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Imperialism and WWI Wilson’s Peace Plan.

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1 Imperialism and WWI Wilson’s Peace Plan

2 Wilson’s Plan Eleventh day, eleventh hour in eleventh month (Nov. 11)
Met at the Palace of Versailles on January 1918 Allies met to decide the peace terms Central Powers and Russia were not invited Wilson presented his plan called the “Fourteen Points” on January 18, 1918 Wanted a just and lasting peace Wanted to establish a League of Nations which would serve as an open forum for nations to discuss and settle issues w/o war Wilson personally led US delegation Not good at negotiations He only took 1 Republican with him-Not influential and old

3 Wilson’s Fourteen Points
January 18, 1918 Wilson delivered his plan to Congress 1st 5 pts were to prevent war No secret treaties Freedom of the seas Lower tariffs Arms reduction Colonial policies should consider the colonial people- self-determinism Next 8 dealt with boundary changes New countries were created 14th point called for a League of Nations International organization to address diplomatic issues It had no army

4 Allies Reject Wilson’s Plan
France and England were furious at Germany-Germany destroyed tons of lives and land Felt Wilson was being too easy on Germany George Clemenceau- (French premier) lived through 2 French invasions David Lloyd George- (British Prime Minister) won election on the slogan “make Germany pay!” Vittorio Orlando (Italian Prime Minster)wanted control of Austrian-held territory These 3 men worked out most of the details by themselves and left Wilson out Wilson agreed as long as he got his League of Nations

5 Debating the Treaty What was in the Treaty of Versailles
Established 9 new nations from former German and Austrian-Hungary land Poland, Czechoslovakia, Yugoslavia France and Great Britain got former Ottoman colonies on a temporary basis- mandates Germany had to restrict its army, lost land and had to pay war reparations- $33 billion for war damages

6 The Treaty’s Weakness The treaty humiliated Germany and they remained bitter and angry War Guilt Clause- Germany had to take sole responsibility for starting the war Their military was weakened Germany had to pay back an insane amount of money Germany lost its colonial possessions Italy and Japan are angry b/c they felt like they should have been given more land Russia was left out of the talks New communist gov’t under Vladimir Lenin was determined to get taken land back Colonized people were angry. They wanted self-determination: ability to decide on their own gov’t

7 Opposition to the Treaty
When Wilson returned home most felt the treaty was too harsh Many felt it didn’t help the colonized people gain freedom or self-determination Many Americans wanted to stay out of European affairs Return to isolationism

8 Debate of the League of Nations
Democrats- supported treaty w/o modifications Republican “Irreconcilables”- opposed it completely Hiram Johnson and Robert La Follette Republican “Revisionists”- wanted modifications to treaty Said it threatened the US policy of isolation Staying out of European affairs Henry Cabot Lodge- (conservative Senator) was suspicious of joint military and economic action against aggression Article 10- a provision that allowed Congress to declare war to be added

9 Wilson Refuses to Compromise
Wilson alienated the Republican Party by not having more of them to join the delegation Wilson refused to compromise on the League Wilson traveled throughout the nation explaining why the US should join the League On Oct. 2, 1919 Wilson suffered a stroke and was weakened Senate vote- Nov. 1919 Didn’t pass and didn’t ratify the treaty Wilson refused again to compromise Senate voted again- March 1920 Didn’t pass The US never joined the League and decided to sign a separate treaty with Germany in 1921

10 Legacy of War America emerges as an Industrial Giant
African-Americans move north (Great Migration) There are intensified anti-immigrant views Brought over 1 million women into the work force The Treaty of Versailles settled nothing France and Great Britain got their way and punished Germany harshly Germany, Italy, Japan and Russia were left bitter

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