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CIS3023: Programming Fundamentals for CIS Majors II Summer 2010 Ganesh Viswanathan Linked Lists Course Lecture Slides 23 July 2010 A list is only as strong as its weakest link. --Donald Knuth

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[News] Tropical storm Bonnie hit Biscayne Bay, FL this morning! Credits: NOAA

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Data structure A way of structuring, storing and organizing data in computers that facilitates efficient operations on the data. Data structures help to devise algorithms for solving complex operations on the data in an efficient manner.

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Data structures Array Stack List Linked List Queue Graph Tree And many more!

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ArrayList To insert (remove) an element in (from) the interior of an ArrayList requires shifting of data and is a linear-time O(n) operation!

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Linked List Is a collection of linked nodes (think of a chain!) Memory allocation for nodes is non-contiguous Sports constant time O(1) insertion and updates

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Linked List Variations Singly-Linked Lists Doubly-Linked Lists Multi-Linked Lists Circular Linked Lists Unrolled Linked Lists (multiple elements in each node) Lists with only head pointer nodes With head and tail nodes With head, tail and cursor (currently requested) nodes And many more!

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Singly Linked List A set of nodes, each containing some data and a link to the next node. Dynamic data-structure.

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Singly Linked List A set of nodes, each containing some data and a link to the next node. Dynamic data-structure. Advantages: Simple implementation, Efficient, constant time O(1) insertion and removal operation.

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Singly Linked List Node : self-referencing structure Link : reference to a node Linked list: List of nodes Has dedicated head and tail indicators

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Operations on Singly Linked List Create list Add node Add node at head Add node at tail Add node at index i Remove node Remove node at head Remove node at tail Remove node at index i Iterate (traverse) the list Find node at index Find previous node to the one at index i Set node at index i to new node Size of list Clear list

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Create (Node) public class Node { // data held by the node public T nodeValue; // next node in the list public Node next; // default constructor with no initial value public Node() { nodeValue = null; next = null; }... }

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Empty List If list is empty (head == null) Set both head and tail to point to new node Singly Linked List: Add node

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Add node to head Insert new node before current head node Two-step process Singly Linked List: Add node

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Add node to head 1. Update the next link of a new node, to point to the current head node. Singly Linked List: Add node 2. Update head link to point to the new node.

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Add node to tail Insert new node after current tail node Two-step process Singly Linked List: Add node

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Add node to head 1. Update the next link of the current tail node, to point to the new node. Singly Linked List: Add node 2. Update tail link to point to the new node.

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Add node at index i If node at index i represents head or tail node, Refer previous pseudo-code for add node at head/ tail Else Two-step process Singly Linked List: Add node

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Add node at index i 1. Update link of the new node, to point to the "next" node. Singly Linked List: Add node 2. Update link of the "previous" node, to point to the new node.

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Remove node from list with only one node Both head and tail point to the (same node) only existing node. Remove link to the node from both the head and tail, by setting both to null. Dispose off the node (set to null) Singly Linked List: Remove node

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Remove node from head Remove the node pointed to by head. Two-step process Singly Linked List: Remove node

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Remove node from head Singly Linked List: Remove node 1. Update head link to point to the node, next to the head. 2. Dispose removed node.

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Remove node from tail Remove the node pointed to by tail. Need access to the previous node of current tail. Three-step process Singly Linked List: Remove node

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Remove node from tail Singly Linked List: Remove node 1. Update tail link to point to the node, before the tail. In order to find it, list should be traversed first, beginning from the head. 2. Set next link of the new tail to NULL. 3. Dispose removed node.

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Remove node at index i If index i is not 0 or n-1, this operation removes the node between two nodes. Two-step process Singly Linked List: Remove node

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Remove node at index i Singly Linked List: Remove node 1. Update next link of the previous node, to point to the next node, relative to the removed node. 2. Dispose removed node.

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Doubly Linked List Has links to both previous and next nodes Advantage: faster (bi-directional) traversal But, more control data (links) stored

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Get more info! Java docs: Linked List (doubly linked list) Java docs: Using and programming generics in J2SE 5.0 Java docs: Collections framework tutorial http://download.oracle.com/docs/cd/E17476_01/javase/1.5.0/docs/api/ java/util/LinkedList.html http://java.sun.com/developer/technicalArticles/J2SE/generics/ http://download.oracle.com/docs/cd/E17409_01/javase/tutorial/col lections/index.html

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Given a node v of a doubly linked list, we can easily insert a new node z immediately after v. Specifically, let w the be node following v. We execute.

Given a node v of a doubly linked list, we can easily insert a new node z immediately after v. Specifically, let w the be node following v. We execute.

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