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Ch 9.5 – Wilson’s New Freedom

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1 Ch 9.5 – Wilson’s New Freedom
Woodrow Wilson establishes a strong reform Agenda as a progressive leader. Wilson Wins Financial Reform A. Wilson’s Background 1. Lawyer – Princeton graduate 2. Professor at Bryn Mawr College 3. President of Princeton 4. New Jersey Governor B. As president he focuses on trusts, tariffs, high finance (banking)

2 Wilson as professor

3 Wilson as President of Princeton Wilson as NJ Governor

4 As President

5 II. Two Key Antitrust Measures - TRUSTS
A. Clayton Antitrust Act - Stopped companies from buying stock to form monopoly (goes after interlocking directorates) B. Ended injunctions against strikers unless threatened irreparable damage C. Federal Trade Act established the Federal Trade Commission (FTC) –New “watchdog” agency 1. Investigated regulatory violations 2. Ended unfair business practices



8 III. Wilson Wins Financial Reforms
A. A New Tax System 1. Wilson pushed for Underwood Act to substantially reduce tariffs 2. Set the precedent of giving State of the Union message in person 3. Use of the bully pulpit lead to passage B. Federal Income Tax 1. Sixteenth Amendment 2. Legalized graduated federal income tax


10 C. Federal Reserve System
1. Federal Reserve System – private banking system under federal control 2. Nation divided into 12 districts; central bank in each district IV. Women Win Suffrage A. Local Suffrage Battles 1. College-educated women spread suffrage message to working-class 2. Women went door-to-door, took trolley tours, gave speeches at stops - some adopted bold tactics of British Suffragists


12 Federal Reserve Bank of New York - Gold Bars are held in 122 compartments in the main
And auxiliary vaults.

13 B. Catt and the National Movement
1. Carrie Chapman Catt, head of NAWSA 2. Stressed organization, lobbying 3. National Woman’s Party aggressively pressured for suffrage amendment 4. Work of patriotic women in war effort influenced politicians (Wilson) Nineteenth Amendment granted women the right to vote

14 Carrie Chapman Catt

15 National Woman’s Party


17 The Limits of Progressivism
A. Wilson and Civil Rights 1. As candidate, won support of NAACP for favoring civil rights 2. As president, opposed antilynching legislation 3. Appointed fellow white Southerners to cabinet who extended segregation 4. NAACP felt betrayed; Wilson ‘s self-defense widened rift B. The twilight of Progressivism --Outbreak of World War I distracted Americans; reform efforts stalled

18 World War I

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