators are soil morphological features used to identify hydric soilsThe features result from soil genesis in the presence of “anaerobic conditions”They are used for on-site verification
23 Development of Field Indicators Continuous processOn-going since mid-80’sInter-agencyIncluding universities, private sector, federal, state, and local agenciesMulti-disciplinarySoil scientists, hydrologists, botanists
24 Hydromorphic Processes Reduction, translocation, and precipitation of iron and manganeseAccumulation and differential translocation of organic matterReduction of sulfur
25 Hydric Soil Indicators Indicators are not intended to replace or relieve the requirements contained in the Hydric Soil DefinitionIndicators are used to identify the hydric soil component of wetlands; however, there are some hydric soils that lack one of the currently listed indicators
27 Proof positive If it meets a Field Indicator it is a hydric soil If it does not meet a Field Indicator it may still be a hydric soil if it meets the definition of a hydric soil
28 Three Major Divisions All soils Sandy soils Loamy soils Use regardless of textureMostly organic based indicatorsSandy soilsLoamy soilsUse sandy indicators in sandy layers, and loamy indicators in loamy layers
29 Rules for Field Indicator Use A chroma of 2 or less means that the chroma cannot be higher than 2Values should be rounded to the nearest color chipExcept for F8, F12, F19, F20 and F21 all mineral Field Indicators must have less then 15 cm (6 in) of a chroma > 2 above the indicator.
30 Soil SurfaceIn al LRRs, for Field Indicators A1, A2, and A3 begin measurements at the actual soil surface.In LRRs R, W, X, and Y, all other observations begin at the top of the mineral surface.In LRRs F, G, H, and M, we begin our observations at the actual soil surface if the soil is sandy and for all other observations at the muck or mineral surfaceFor all other LRRs we begin all other observations at the muck or mineral surface.
31 Combining IndicatorsIt is permissible to combine certain hydric soil indicators if all requirements of the indicators are met except thicknessThe most restrictive requirement for thickness of layers must be met
32 Example of a Soil That is Hydric Based on a Combination of Indicators 3-6 inches meets F6 Redox Dark Surface, but thickness requirement is 4 inches6 to 10 inches meets F3 Depleted Matrix requirements, but thickness requirement is 6 inchesAdd the 3-6 inch and 6 to 10 inch layer thicknesses together to get 7 inches which is thicker than the most restrictive requirement of 6 inches
33 Example of a Soil That is Hydric Based on a Combination of Indicators 0 to 3 inches meets F6 Redox Dark Surface, but thickness requirement is 4 inches3 to 6 inches meets S5 Sandy Redox, but thickness requirement is also 4 inchesCombine the thickness of the 2 layers to get 6 inches
34 Key to Soils that Lack Field Indicators Dig a hole to 6 in.Do organic soil materials or mucky modified layers exist?Does chroma ≤ 2 exist?Are there any distinct or prominent redox concentrations as soft masses or pore linings?Is there a hydrogen sulfide odor?Are you in a depression, on a floodplain, in red parent material or within 200 m of an estuarine marsh and 1 m of mean high water?If answer is no to all questions, the soil will not meet an indicator.
36 Loamy Depressions F8. Redox Depressions In CD’s subj. to ponding, 5% or more redox conc. in a layer 2 cm or more thick entirely within upper 15 cm.F8 has no matrix color requirement.Photo is from a vernal pool in California, meets both F8 and F9. These features would also qualify as oxidized rhizospheres (a secondary hydrology indicator) because they are “adjacent” to living roots.
37 F19. Piedmont Floodplain Soils Chroma less than 4 and 20 percent or more redox concentrations
38 F20. Anomalous Bright Loamy Soils Within 200 m of estuarine marshes or waters and within 1 m of mean high waterChroma less than 5 and 10 percent redox concentrations
39 Red Parent MaterialF3. Depleted MatrixF21. RED Parent Material
41 Technical Standard for Hydric Soils Requirements Saturated, Ponded, or Flooded conditionsWater table measurementsWell and piezometersReducing ConditionsRedox potential measurementsReduced Iron (Fe II) measurementsAlpha-Alpha DipyridylIRIS tubesIn-situ pH measurementsOn-site precipitation dataReplicates
42 NTCHS Web Site UpdatesI am in the process of updating to delete obsolete tech. notes and provide more complete and up-to-date info on hydric soil issues. If there is any info you would like to see on the page let me know.
43 National Hydric Soil Projects National Wetland Condition AssessmentEPAPotential Wetland Landscapes Map based on gridded SSURGOAssociation of State Wetland Managers Wetland Mapping Consortium
44 NRCS Training Opportunities on Hydric Soils NEDC CoursesAdvanced Hydric Soils – Meridian, MS August 20 – 25th, 2012SSSA Hydric Soils Field TourCincinnati, OH, Saturday, October 20, 2012