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Presentation on theme: "CHAPTER XXV INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS"— Presentation transcript:

General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) World Trade Organization (WTO) International Chamber of Commerce (ICC) Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) Wassenaar Arrangement on Export Controls G-7 G-20

2 General Agreement on Tariffs & Trade (GATT)
Signed by 23 nations after World War II on October 30, 1947 and took effect on June 30,1948 An interim measure to form Int’l Trade Organization (ITO) Final leg of a triad after IMF & IBRD (World Bank) U.S. failed to ratify in 1950 & effectively killed ITO To promote economic growth and development by liberalizing world trade through elimination or reduction of import tariffs and non-tariff barriers

3 General Agreement on Tariffs & Trade (GATT)
In order to belong to GATT (1) Members were required to reduce tariffs and drop barriers (2) Had to adhere to Most Favored Nation (MFN) clause: If a country gives a tariff reduction to another country, it should grant the same concession to all other member nations on a non-discriminatory basis Provided basic set of rules by which trade negotiations took place and a mechanism for monitoring the implementation of these rules

4 General Agreement on Tariffs & Trade (GATT)
GATT-sponsored trade rounds (or simply rounds): Multilateral Trade Negotiations 1st , 1947, Tariffs, 23 countries 2nd, 1949, Tariffs, 13 countries 3rd, 1951, Tariffs, 38 countries 4th, 1956, Tariffs, 26 countries 5th, , Dillon Round, Tariffs, 26 countries. First time used ‘Round” 6th, , Kennedy Round, Tariffs & Anti-dumping measures, 62 countries

5 General Agreement on Tariffs & Trade (GATT)
7th, , Tokyo Round, Tariffs & Non-tariffs measures, 102 countries Reduced the average tariff on industrial products by one-third to 4.7% 8th, , Uruguay Round, 123 countries Launched in September 1986, in Punta del Este, Uruguay & concluded on Dec.15,1993. But a few more weeks for final touches on market access. Took 7 and a half years

6 General Agreement on Tariffs & Trade (GATT)
Uruguay Round (continued): Signed by 123 nations on April 15, 1994 in Marrakesh, Morocco Created Word Trade Organization (WTO) Key new areas of agreement Services Government procurement policies Intellectual property rights-Patents, Trademarks, Copyrights Textiles Agriculture

7 World Trade Organization
WTO began its operation on January 1, 1995 as a result of the Uruguay Round and replaced the old GATT (GATT 1947). GATT became one of many WTO Agreements (GATT 1994) China joined WTO on 12/11/2001 and Taiwan (Chinese Taipei) on 1/1/2002. Russia joined on Aug. 22, 2012 159 members as of Mar. 2, 2013 with Tajikistan Governing body of multilateral trading system Platform for trade dispute settlements

8 World Trade Organization
Objectives To help world trade flow as smoothly, freely, fairly, and predictably as possible by Reduction of tariffs Reduction of non-tariff barriers Elimination of discriminatory treatment

9 Agreement on Goods: General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT)
WTO Agreements Final Act of the Uruguay Round of trade negotiations Agreement on Goods: General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) Agreement on Services: General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS) Agreement on Intellectual Property: Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS)

10 WTO Agreements Agreement on Investment: Agreement on Trade-Related Investment Measures (TRIMS) Agreement on Textiles and Clothing Agreement on Agriculture Agreement on Government Procurement Agreement on Trade Policy Review Mechanism Agreement on Dispute Settlement

11 Agreement on Goods GATT (GA on Tariffs & Trade)
WTO’s principal rule-book for trade in goods Council for Trade in Goods (Goods Council): Consists of all member countries Committees on Agriculture Market Access for Goods Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures Subsidies & Countervailing Measures Anti-Dumping Practices Customs Valuation

12 Agreement on Goods GATT (GA on Tariffs & Trade) (cont.)
Committees on (continued) Rules of Origin Import Licensing Investment Safeguards Information Technology Agreement Working Group (Party) on State-Trading Enterprises

13 General Agreement on Services
GATS (GA on Trade in Services) Banking, Insurance, Telecommunications, Tourism, Hotel, Car Rental, Transportation, Etc. Principles of freer and fairer trade in services Members made individual commitments (schedules) for marketing opening for service sectors

14 General Agreement on Services
GATS (GA on Trade in Services) (cont.) Council for Trade in Services (Services Council) Committees on Trade in Financial Services Specific Commitments Working Groups (Parties) Domestic Regulations GATS Rules

15 Agreement on Intellectual Property
TRIPs (Trade-Related Intellectual Property Rights) Rules for trade in ideas & creativity Applies to only trade-related intellectual properties Protection of Intellectual Properties: Copyrights, Trademarks, Geographical names used to identify products, Industrial designs, integrated circuit layout designs, trade secrets

16 Agreement on Investment
TRIMs (Trade-Related Investment Measures) Applies only to investment measures that affect trade in goods. No discrimination against foreigners or foreign products (violates “national treatment” principles of GATT). No restrictions in quantities (violates “prohibition of quantitative restrictions” of the GATT) No requirement for particular levels of local procurement by an enterprise (“local content requirements”). No measures which limit a company’s imports or set targets for the company to export (“trade balancing requirements”)

17 Agreement on Textiles & Clothing (ATC)
From 1974 to 1994: Under Multifiber Agreement (MFA). Textile quota From 1995, Fully integrated into normal GATT rules of WTO in 10 years January 1, 2005, ATC no longer exists. No quota. Only WTO agreement that has self-destruction built-in

18 Agreement on Agriculture
New Rules and Commitments: Requires members to make more market-oriented policies Market Access: Tariffs only or Tariffication which is converting quota & other restrictions to tariff Domestic Support: Domestic support that has a direct effect on production and trade must be cut back. Export Subsidies: Prohibits export subsidies unless specified in a member’s lists of commitment. Must cut both the amount of subsidies and quantities that receive subsidies.

19 Agreement on Agriculture
Regulations for Animal and Plant Products: A separate agreement on food safety and animal & plant health standards Allows countries to set their own standards Must be based on science (scientific justification) Should not arbitrarily or unjustifiably discriminate between countries Encouraged to use international standards, guidelines and recommendations.

20 Agreement on Government Procurement
To open up government procurements to international competition. A "plurilateral" agreement, which applies only WTO Members who have acceded to the Agreement, but not all Members. Currently 40 WTO Members Members make laws, regulations, procedures and practices regarding government procurement more transparent Members do not protect domestic products or suppliers, or discriminate against foreign products or suppliers.

21 Agreement on Government Procurement
Extends international competition to procurement of national and local government entities. Extends coverage to services (including construction services), procurement at the sub-central level (for example, states, provinces, departments and prefectures), and procurement by public utilities. Members required to put in place domestic procedures by which aggrieved private bidders can challenge procurement decisions and obtain redress

22 Agreement on Government Procurement
Applies to contracts worth more than specified threshold values. In the USA, Central (Federal) government: 130,000 SDRs for supplies & services Sub-central government (State): 355,000 SDRs for supplies & services All other entities: 400,000 SDRs for supplies & services For construction contracts: 5 million SDRs Some services excluded: Transportation, dredging, R & D, military support, etc. 1 SDR=US$1.58 as of May 23, 2011

23 Agreement on Trade Policy Review Mechanism (TPRM)
To improve transparency To create a greater understanding members’ trade policies To asses their impact Members must undergo periodic scrutiny & review of their trade policy

24 Agreement on Dispute Settlement
Procedures for resolving trade disputes To enforce rules and ensure that trade flows smoothly Dispute settlement is the central pillar of the multilateral trading system. Based on clearly-defined rules with timetables for completing a case Priority is to settle disputes through consultations, if possible. About one-third of cases have been settled at consultation stage or still in consultations

25 Agreement on Dispute Settlement
Understanding on Rules and Procedures Governing on the Settlement of Disputes Called Dispute Settlement Understanding (DSU) Member should not take unilateral action against perceived violations of trade rules, but seek resolution thru Multilateral dispute settlement system, and abide by its rulings and findings

26 Agreement on Dispute Settlement
Timetable: Target figures. Flexible 60 days Consultations, mediations 45 days Panel setup and panelists appointed 6 mos. Final panel report to dispute parties 3 weeks Final panel report to WTO members 60 days Dispute Settlement Body adopts report (if not appealed) Total 1 year without appeal 60-90 days Appeals report 30 days Dispute Settlement Body adopts appeals report Total 1 year 3 months with appeals In case of urgency like perishable goods, the panel report deadline is shortened to 3 months from 6 months.

27 Agreement on Dispute Settlement
Dispute Settlement Body (DSB) General Council consisting of all WTO members Settling disputes is the responsibility of the DSB. If consultations among parties in dispute by WTO Director-General fails, complaining country can ask for a panel to be appointed. Panel is composed of 3 panelists unless parties specially agree to have 5 panelists. Director-General suggests potential panelists to disputing parties

28 Agreement on Dispute Settlement
Dispute Settlement Body If parties do not agree on panelists, Director-General appoints panelists. Panel’s final report can only be rejected by consensus in the Dispute Settlement Body (DSB). Almost always adopted unless appealed. Therefore, panel’s final report becomes the DSB’s ruling and recommendation unless consensus rejects it. Both sides can appeal the panel’s final report.

29 Agreement on Dispute Settlement
Appeals Any appeal must be limited to issues of law covered in the panel report and the legal interpretation by the panel Each appeal is heard by 3 members of a permanent 7-member Appellate Body set up by the DSB. Members have 4-year terms. Appellate Body’s appeal reports are unconditionally accepted by DSB unless rejected with consensus including the complainant country

30 Agreement on Dispute Settlement
Implementation of Rulings & Recommendations of DSB Losing country is required to bring its policy into line with the rulings and recommendations. enter into negotiations with complaining country to determine mutually acceptable compensation such as tariff reduction If not agreed, DSB must grant winning country permission to apply limited trade sanctions such as suspending concessions or imposing punitive high tariffs

31 Agreement on Dispute Settlement
Filings of Dispute Settlements From Jan 1995 to June 2011: 424 cases 1st filing by Singapore against Malaysia on Prohibition of Imports of Polyethylene and Polypropylene on January 10, 1995 (Case DS1). 25 cases in 1995 Highest 50 cases in 1997 Lowest 12 cases in 2005 Trend is the less dispute filings as years pass, thanks to better compliance by the WTO member countries.

32 Agreement on Dispute Settlement
Filings of Dispute Settlements (Cont.) The United States was involved in 210 cases: 50% disputes; 97 cases as Complainant and 113 cases as Respondent (Defendant). The 1st complaint filed by the United States was against South Korea’s Measures Concerning the Testing and Inspection of Agricultural Products on April 4, 1995 (Case No. DS3). The 1st complaint filed against the United States was by Venezuela on Standards for Reformulated and Conventional Gasoline on January 24, 1995 (Case No. DS2).

33 WTO Key Principles Trade without discrimination:
Most Favored Nation (MFN) National treatment Predictable and growing access to markets Tariff reductions on goods Binding national schedule for opening services Promotion of fair competition Sets rules on compensating duties against dumping and foreign government subsidies

34 WTO Key Principles Encouraging development & economic reform of developing countries Industrial countries assist trade of developing countries by conferring tariff preference programs such as GSP

35 WTO Main Functions Administering and implementing multilateral trade agreements Forum for multilateral trade negotiations Resolving trade disputes Monitoring national trade policies of members Providing technical assistance and training to developing countries Cooperating with other international institutes

36 WTO Structure Ministerial Conference: Highest authority. Meet every two years General Council: Ambassadors or heads of delegation in Geneva. Meets as Trade Policy Review Body Dispute Settlement Body Goods Council, Service Council and Intellectual Property Council, and so on Numerous specialized committees and working groups Secretariat: Day-to-day operations by Director-General, Four Deputy D.G.s, and 500 staff

37 International Chamber of Commerce (ICC)
Over 100 member nations International Trade Rules issued by ICC Incoterms 2010 Uniform Customs and Practices (UCP) for Documentary Credit (2007 Revision), ICC Publication No. 600 Uniform Rules for Collections (ICC Publication No. 522)

38 Organization for Economic Cooperation & Development (OECD)
Most members are developed countries: 34 Nations OECD’s member countries share a commitment to the democratic government and the market economy Best known for its publications and its statistics. OECD’s work covers economic and social issues from macroeconomics to trade, education, development, science, and innovation.

39 Wassenaar Arrangement on Export Controls for Conventional Arms and Dual-Use Goods and Technology
Adopted by 33 countries in Replaced the Coordinating Committee on Multilateral Export Control (COCOM) which was suspended March 31, 1994 To restrict the export of conventional weapons and sensitive dual-use goods and technology to hostile nations Current membership: 40 countries

40 G-7/G-8 Not an international organization, but a gathering or a forum of the most developed countries In 1975: G-6 consisting of France, Germany (West) , Italy, Japan, the U.K. and the U.S.A. after oil crisis in 1970s In 1976, Canada joined & made it G-7 Finance ministers meet two or three times a year Summit meeting of heads of government: Once a year Also called G-8 by adding Russia

41 G-20 (Group of 20) Group of 20 Finance Ministers & Central Bank Governors. Established in 1999 in the wake of 1997 Asian Financial crisis Recently summit meetings of heads of states have been introduced. 90% of world GDP, 80% of world trade, and two-thirds of the world population No secretariat or staff. Chair rotates annually, 2010 Korea, 2011 France Agreed to replace the G-8 at the 2009 summits meeting in Pittsburg

42 G-20 (Group of 20) Argentina Australia Brazil Canada China France
Germany India Indonesia Italy Japan Mexico Russia Saudi Arabia South Africa South Korea Turkey United Kingdom United States European Union


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