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Important events in 1788-1824.

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Presentation on theme: "Important events in 1788-1824."— Presentation transcript:

1 Important events in

2 Presidents 1789: George Washington 1792: George Washington
1796: John Adams 1800: Thomas Jefferson 1804: Thomas Jefferson 1808: James Madison 1812: James Madison 1816: James Monroe 1820: James Monroe 1824: John Q. Adams

3 Desire for a Stronger Central Government
Flaws in Articles of Confederation In 1787, delegates from 13 states went to Philadelphia to amend Articles of Confederation Feared too much power in small stats Smaller states favored model provided by Articles (One vote per state) Larger states wanted population to represent representation

4 Government Under New Constitution
Virginia Plan (Larger States): James Madison proposed a bicameral legislature with number of reps determined by proportional representation Madison also proposed 3 branches of gov’t New Jersey Plan (Smaller States): favoring a strong central gov’t; unicameral legislature where every state received one vote Great Compromise: Plan included upper house Senate (2 reps/state) and lower house, House of Reps based on population Electoral College: chief executive elected by Electoral College; senators elected by state legislatures not by voters.

5 Issue of Slavery Decided that the new national gov’t could not regulate slavery for 20 yrs 3/5 Compromise: stated that 3/5 of stat’s pop. Would be counted when determining House of Reps.

6 Presidency of George Washington
1st term was uncertain Crucial to establish respect for office of the president of the United States Believed it was his job to administer laws and not to make them Cabinet Departments (War: Henry Knox, State: Jefferson, and Treasury: Hamilton) Limited role of VP (head of Senate) Executive privilege President is not obliged to share info to public Judiciary Act of 1789 Established federal courts and added 6th member judge

7 Washington’s Cabinet Alexander Hamilton: Treasury Secretary
“Loose Constructionist”: Constitution has room for interpretation Tariffs and Taxes: Wants to repay bond holders National Debt Assumption: to assume states’ debts after Revolutionary War; South upset- had the least amount of debt Compromise of 1790: the national capital would be built on the banks of the Potomac River (which would please the South) if the federal government assumed war debts (which would please the North). Established National Bank “Necessary and proper”

8 Thomas Jefferson: Secretary of State
“Strict Constructionist”: Believed in exact interpretation of the Constitution Argued with Hamilton Did not want National Bank for the weathly; plan would only benefit upper class Wanted states to hold power

9 Emergence of Political Parties
Hamiltonians: Federalists Jeffersonian: Democratic Republicans Vs.

10 The Bill Of Rights 1791 Proposed by James Madison; proposed 12 amendments to the Constitution Contains the basic protection for Americans i.e. freedom of speech, ensured freedom of worship, right to bear arms, forbid quartering of troops in private homes, warrants before searches, rights in a civil case, “due process of law”, trial by jury

11 The French Revolution 1789: French Rev. during Washington’s reign
Washington issued Declaration of Neutrality allowing American merchants to prosper by trading with both sides Pennsylvania farmers who supported the Whiskey Rebellion of 1794 were inspired by French Rev. Opposed excised tax by Hamilton Washington sent army to stop rebellion

12 Foreign Policy and Jay’s Treaty
War between France and Britain continued US period of “neutrality” Jay’s Treaty: 1794 treaty between US and Britain designed to ease tensions between both nations Britain agreed to abandon forts occupied in interior of continent Did not agree over rights of American ships Case of the War of 1812

13 Washington’s Farewell Address
Did not run for 3rd term Spoke against party politics Warned that America should not enter into alliances that would cause them to get involved in foreign wars

14 Presidency of John Adams 1796-1800)
Washington’s VP Had 4 largely unsuccessful years in office Federalists vs. Republicans Foreign Policy XYZ Affair France was his biggest problem Undeclared war with France (Trying to stay neural; Washington’s farewell address; opted for peace for 2 years.)

15 The Alien and Sedition Acts
Alien Act: gave the president the right to deport any immigrant who was felt to be “dangerous to the peace and safety of the U.S” Sedition Act: stated that the administration cold prohibit any attacks on the president or Congress that were deemed to be “malicious”

16 Elections of 1800 Jefferson (Republican candidate) and Burr (VP) each received 73% of electoral votes Threw election to House of Reps, where each state received one vote Thomas Jefferson wins Alien and Sedition Acts were not renewed Taxes such as Whiskey tax eliminated Opposed further expansion of national debt Supported National Bank

17 Reform of Courts Marbury v. Madison Judicial Review:
Congress passed Judiciary Act creating a large number of federal courts “ Midnight appointments” Marbury v. Madison Marshall increased power of the Supreme Court in this 1803 decision Judicial Review: Marshall stated that the US Supreme Court ultimately had the power to decide on the constitutionality of any law passed by US Congress or by the legislature of any state

18 Westward Expansion Jefferson encouraged westward expansion (Area between Appalachian Mts. And Mississippi River) Over 1 million lived there in 1800 Louisiana Purchase Napoleon offered to sell to US for $15 million Double the size of the US

19 European Wars Sill Over to America
Napoleonic wars of European ( ) had a powerful impact on US US had neutral stance on war Embargo Act of 1807: American ships could not enter the seas until England and France stopped their harassment of American shipping; unpopular act by Jefferson Non-Intercourse Act : Introduced by Madison in 1808, opened trade with all except England and France

20 Madison’s Presidency Henry Clay’s American System
Relationships between Britain, France & US Chesapeake Napoleon's War Jay’s Treaty All leading up to the War of 1812

21 War of 1812 Reasons for War US frustrated by the continued British policies of impressments and seizure of ships Madison formally asked Congress to declare war in June of 1812 Connections with Britain and Native Americans

22 The American System Proposed by Henry Clay and other nationalists
American System: to make US less economically dependent on Europe by encouraging production of goods in the US that had been previously imported Led to 2nd National Bank; credit readily available Tariff of 1816: raised tariff rates to nearly 22%

23 The Growth of the Factory 1820s
Economic growth was a key component of Henry Clay ‘s American System Putting-out system: merchants would buy raw materials, recruit dozens-hundreds of farm families to do work, and then sell finished product Late 1780s: textile industry started to use power-driven machines and interchangeable parts Lowell System: young women brought into workforce

24 “Era of Good Feelings” James Monroe (1817-1825) Panic of 1819
high unemployment as well as increased foreclosures and bankruptcies. Some critics derided Monroe for not responding more forcefully to the depression Tallmadge Amendment Question whether Missouri should be free or slave state Missouri Compromise Henry Clay and Westward Expansion

25 Missouri Compromise 1820 By 1819 there were 11 slave and 11 free states In 1820, Speaker of the House Henry Clay engineered the Missouri Compromise Maine entered Union as a free slave, Missouri entered as a slave state In the Louisiana Territory, any state north of 36 degrees had to come in as free states

26 The Monroe Doctrine 1823 Stated that countries in the Western Hemisphere were no off-limits to European control Noncolonization: not to interfere wih affairs Nonintervention: not to colonize Latin American countries US cannot support not strong enough army/navy but had Britain’s great navy, but will not abide by document

27 Election of 1824 William Crawford Henry Clay John Q. Adams (wins)
Andrew Jackson: Won most of popular votes; only 38% of electoral votes Election turned towards House of Reps. Speaker of the House Clay threw support to Adams Adams appointed Clay as Secretary of State Jackson tried to corrupt Adams’ presidency “corrupt bargain” between Adams and Clay

28 Significance of JQA’s presidency
supported internal improvements including the extension of the Cumberland Road In 1828, the so-called "tariff of abominations" was passed Its goal was to protect domestic manufacturing strongly opposed in the South led Vice President John C. Calhoun to argue again for the right of nullification - to have South Carolina nullify it by ruling it unconstitutional.

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