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CSI2911 / SEG2911 / ELG2911 Professional Practice Pratique professionnelle TOPIC 1 Introduction, History of Computing & Engineering Histoire dinformatique.

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Presentation on theme: "CSI2911 / SEG2911 / ELG2911 Professional Practice Pratique professionnelle TOPIC 1 Introduction, History of Computing & Engineering Histoire dinformatique."— Presentation transcript:

1 CSI2911 / SEG2911 / ELG2911 Professional Practice Pratique professionnelle TOPIC 1 Introduction, History of Computing & Engineering Histoire dinformatique et de génie Some of the material in these slides is derived from slides produced by Sara Basse, the Author of the Gift of Fire textbook, and also other professors who have taught this course including Stan Matwin, Liam Peyton, Emil Petriu and Claude DAmours

2 EECS 2911 - Lethbridge2 Outline of the course / Plan du cours See the syllabus on the web / Voir le syllabus Many of the slides are adapted from those supplied by the textbook authors, and other professors who have taught this course including Emil Petriu, Stan Matwin, Claude DAmours, Carlisle Adams, and Liam Peyton

3 Teaching assistants / assistants à l'enseignement Amir Afrasiabi Rad Ashwin Panchapakesan Lei Chen Farzin Farhadi-Niaki Vincent Barnabé-Lortie(devoirs en Français) EECS 2911 - Lethbridge3

4 4 Why this course? (1) Pourquoi ce cours? Computing and electrical engineering have a tremendous positive impact we want to enhance Informatique et de génie électrique ont un impact extrêmement positif que nous voulons améliorer E.g. Allowing us to communicate and access information in ways we never imagined / Ils nous permettent de communiquer et d'accéder à l'information de façon que nous n'avons jamais imaginé Giving us entertainment and fun / Ils nous donnent divertissement et de plaisir Stimulating the economy with business opportunities / Ils stimulent l'économie avec des activités commerciales

5 EECS 2911 - Lethbridge5 Why this course? (2) Pourquoi ce cours? Positive / Positif … Generating medical breakthroughs by analysing the genome and proteome / Ils génèrent des des découvertes médicales en analysant le génome et du protéome Creating and distributing the energy civilization needs / Ils créent et distribuent l'énergie nécessaire à civilisation Making us all more productive and comfortable at work and play / Ils nous font tous plus productifs et à l'aise quand nous travaillons et jouons Automating uninteresting, repetitive tasks / Ils automatisent les tâches qui sont sans intérêt ou répétitif

6 EECS 2911 - Lethbridge6 Why this course? (3) Pourquoi ce cours? But, technology can have a tremendous negative impact we want to avoid / Mais, la technologie peut avoir un impact négatif énorme que nous voulons éviter Disasters and other societal problems can be caused by / Les catastrophes et d'autres problèmes de société peut être causée par Critical incidents where technology was at fault / Les incidents critiques où la technologie était en faute -Planes, trains, spaceships and automobiles crashing / Accidents d'avions, les trains, les vaisseaux spatiaux et les voitures -Overdosing patients / surdosage des patients -Failures of financial systems / Défaillances des systèmes financiers

7 EECS 2911 - Lethbridge7 Why this course? (4) Pourquoi ce cours? Negative / Negatif Management failures / Échecs majeurs de gestion -Huge cost over-runs from poorly run projects / Énormes dépassements de coûts des projets mal gérés Privacy breaches / violations de la confidentialité The actions of hackers and other criminals / Les actions des pirates et autres criminels Etc.

8 The solution: Professionalism / La solution: le professionnalisme Taking responsibility for our work / Assumer la responsabilité pour le travail que nous faisons Pride in quality work / La fierté de la qualité du travail Acting ethically to clients, colleagues, management, society and the environment / Agir de façon éthique pour les clients, les collègues, la direction, la société et l'environnement EECS 2911 - Lethbridge8

9 Professionalism(e) (2) Ensuring we are properly educated know a little of the history of our field have depth of understanding apply best practices S'assurer que nous sommes bien renseignés nous connaissons un peu de l'histoire de notre domaine, nous avons profondeur de compréhension nous appliquons les meilleures pratiques EECS 2911 - Lethbridge9

10 Professionalism(e) (3) Understanding risks, preventing failures / Comprendre les risques et la prévention des échecs Continual improvement of ourselves, our profession and our technology / L'amélioration continue de nous- mêmes, notre profession et notre technologie EECS 2911 - Lethbridge10

11 Disciplines in EECS (1) Electrical engineers / Les ingénieurs électriques Since 1800s Design power, electronics, communication, control systems, instrumentation and devices Computer scientists / Les informaticiens Since 1940s Develop software, data structures, algorithms, hardware and scientific underpinnngs of computing EECS 2911 - Lethbridge11

12 Disciplines in EECS (2) Computer engineers / Les ingénieurs informaticiens Offshoot of EE and CS in 1970s Design hardware and hardware-software systems Software engineers / Les ingénieurs logiciels Offshoot of computer science in 1980s Apply engineering methods to large scale software EECS 2911 - Lethbridge12

13 Background questions / Questions générales Answer with Top Hat What program are you in? / Dans quel programme êtes- vous inscrit? How well do you understand English? / Comment comprenez-vous langlais? How well do you understand French? / Comment comprenez-vous le français? EECS 2911 - Lethbridge13

14 Historical perspective: Antiquity Science Geometry, Algebra, Philosophy, Production of goods and services Artisans, Guilds Engineering Military Engineering Early civil engineering – Heating systems, viaducts EECS 2911 - Lethbridge14

15 Historical perspective: 17 th - 18 th Century Science Calculus, Logic, Chemistry, Physics Production of goods and services Still largely artisans and guilds Engineering Civil and Mechanical engineering EECS 2911 - Lethbridge15

16 Historical perspective: 19 th Century Science Rapid advances in all areas. Biology develops Production of goods and services Industrial revolution; railroads for distribution Engineering Many core principles developed Ability to draw up specifications based on an understanding of the science and engineering principles Automobiles, telegraph, telephone, electricity, control Mechanical computing: Punched cards at IBM EECS 2911 - Lethbridge16

17 Early 20 th Century Early concepts underlying computer science Information theory, concepts of computability Mass production World wars: Horror, but impetus for innovation Key disasters – See coming slides Quebec bridge: Engineering in Canada New London School Explosion: Engineering in the US EECS 2911 - Lethbridge17

18 Quebec Bridge Disaster: Aug 29, 1907 Quebec Bridge is (still) the longest cantilevered span in the world: 550m Le pont de Québec est le plus long en porte- à-faux au monde: 550, Collapsed during construction in 1907 Lepont sest effondré pendant sa construction en 1907 75 workers killed / 75 morts EECS 2911 - Lethbridge18

19 Quebec Bridge Disaster - 2 Bedrock location determined span length Theodore Cooper (New York) hired as consulting engineer. Responsible for design and guaranteeing bridge strength Beams, columns, shipped from Pennsylvania Two halves built from each shore to meet in the middle EECS 2911 - Lethbridge19

20 Quebec Bridge Disaster - 3 As south side reached 200m, some compression members started bending Serious: Site engineer McLure Construction suspended Exchange of telegrams with Cooper for 3 weeks McLure then travels to New York Cooper convinced Add no more load till after due consideration EECS 2911 - Lethbridge20

21 Quebec Bridge Disaster - 4 Chief site engineer Hoare mistakenly resumed work Collapse Royal commission findings: Serious errors in design Actual stresses above safe limits Consulting engineer Cooper rarely visited Chief site engineer Hoare not technically competent to supervise Communication problems EECS 2911 - Lethbridge21

22 Quebec Bridge Disaster - 5 A realization developed that only competent, ethical people should practice engineering Professional engineering licensing introduced Ritual of the Calling of an Engineer (iron ring) instituted Another collapse in 1916 when hoisting new middle section into place kills 13 Bridge finally completed in 1917 Still in use, although a modern autoroute bridge is now next to it EECS 2911 - Lethbridge22

23 Quebec and Pierre Laporte bridges today EECS 2911 - Lethbridge23

24 New London School Explosion: March 1937 Gas explosion due to faulty engineering killed over 295 students and teachers Prompted Texas and other states to require engineering licensure EECS 2911 - Lethbridge24

25 Top Hat question Engineering failures today EECS 2911 - Lethbridge25

26 A Few Key People in Electrical Engineering Volta, Ampere, Ohm, Faraday, Maxwell: Key electrical scientists that developed core concepts Joseph Fourier: Fourier Transform Samuel Morse, Charles Bright: Telegraphy Edison, Bell, Tesla, Westinghouse, Marconi: Key innovators in power, telephony and radio Claude Shannon: Information theory Charles Jenkins, Philo Farnsworth, John Baird: TV Darlington, Shockley: Transistors Jack Kilby, Robert Noyce: Integrated circuits EECS 2911 - Lethbridge26

27 A Few Key People in Computer Science Boole: Boolean logic Blaise Pascal, Charles Babbage, Ada Lovelace: mechanical calculating devices Alan Turing, John Von Neumann, Church: key concepts of algorithms and computing Grace Hopper: Compilers Vanevar BushVanevar Bush, Tim Berners-Lee: Hypertext, WWW Edsger Dijkstra, CAR Hoare: Algorithms Alan Kay, Adele Goldberg, Bjarne Stroustrup: Object orientation Donald Knuth: The Art of Computer Programming Marvin Minsky, Herbert Simon: Artificial Intelligence Niklaus Wirth, John McCarthy: Programming languages Bill Joy, Linus Torvalds: Unix/Linux Bill Gates, Steve Jobs: Corporate innovators EECS 2911 - Lethbridge27

28 Key companies Consolidated Edison General Electric Westinghouse IBM AT&T Xerox Digital Equipment Corporation / Compaq / HP Sperry / Unisys Northern Electric -> Northern Telecom -> Nortel Microsoft Apple Google EECS 2911 - Lethbridge28

29 Key institutions AIEE + IRE = IEEE – 129 years of history IEE -> IET: Electrical Engineering in Britain ACM – Association for Computing Machinery CIPS – Canadian Information Processing Society EECS 2911 - Lethbridge29

30 EECS 2911 - Lethbridge30 Rapid Pace of Change 1940s: The first computer is built 1956: First hard-disk drive weighed a ton and stored five megabytes 1964: Attempts at having a computer act like a human Eliza 1991: Space shuttle had a one-megahertz computer Today: Pocket devices hold a terabyte (2 30 ~= 10 9 bytes) of data Today: Automobiles have many 1GHz computers

31 Recent and upcoming developments: Electronics and power systems Spintronics – harnessing electron spin Memristors – Low power consumption devices (memory resistors) When current flows in one direction, resistance increases When current flows in the other direction resistance decreases. Ubiquitous photovoltaics Smart grid EECS 2911 - Lethbridge31

32 EECS 2911 - Lethbridge32 Recent and Upcoming Developments: Artificial Intelligence and Robotics Artificial intelligence can solve a number of expert, difficult tasks Machine translation is becoming closer to reality Robotic devices are often special-purpose devices, and may require AI to function Can operate in space, in hazardous situations, or perform routine physically laborious tasks Machine Learning and Data Mining methods or algorithms enable adaptive systems Can help us understand patterns in data, e.g. for weather and business forecasting, detecting security violations etc.

33 EECS 2911 - Lethbridge33 Recent and Upcoming Developments: Assisting the disabled Restoration of abilities, productivity and independence Screen readers and scanners for the blind Speech recognition for the deaf Prosthetics with motion sensors

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