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The Dynamic Environment of International Trade

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1 The Dynamic Environment of International Trade
Chapter 2

2 History of World Trade Early Twentieth Century Late Twentieth Century
Great Depression World War II Late Twentieth Century Marshall Plan Decolonization Lowering of trade restrictions US invested quite heavily in other countries, particularly in rebuilding Europe. Led to increased demand for American goods, as well as utilizing the labor surplus caused by soldiers returning. Source:

3 Source:
History of World Trade Problems with internationalization in 1960’s Resistance to U.S. investment Increasing competition U.S. Balance of Trade = Trade surplus Since 1971= Trade deficit Free trade NAFTA Asian markets Other countries distrusted the American investment and influence, so demanded that sell interests in companies, protectionist laws, or tight control. Other countries began to become industrialized and competitive. Source:

4 History of World Trade Recent Trends Rise of other economies
Smaller companies going global

5 Balance of Payments What is it?
Receipts from other countries (plus side): Export sales Money spent by foreign tourists Foreign investments into the U.S. Foreign government payments Payments to other countries (negative side): Imports Spending by American tourists overseas New overseas investments Cost of economic and military aid All countries have money which flows into and out of them. The BoP is the system of accounts which keeps track of them. Must always balance!

6 Balance of Payments Three types of accounts
Current account Capital account Reserves account If a country’s expenditures > income, its citizens must reduce standard of living, or its money will lose value against other countries’. Deficit= Loss of value for the dollar Current- Record of all merchandise exports, imports, and services plus transfers of funds Capital- Record of direct investment, portfolio investment, s-t capital movements Reserves- Imports and exports of gold, increases or decreases in foreign exchange, increases or decreases in liabilities to foreign exchange

7 Protectionism Acts to “protect” a country’s markets from foreign competitors Why? Infant industry National defense Industrialization of underdeveloped countries

8 Protectionism Tariffs Quotas Voluntary Export Restraints
A tax on imported goods Quotas A unit or dollar limit placed on a good Sometimes paired with tariffs Voluntary Export Restraints Boycotts and Embargoes What’s the difference? VER- A country agrees to only export a certain number of a product. Done in order to prevent quotas or tariffs. Japan and US with cars Boycott- Government refuses to buy from a certain country. Embargo- A country refuses to sell to a certain a country.

9 Protectionism Monetary Barriers Standards Antidumping Penalties
Blocked currency Differential exchange rate Government approval to secure foreign exchange Standards Antidumping Penalties Refuse to allow importers to exchange their currency into sellers’ currency DER- Get different exchange rates on different products. For example, give a better rate for desirable products, GAtSFE- Requires permission to exchange domestic currency for foreign currency Set standards so high that they cannot be met- thus, restrict trade (knotholes in lumber going to Japan) Dumping- Selling for less than its costs in order to gain marketshare. Also helps to get rid of excess products.

10 Easing Trade Restrictions
Market access Allows US to retaliate against protectionism Export expansion Easier to gain an export license Government responsible for exporter needs Import relief Offers assistance to companies impacted by imports

11 Easing Trade Restrictions
General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade U.S. and 22 other countries Reduces tariffs Set up an organization to monitor trade Resulted in deep cuts of tariffs

12 Easing Trade Restrictions
World Trade Organization Began in 1995 Governs trade Settles disputes and issues penalties against countries practicing protectionism

13 Easing Trade Restrictions
International Monetary Fund Stabilize exchange rates Lends money to member countries Special drawing rights Average base of value to counter fluctuations in world gold values Helps to tie down values

14 Easing Trade Restrictions
World Bank Group Lend money and provide assistance to developing countries Mediate between investors and foreign governments

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