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Postcolonial Literatures in French Dr Georgina Collins 5 October 2011.

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Presentation on theme: "Postcolonial Literatures in French Dr Georgina Collins 5 October 2011."— Presentation transcript:

1 Postcolonial Literatures in French Dr Georgina Collins 5 October 2011

2 to provide an overview of Frances colonial history to understand the broad cultural and linguistic impact of this historical period to learn new vocabulary associated with Francophonie and Postcolonial Studies to gain knowledge of the context in which Francophone literature is written Objectives

3 expansion begins in sixteenth century colonialism becomes a real national project in the Third Republic (1870- 1940) most important territorial gains are between 1875 and 1940 French Colonial Timeline

4 1444 – first slaves brought to Portugal from Mauritania 1640 – large-scale trade and use of slave labour Sugar plantations The Americas, including the Caribbean The Slave Trade

5 first French colonial possessions left significant linguistic traces, eg: Canada – 2 nd national language (majority in Quebec) French Antilles – official language By the beginning of 19 th century, France loses grip on many of its American possessions The Americas

6 first invasion in 1830 lengthy period of conquest greatest number of French settlers defeat against Prussia a way to avenge Alsace Lorraine regaining prestige The Conquest of Algeria

7 La Mission Civilisatrice Throughout the Third Republic French colonial ideology the countrys duty was to bring civilisation and modernisation to backward communities inhabitants of the colonies – inferior / primitive

8 Prime Minister of France promoted the vast extension of the French colonial empire policy of colonial expansion: a political system an economic strategy far-reaching ideas of civilisation Jules Ferry and the Colonial Idea

9 Indigènes conscripted into French battalions rapprochement between France and its colonies Expressions in official discourse La Grande France La France de 100 millions dhabitants Tirailleurs Sénégalais

10 Interwar period – golden age of French imperialism Authorities failed to: improve lives of the indigènes bridge the gap between the colonisers and colonised After WWII – they were granted more rights, but too late Post-war period – gradual decolonisation After World War I

11 Coined by Onésime Reclus (French geographer) 1880 France, Algerie et les colonies Strong advocate of French colonialism Colonialism – would promote prestige and use of the French language worldwide Francophonie

12 …Empire dAfrique, Madagascar, Indo-Chine semblent nous garantir la perpétuité, ce qui veut dire […] la longue continuité de notre idiome. Il cessera dêtre la langue faussement dite universelle; […] il deviendra le verbe de centaines de millions dhommes de toute origine. En dehors de lîle de Hovas et de la presquîle des Annamites, il résonnera sur les deux rives de la Méditerranée, et aussi sur les deux bords de lAtlantique (Reclus, Le plus beau royaume sous le ciel. 842.) The French Language

13 Sub-Saharan Africa The Maghreb The French Caribbean Canada Also note: Continental Francophonie Indochina This Course

14 intergovernmental agency promotes French–speaking cultures brings together users of the French language created after decolonisation perpetuate cultural links between France and former colonies Organisation Internationale de la Francophonie (firstly ACCT)

15 Jean-Marc Léger – 1 st Secretary General of ACCT ACCT – Agence de Cooperation Culturelle et Technique Later – Agence de la Francophonie Organisation Internationale de la Francophonie France reluctant to embrace project Almost 2000 conferences to promote Francophonie worldwide Francophone Cultures

16 une communauté spirituelle de nations qui emploient le français, que celui-ci soit langue nationale, langue officielle ou bien langue dusage The OIF and Francophonie Today 56 member states 19 observers Political club Allows least powerful to have a voice Argued that France uses it to pursue neo- imperialistic policies

17 220 million French speakers worldwide 9 th most widely-spoken language on the planet 96.2 million French-speakers in Africa French-speaking zone accounts for 19% of world trade in goods French is an official language in 32 IOF member states Spreading the Word

18 TV5 Global Francophone TV network 3 rd largest TV network in the world Reaches 215 million homes Accessible in around 200 countries and territories 8 regional channels Subtitling in 13 languages Available online

19 Francophone Literatures Historical context Unique language and style Unique viewpoint Culturally embedded Politically charged Western ideology / distancing from Western ideology Dominated by male literature until decolonisation and independence

20 Summary historical overview of Frances colonial history Slave trade Colonisation Decolonisation Francophone world today cultural and linguistic impact of this historical period new vocabulary (DOM/TOM/Mission Civilisatrice) the context in which Francophone literature is written

21 Questions and Comments?

22 Seminar – part 1 What have you learnt from the lecture? Give your name One piece of information An explanation

23 Seminar – part 2 The Queens Empire Analyse, critique and discuss the images Answer the questions on your seminar sheet

24 Seminar – part 3 Essai sur linégalité des races humaines (Gobineau) Analyse the vocabulary and content Answer the questions on your seminar sheet

25 Dont forget to prepare for next week! The seminar questions are on your handout

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