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Presentation on theme: "Progressivism."— Presentation transcript:

1 Progressivism

2 What is Progressivism? Collection of ideas to solve problems in American society, many of which grew out of industry Examples of problems with industry? Believed laissez-faire economics and unregulated market cause problems Examples of problems due to laissez-faire economics?

3 Progressive Ideals Fix current government, then government can fix problems Major ideas of reform? Strong belief in science and technology Why?

4 Muckrakers Crusading journalists who investigated social conditions and political corruption Where did they get the name from? Examples Charles Edward Russell (Everybody’s Magazine): Beef Industry Ida Tarbell (McClure’s): Standard Oil Lincoln Steffens (Shame of Cities): Political Machines Jacob Riis (How the Other Half Lives): Urban life Upton Sinclair (The Jungle): Meat Industry


6 Women’s Suffrage 1848: Elizabeth Cady Stanton & Seneca Falls
Biggest Issue: Civil War & Slavery Questions over how to approach issue in late 19th Century Paid lobbyists, delivered speeches, organized marches March on DC before Wilson’s inauguration Questions still around about how to approach issue w/ Wilson NAWSA: Carrie Chapman Catt and the final push

7 Women’s Suffrage Map

8 Progressive Reforms Child Labor Laws Health Codes Prohibition
Breaker Boys, Farm Workers Health Codes Worker’s Compensation Laws, Restaurant Codes Prohibition Women’s Christian Temperance Union

9 PROGRESSIVISM United States History

10 Progressive Ideas Essentially a movement based in responses to America’s problems Laissez-Faire policies do not work Science and technology will help society Industrialization/Urbanization cause problems Government should fix problems, but government itself needs to be reformed

11 Muckrakers Crusading journalists who investigated social conditions and political corruption Charles Edward Russell attacked the beef industry in Everybody’s Magazine Ida Tarbell crushed Standard Oil Company in McClure’s Lincoln Steffens exposed voting fraud in Shame of Cities Jacob Riis photographed inner-city life in How the Other Half Lives

12 Democratic Reforms Robert LaFollette, Governor of Wisconsin
Pushed for direct primaries, where people voted for a candidate to run in the general election Other Progressive Reforms Initiative: citizen-introduced legislation Referendum: citizens vote on proposed laws Recall: voters can have special election to remove government official Direct election of Senators

13 Other Reforms Happening
Women’s Suffrage Child Labor Health Codes and Worker Safety Laws Prohibition (WCTU) Big Business Breakdown

14 Theodore Roosevelt Social Darwinist Reform Plans (Square Deal)
Took on big business Roosevelt (big stick) with 1902 mine strike Government sets railroad rates and regulates some business (Hepburn Act) Protect Consumers (Meat Inspection Act and Pure Food & Drug Act) after Upton Sinclair’s The Jungle Environmental Conservation

15 William Howard Taft Succeeded Roosevelt…perfect for job?
Tariff Reform (Roosevelt warns about splitting party) New Secretary of Interior Ballinger Tries to turn protected lands into private development Pinchot fired for insubordination (disobedience to authority) Passed many Progressive Reforms

16 Woodrow Wilson’s Rise Roosevelt challenges Taft for Republican nomination Splits party (Republicans and Progressives/Bull Moose) Wilson wins easily Wilson Reforms (New Freedom) Lowered tariffs, levied income taxes Federal Reserve created Federal Trade Commission to watchdog business

17 Progressive Thinkers

18 Teddy Roosevelt Square Deal Programs
Economy, Conservation Draw line against misconduct, not wealth Trusts help economy more often than not Don’t promote self interest at nation’s expense (ex—Coal Strike of 1902) Regulate industry through negotiations New Nationalism (1912)

19 William Howard Taft Perfect replacement for TR…or so they thought
Replaced many of TR’s reformers and upset progressives with environmental stance Actually a stronger trustbuster and conservationist than Roosevelt

20 Woodrow Wilson “New Freedom” Reforms
Believed monopolies should be destroyed Promoted “freedom” over “efficiency” Reduced tariffs on goods and created the income tax Attacked child labor and banks

21 Key Acts Sherman Antitrust Act Interstate Commerce Commission
Prohibited conspiracy to restrain trade across state lines Interstate Commerce Commission Limited railroad rates to reasonable and just rates and made it illegal to charge more for shorter hauls Hepburn Act Strengthened ICC by allowing them to set rates

22 More Acts Payne-Aldrich Tariff Underwood Tariff Act
Taft wanted to lower tariffs, TR tells him to avoid topic Ends up doing very little, but divides party Underwood Tariff Act Lowered tariffs and created an income tax on individuals Federal Reserve Act Indirectly controls interest rates and money circulation

23 More Acts Federal Trade Commission Clayton Antitrust Act
Stop unfair trade practices that hurt competition Clayton Antitrust Act Toughened Sherman Act, and added guidelines on stock sales, price regulation, and trade Others to note… Keating-Owen Child Labor (declared unconstitutional in 2 years) and Adamson Act (8 hour worked)

24 The Good and Bad of Progressivism
Health Reforms New Regulations Women’s Rights Bad Racial and Religious Equality not addressed Some acts declared unconstitutional

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