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Early XX century: Loss of certainties + growing sense of frustration After WWI: rise of labour Party and trade unions Hardships for coal miners, shipbuilders,

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Presentation on theme: "Early XX century: Loss of certainties + growing sense of frustration After WWI: rise of labour Party and trade unions Hardships for coal miners, shipbuilders,"— Presentation transcript:

1 Early XX century: Loss of certainties + growing sense of frustration After WWI: rise of labour Party and trade unions Hardships for coal miners, shipbuilders, cotton workers Unemployment (dole queues) 1926 : general strike 1920s: development of radio boradcasting 1026 : monolpoly to BBC Crisis: Depression after 1929 mid 1930s : slight recovery => rearmament 1936: abdication of Edward VIII => George VI (1936-1952) Spanish war won by rebel General Francisco Franco helped by Mussolini and Hitler Decline of heavy indurstry => population drift north > south

2 WWII 1939-1945 (German invasion of Poland) Defence of democracy, government controls, conscription, rationing, air raids The Battle of Britain (1940): defeat of Luftwaffe by the Royal Air Force the Blitz (from German, "lightning") period of sustained bombing of the UK by Nazi Germany. the D-Day (delivery day, June 6th 1944) the Allies landed in Normandy.

3 The Blitz. Starting on 7 September 1940, London was bombed by the Luftwaffe for 57 consecutive nights. More than one million London houses were destroyed or damaged, and more than 40,000 civilians were killed, almost half of them in London

4 The Battle of Normandy, from June 1944 to August 1944 => Allied liberation of Western Europe from Nazi Germanys control. Codenamed Operation Overlord, the battle began on June 6, 1944, also known as D-Day some 156,000 American, British and Canadian forces landed on five beaches along a 50-mile stretch of the heavily fortified coast of Frances Normandy region.

5 D-Day

6 Consquences of WWII in Britain Immense costs (human lives, land, industries, culture, etc. India Burma Ceylon Malaya Singpore: demanded independence for fighting against Germany Labour Party (Clement Attlee) won elections promising Health service, new council houses, social security US loans (Marshall Aid Programme 1947 Help to prevent European countris from falling under Russian influence)

7 The Welfare State Phrase used during the war to contrast Hiltlers warfare state Totality of schemes and services through which the central Goverment and the local authorities assumed the responsibility for dealing with the social problems of citizens from cradle to grave Social security= income to those who couldnt work, medical service, housing, education, jobs. Nationalization of power and industry (coal, electricity, gas, iron steel); transport (airlaines and railways), and credit (The Bank of England)

8 The 50s 1952:sudden death of George VI : nations loyalty to institutions and cmonarchy 1953: coronation of Elizabeth II NEW AFFLUENT SOCIETY: TELEVISION: expansion of a new institution that exporessed the new consumerism, affluence and hedonism BBC generali aims: a mixture of infromation, education, entertainment

9 The 50s Full employment, good wages, public services, technical improvements Sudden blossoming of mass prosperity A 1950s advertisement for Coca-Cola UK and USA society

10 The 50s: social phenomena Consumerism Television as revolution Change in style with popular series and quiz shows Another 1950s advertisement for Coca-Cola UK and USA society

11 The 50s Families have cars, phones, washing-machines, refrigerators, their own houses. Education bigger affluence in universities and college which receive the government financial support. A 1950s housewife UK and USA society

12 The 50s: social phenomena Hedonism Equipments and clubs A 1950s advertisement for cigarettes UK and USA society Recreational activities

13 The 50s: the young and their tastes Great interests in music, fashion, drinks and vehicles. Working-class adolescents spending money on their pleasures. Poster for Rebel without a cause (1955) UK and USA society

14 The 50s: the young and their tastes Leisure activities dancing and listening to rocknroll. Negative mood of the angry young men moral independence, sexual ethics, public decency The Homosexual Act (1957) UK and USA society Poster for Rebel without a cause (1955)

15 Bretton Woods Agreements (1944) ONU GATT (1947) (General agreement on traffic and trade) IMF (1945) (International Monetary Fund) Old market economy Mixed economy Passive StateWelfare State A new economy

16 The 60s: Technological civilization cultural revolution Openenss ; new intellectual left Against nuclear weapons Permissiveness and the Hippies Abolition of capital punishment 1963 annus mirabilis (Philip Larkin)-1970: abortion, contraceptives, homosexuality, divorce and property acts, race discrimination, minority languages (Welsh).

17 1960s: international spread of English language literary and cultural influence abroad. 1970s: global economic slowdown and industrial strife. 1980s: economic growth due to the inflow of substantial North Sea oil revenues. Great Britain The Beatles An oil platform in the North Sea

18 Golden Age and Bretton Woodss failure Economic miracle from 1950 to 1968 Deep political and social changes Crisis of 1973 and inflation High prices and low wages Cartels like Opec Welfare State High public debt and new monetary economy Golden Age and Bretton Woodss failure UK and USA society

19 The 60s: London New centre of fashion, replacing Paris. Mary Quant, fashion designer credited for inventing the miniskirt and the hot pants UK and USA society

20 Immigrants from the colonies attracted by the UKs promise of employment, moved to the inner-city areas suffer social deprivation, racism, hostility. The 60s: London Indian students protesting UK and USA society

21 The 60s: the young Sensitive to their age spiritual problems Commitee for nuclear disarmament and pacifist march in Trafalgar Square led by Bertrand Russell (1961). Mood of irriverence and rebellion university occupations and demonstrations. A student demonstration UK and USA society

22 The swinging sixties = quest for self-expression and liberation drugs, discos, progressiveness in education, pop music and poetry, one-parent families, the contraceptive pill, abortion and homosexuality legalised. 1968 birth of womens liberation movement. The 60s: the young The cover of Led Zeppelin III UK and USA society

23 Youth culture The Hippies Status and sex minimized No certainties drugs Escape from time and modern life Natural materials in the dress style Love, not war Hippies at a concert UK and USA society

24 The 70s: decay Unemployment spread in the heavy industrial areas Economy The Winter of Discontent Society Race riots Drugs and juvenile violence UK and USA society Only Connect... New Directions

25 6. The 70s: decay Factories with waste material Pollution Oil tankers, chemical fertilizers, noisy aircraft, traffic Me Decade Individualism, selfishness, punk culture, nihilism, political struggle, radicalism (no pacifism), racism UK and USA society Only Connect... New Directions

26 The 70s the winter of discontent; Me-decade Corruption in high places International energy crisis Troubles ion nUlster 1973: European Community New immigrants from the Commonwealth => 1982 Act (only those with jobs are allowd in)

27 The Skinheads Tattoos and shaved heads Welcome conflict and aggression Extreme right political views = racism No girls Youth culture This is England (2006) UK and USA society

28 Punks Nihilistic battle-cry no future Nothingness Safety pins, coloured hair Outcast status A tourist attraction Youth culture A group of English punks UK and USA society

29 She advocated: 1.greater independence of the individual from the state. 2.a higher level of influence and leadership in international affairs (Falklands War). She was a very close ally with US President Ronald Reagan, (elected in 1980). Margaret Thatcher Margaret Thatcher and Ronald Reagan (1979-1997)

30 Elected in 1979 Call on individual enterprise and responsability Illusion of a new start The state is the servant not the master of the nation The 80s: Margaret Thatcher Margaret Thatcher UK and USA society Only Connect... New Directions

31 The Thatcher Years (1979-1997) Conservative party => The Iron Lady Responsibility+Enterprise Hard work+ thrift Free trade, low protection tariffs Denationalization More efficient and competitive industry Citizens should learn to stand on their own two feet Foreing policiy the Falkland Islands - war with Argentina 1984 T. won aginast miners strike against closing down of mines 1987 Poll tax (local tax on individuals, not o property) The Eighties: YUPPIES Young Urban Professionals) the new jobs considers good, whiole the ones n social services were disregarded

32 Change of moral values Legislation of privatisation The young are encouraged Good careers Individualistic society Mortgage repayment caused by inflation and loan rates Low-paid jobs and unemployment Phenomenon of the yuppies The 80s: Thatchers and Reagans society UK and USA society

33 The 90s and after 1990: John Major (conservative) 1997-2007: Tony Blair Labour Party Improving social services (education, health) Devolution 2003: supported American invasion of Iraq 2007-2010: Gordon Brown 2010: David Cameron

34 The 90s People involved in community action A new social awareness = we decade. Disdain for thatcherism = greed, coldness, disregard for minorities and the weak. The Iron Lady UK and USA society

35 June 2007: leader of the Labour Party, he became Prime Minister after Blairs resignation. Key elements of his politics: 1.Environment and Housing cuts in carbon emissions, eco-towns. 2.Constitutional reforms. 3.Health private polyclinics. 4.Foreign policy solid but not slavish relationship with US. Gordon Brown

36 Globalisation Commercial banksSecuritisation Subprimes Loans for everybody No capitals WORLDWIDE CRISIS Crisis of 2007-2009 UK and USA society

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