# The Integral Test.

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The Integral Test

p-Series and Harmonic Series
A second type of series has a simple arithmetic test for convergence or divergence. A series of the form is a p-series, where p is a positive constant. For p = 1, the series is the harmonic series. p-series Harmonic series

p-Series and Harmonic Series
A general harmonic series of the form In music, strings of the same material, diameter, and tension, whose lengths form a harmonic series, produce harmonic tones.

Direct Comparison Test
For example, in the following pairs, the second series cannot be tested by the same convergence test as the first series even though it is similar to the first.

Direct Comparison Test

Limit Comparison Test Often a given series closely resembles a p -series or a geometric series, yet you cannot establish the term- by-term comparison necessary to apply the Direct Comparison Test. Under these circumstances you may be able to apply a second comparison test, called the Limit Comparison Test.

Alternating Series

Alternating Series Remainder
For a convergent alternating series, the partial sum SN can be a useful approximation for the sum S of the series. The error involved in using S  SN is the remainder RN = S – SN.

Absolute and Conditional Convergence

Absolute and Conditional Convergence
The converse of Theorem 9.16 is not true. For instance, the alternating harmonic series converges by the Alternating Series Test. Yet the harmonic series diverges. This type of convergence is called conditional.