Presentation on theme: "Beckett Energy Systems"— Presentation transcript:
1 Beckett Energy Systems IEEE EnergyTech 2012Suggested Test Protocol for Distributed Energy Storage Systems at “The Edge of the Grid”John ButkowskiBeckett Energy Systems
2 Distributed Energy Storage at the Grid Edge Scalable and ModularIn 25kW/25kWh incrementsFor 2 – 8 HomesUtility Initiated Communications and ControlGrid Tied – BidirectionalTrue Islanding Capability and Synchronous return
3 Test Protocol Objective Develop a universal test protocol to ensure that a Distributed Energy Storage System (DESS) consisting of a Power Conversion and Battery System and can safely perform applications and grid compatibility functions required for “edge of grid” operation.
4 Test ProtocolFive “Basic” Tests - ensure the DESS is safe to connect to the power grid. The DESS SHOULD NOT be connected to the power grid until these tests are complete. These tests are performed using an isolated source such as a generator, MG set, and/or a programmable supply.Seven “Power Quality” Tests – characterize the power quality of the DESS.“Use Case” Tests - assess functions of the DESS that are not common to all systems but provide value to the utilities.
5 Basic Test Overview Hardware/Software Review Basic Command Review Performance ReviewUnintentional IslandingAbnormal Voltage and Frequency
6 Test 1 - Hardware and Software Review Basic TestsTest 1 - Hardware and Software ReviewDocument hardware / software receivedReview workmanship and internal topologyReview system documentation/training from the manufacturer
7 Test 2 - Basic Command Review Basic TestsTest 2 - Basic Command ReviewVerify the DESS will turn on and off properly when it receives the charge and discharge commandsConfirm the function of any safety disconnects or Emergency Power Off features
8 Test 3 - Performance Review Basic TestsTest 3 - Performance ReviewRecord the utility bus AC waveforms with the DESS connectedRecord the DC waveforms of the battery charge/discharge functionsVerify the ability of the system to charge and discharge at various range of power levels
9 Test 4 - Grid Compatibility: Unintentional Islanding Basic TestsTest 4 - Grid Compatibility:Unintentional IslandingVerify that the DESS disconnects from the grid within two seconds of an islanding condition. This test ensures that power will not be fed back into the grid in the event of a grid outage. (Note that this test does not address any downstream islanding capabilities, only loss of grid power.)
10 Test 5 - Grid Compatibility: Abnormal Voltage & Frequency Basic TestsTest 5 - Grid Compatibility: Abnormal Voltage & FrequencyVerify that the DESS must disconnect when presented with abnormal voltage and frequency. These tests will be performed while the DESS is discharging 100% rated power into the utility bus
11 Power Quality Tests DC Current Measurement Inrush Current Transfer ProfileReconnect Following Abnormal Condition DisconnectHarmonicsFlickerEfficiency / Parasitic Losses
12 Test 6 - DC Current Measurement Power Quality TestsTest 6 - DC Current MeasurementVerify that an inverter that connects to the grid complies with the DC injection limit specified in IEEE Std 1547 (DC current injection is less than 0.5% of the full rated output current)
13 Power Quality Tests Test 7 - Inrush Current Measure the potential for inrush current when a DESS is energized. The result is particularly important for systems containing a transformer or certain types of input filters since the inrush can be significantly higher than the full load operating current.
14 Test 8 - Transfer Profile Power Quality TestsTest 8 - Transfer ProfileCharacterize the DESS specific response for connecting and synchronizing to the grid during initiation of charge and discharge cycles.During this test the voltage level before and after connection will be evaluated to ensure the system does not exceed the IEEE std allowance of 5% voltage fluctuation.
15 Test 9 - Reconnect Following Abnormal Condition Disconnect Extended Power Quality TestsTest 9 - Reconnect Following Abnormal Condition DisconnectTo evaluate the performance of the DESS reconnect timer which delays the reconnection to the utility bus following a trip event. Test is conducted at full rated output power.
16 Power Quality Tests Test 10 - Harmonics This test measures the Total Harmonic Distortion (THD) present at the DESS input/output during charge and discharge at 100% of full rated discharge.
17 Power Quality TestsTest 11 - FlickerCharacterize the flicker parameters (voltage fluctuations resulting in perceptible light flicker) associated with the DESS during start-up.
18 Test 12 – Efficiency / Parasitic Losses Power Quality TestsTest 12 – Efficiency / Parasitic LossesCharacterize round trip efficiency through a full charge/discharge cycle at unity power factor.Measure the no-load losses of the DESS when it is not charging or discharging. This information can be used along with the round-trip efficiency data to estimate total losses based on use profiles.
19 Use Case Tests Watt and VAR Support Downstream Step Load Downstream OverloadDownstream Island InitiationResynchronization Following Downstream IslandingDownstream Voltage Total Harmonic Distortion
20 Test 13 - Watt and VAR Support Use Case TestsTest 13 - Watt and VAR SupportThis test is designed for DESS’s that are capable of sourcing and sinking reactive power on command. This functionality is important to utilities since they can use DES systems with this capability to provide reactive power compensation to the grid as needed. This test will determine the limits of the DESS’s ability to transmit and receive power in all four quadrants (sourcing and sinking both watts and VARs).
21 Test 14 - Downstream Step Load Use Case TestsTest 14 - Downstream Step LoadThis test assesses the system’s ability to regulate output voltage during step load changes. It should only be performed on DESS’s with downstream islanding capability, and should be performed during a downstream islanding condition. For a DESS system that is grid connected, a step load should not be a significant issue since the grid typically has much lower source impedance than the DESS inverter.
22 Test 15 - Downstream Overload Use Case TestsTest 15 - Downstream OverloadThis test profiles the DESS inverter’s overload capability during an intentional islanding event and only applies to DESS’s with downstream islanding capability. This test is intended to verify the system can meet its overload rating. Test points (overload magnitude and time) should be chosen based on each system’s specifications, overload protection and anticipated use.
23 Test 16 - Downstream Island Initiation Use Case TestsTest 16 - Downstream Island InitiationDuring unfavorable line conditions (outage, over- or under-voltage, frequency deviations, etc.), the system should disconnect from the utility bus. Systems with islanding functionality will continue to supply a downstream load with power until the stored energy runs out. This test records the PQ profile of this transfer to island mode. This should not be confused with the unintentional islanding test. In island mode, the DESS system has a separate island bus from the utility bus which it can keep energized during outages on the power grid. This test should only be performed on systems with islanding functionality.
24 Test 17 - Resynchronization Following Downstream Islanding Use Case TestsTest 17 - Resynchronization Following Downstream IslandingVerify that after favorable line conditions return, DESS will resync the island bus to the utility bus and return downstream load to utility power following a 5 minute minimum time out. This test only applies to DESS’s with downstream islanding capability.
25 Test 18 - Downstream Voltage Total Harmonic Distortion (THD) Use Case TestsTest 18 - Downstream Voltage Total Harmonic Distortion (THD)During an islanding condition, the DESS inverter serves as the source for downstream loads. This test determines the voltage THD of the DESS inverter. The measured THD will be compared with the recommended limits found in IEEE Std. 519.
26 Energy Storage“Never before in history has innovation offered promise of so much to so many in so short a time.” Bill Gates