2 Outline Protectionism The effect of a tariff on imports The effect of tariffs on social welfareVarious protectionist methodsArguments in favor of protectionismArguments against protectionism
3 ProtectionismBarriers to international trade adopted by the government to protect the domestic industry. Protectionist measures include tariff and non-tariff barriers.
4 Barriers to trade Tariffs Non-Tariff Barriers (NTB) A tariff is a tax on imports.Non-Tariff Barriers (NTB)Non-tariff barriers, unlike tariffs are less direct protectionist measures, which are used to reduce the volume of imports.
5 The effect of a tariff on imports The imposition of the tariff reduced imports from Qs1-Qd1 to Qs2-Qd2PSPw + tariffPwSwDQQs1Qs2Qd2Qd1imports
6 Consumer surplusThe consumer surplus is the difference between the maximum price that consumers are willing to pay and the price that they actually pay.PSPeDQ
7 Producer surplusThe producer surplus is the difference between the minimum price that producers are willing to charge and the price that they actually charge.PSPeDQ
8 The effect of a tariff on welfare PSConsumer surplusPwSwDQQs1Qs2Qd2Qd1imports
9 The effect of a tariff on welfare PSThe imposition of the tariff reduces the consumer surplusConsumer surplusPw + tariffPwSwDQQs2Qd2imports
10 The effect of a tariff on welfare Area a: increase in producer surplus due to tariffArea c: government tariff revenueAreas b and d: dead-weight loss to society due to tariffWhile producers and the government gain from the tariff, their combined gain is smaller than the loss to the consumer.PSConsumer surplusPw + tariffacdbPwSwDQQs2Qd2imports
11 Non- Tariff Barriers (NTBs) QuotasA limit on the quantity that could be imported.Excessive customs formalitiesComplex and excessive customs formalities delay the imports of goods.
12 Non- Tariff Barriers (NTBs) VERVoluntary export restraints are bilateral agreements whereby one country voluntarily agrees to restrict the volume of its exports to the other country.
13 Non- Tariff Barriers (NTBs) Excessive standard requirementsThese could be health and safety standards, or other standard requirements. In this case, imports are restricted by imposing high standards that could only be met with difficulty by the exporters.
14 Non- Tariff Barriers (NTBs) SubsidiesSubsidies are payments by the government to producers to lower the price of a good or service. Subsidies lower the price of domestic goods and encourage consumers to buy them instead of imports.
15 The effect of a subsidy on imports A subsidy reduces imports from Qs1-Qd1 to Qs2-Qd1PwSwDQQs1Qs2Qd1imports
16 Arguments for protectionism To support infant industriesAn infant industry is an industry in its early stages of development.Protecting a newly formed industry through trade barriers will shield it from competition and allow it to mature.For strategic reasonsIt would be unadvisable to overly rely on food imports as they could be threatened at times of war.
17 Arguments for protectionism To improve the balance of paymentsThe balance of payment is a set of accounts recording the earnings from exports and capital inflows as well as payments for imports and capital outflows.When the outflows of foreign currency exceed the inflows, the balance of payment is in deficit.Protectionist measures reduce the amount of imports and may result in an improvement in the balance of payment.
18 Arguments for protectionism To avoid overspecializationProducing only those goods in which a country has a comparative advantage in, may result in being too dependent on few goods or services.e.g. Many south American countries were hit hard by the plummeting coffee prices due to their economies’ reliance on this crop.
19 Arguments for protectionism To prevent DumpingDumping refers to exporting goods at a lower price than the price for which the good is sold in the home country.Dumping occurs when a good is sold at a price lower than its cost of productionprotectionist measures could be imposed as an anti-dumping prevention
20 Arguments against protectionism Protectionism results in a net loss in social welfareThe loss in consumer surplus, which results from the higher import prices and the reduced consumption exceeds the gain in producer surplus, which results from the higher price and the increased production and the gain in tariff revenues to the government.
21 Arguments against protectionism Uncompetitive exportsShielding the domestic industry from competition may lead to a decline in productive efficiency. Domestic firms will not keep up with technological advancements and may become less competitive in international markets.
22 Arguments against protectionism RetaliationThe imposition of tariffs and NTBs exposes the country to retaliation from trading partners.Exports may decrease as trading partners retaliate by imposing tariffs on the country’s exports.