Presentation on theme: "Norm-Referenced Tests and Test Scores: What does it all mean?"— Presentation transcript:
1 Norm-Referenced Tests and Test Scores: What does it all mean? Steven M. Koch, Ph.D.Riley Child Development CenterIU School of Medicine - Department of Pediatrics
2 Presentation Goals Recognize areas of assessment Understand standardized test scoresLearn about the new SSA Test ListIdentify resources on specific tests
3 Questions asked and answered today Why do we assess children?How do we assess children?Why do I need to know about the tests?What do I need to know about the tests?What are all those scores?And what do they mean?Where can I find information on tests?
4 Why do we assess children? Guide diagnosisDetermine eligibilitySSIMedicaid waiverSpecial educationMonitor progressDetermine treatment approachResearchAsk audience why we assess?
5 How do we assess children? Four Pillars of Assessment (Sattler, 2001)Norm-referenced tests (standardized tests)InterviewsObservationsInformal assessment proceduresTesting should be fair and culture-free
6 Norm-referenced tests Provide a degree of quantification of the child’s functioning in a given areaDescribes the child’s present functioning in reference to peer groupIdentifies strengths and weaknesses in areaProvides a baseline for later testing
8 Observations Systematic observations / data collection Frequency countsIncident logsInformal observationsApproach towards more difficult tasksGenerate hypotheses
9 Informal AssessmentNon-standardized assessment approaches that test an examiner’s hypothesisCan further identify particular strengths and weaknessesExamples of informal assessment proceduresReading passagesPlay-based assessment
10 Fair testingFair testing does not mean the same test is administered to all individuals.The tests selected for each child should address the questions asked, and the areas of concern.The impact of other skills on performanceshould be minimized
12 Why do I need to know about tests? Provides an understanding of the tests which are a part of the claimant’s fileCan provide guidance when requesting a CEHow can the CE obtain the needed information to help with the eligibility determination?What instruments or areas of assessmentwould be most helpful as part of the CE?
14 Areas assessed by norm-referenced instruments Intelligence / cognitionSocial / emotionalAdaptive functioningSpeechOral languageAcademicGross & fine motorEarly childhood / global developmentThese areas are a breakdown provided by test publishers.
15 Intelligence / Cognition Definitions (Sattler, 2001)Higher-level components, which include abstract reasoning, representation, problem solving, and decision makingOvert behavioral manifestations represented by effective or successful responsesElementary processes, such as perception, sensation and attentionExecutive processesMemoryAbility to learn
16 Intelligence / Cognition Assessment approachesWechsler Intelligence Scale for Children: 4Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale: 3Wide Range Assessment of Memory and Learning: 2Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scales: 5Differential Abilities ScaleBayley Scales of Infant Development: 3Universal Nonverbal Intelligence Test
17 Social / Emotional Definitions Assessment of emotional status, impact of mental disorders on functioning, and social interactions and relationships with othersOften viewed as internalizing and externalizing behaviors.
18 Social / Emotional Internalizing Externalizing Other areas Anxiousness, depressed mood, somatic complaintsExternalizingHyperactivity, verbal aggression, physical aggressionOther areasSocial problems, inattention,thought disturbance
19 Social / Emotional Assessment approaches Mental Status Examination Child Behavior ChecklistBehavior Assessment System for Children: 2Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive FunctionRevised Children’s Manifest Anxiety ScaleRoberts Apperception Test for Children: 2Children’s Depression InventoryFunctional Behavior AssessmentChecklists completed by caregiver, teacher, individualSome are more global, while others are more specific in their focus
20 Adaptive Functioning Definitions The effectiveness with which individuals meet the standards of personal independence and social responsibility expected of individuals of their age and cultural group (Sattler, 2002).MultifactorialIndependent functioning, physical development,economic activity, language development,numbers & time, (pre)vocational, self-direction,responsibility, socialization (AAMR)
21 Adaptive Functioning Assessment approaches Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales: 2Scales of Independent Behavior: RevisedAdaptive Behavior Assessment System: 2Semi-structured interviewOften checklist or interview with caregiver or teacher
22 Speech Definitions Areas of speech disorders Involves the production of sounds which form wordsAreas of speech disordersOral-MotorApraxiaArticulationStuttering / DysfluencyPhonological disorderApraxia of speech (AOS) – It is a neurogenic disorder characterized by sensorimotor problems in positioning and sequentially moving muscles for the independent production of speech. AOS is a disorder of motor programming. Patients with AOS have a number of communication deficits, especially those caused by groping and struggling to speak. It is not caused by muscle weakness or slowness. AOS may be associated with prosodic problems.Stuttering – a disorder of fluency and rhythm. Stuttering dysfluencies could include repetitions (part and/or whole word), sound prolongations (Mmmmommy), silent prolongations (an articulatory posture held for a duration longer than average but without vocalization), interjections (ex. um), pauses, broken words (ex. Be [pause] fore), incomplete sentences, and circumlocution of a word.Articulation Disorder - The inability to correctly produce speech sounds (phonemes) because of the imprecise placement, timing, pressure, speed, or flow of movement of the lips, tongue, or throat. With an articulation disorder, there is difficulty producing and using age-appropriate speech sounds.Phonological Disorder - failure to use speech sounds which are appropriate for the individual's age and dialect. The causes of phonological disorders in children in unknown. There may be a genetic component since a large proportion of children with this problem have relatives with a type of similar disorder. Other risk factors seem to be low socioeconomic status and coming from a large family.Voice Disorder - A voice is termed "disordered" when the vocal quality of an individual is altered/changed in such a way that it is thought to be abnormal to the listener. The onset and development of these disorders can be "sudden" or "slow." Examples of characteristics of sudden onset may be: trauma, infection, CVA, injurious inhalation, intubation, conversion reaction, or a severe allergic reaction. Degenerative neurologic disease, musculo-skeletal tension, vocal abuse and misuse, growths of folds, gastro-esophageal reflux, and chronic allergies may characterize slow onset.
23 Speech Assessment approaches Goldman-Fristoe Test of Articulation: 2 Khan-Lewis Phonological Analysis: 2Photo Articulation Test: 3Stuttering Severity Inventory: 3
24 Oral LanguageThe use of words and sentences to convey meaning to others. Oral language examines both the production of messages (expressive) and their receipt (receptive).Basic componentsSemanticsSyntaxMorphologyPhonologyPragmatics
25 Oral Language Assessment approaches Preschool Language Scale: 4 Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals: 4Receptive-Expressive Emergent Language Scale: 3Test of Language Development: 3Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test: 3Rosetti Infant-Toddler Language ScaleTest of Pragmatic LanguageHawaii Early Learning Profile
26 AcademicDefinitionsThe skills children learn through direct intervention or instruction (Sattler, 2001)Commonly assessed skills includeReading individual wordsReading comprehensionMathematicsSpellingWritten expression
27 Academic Assessment approaches Wechsler Individual Achievement Test: 2 Woodcock-Johnson Tests of Achievement: 3Kaufman Test of Educational Achievement: 2Woodcock Reading Mastery Test: 2KeyMath: 2Diagnostic Achievement Battery: 3
28 Gross & Fine Motor Definitions Gross motor refers to tasks involving the larger muscles of the body, such as the legs and trunkFine motor refers to tasks involving the hands and wristsVisual-motor refers to the integration of visualand fine motor, such as handwritingSensory integration refers to the ability toregulate sensory input (auditory, visual,tactile, kinesthetic)
29 Gross & Fine Motor Assessment approaches Peabody Developmental Motor Scales: 2Bruininks Oseretsky Test of Motor ProficiencyBeery-Buktenica Test of Visual-Motor Integration: 5Gross Motor Function TestThe Sensory Profile
30 Early Childhood / Global Many instruments assessing youth in early childhood examine multiple areas of development, such as cognitive, speech, language, motor, school readiness, etc.Norm-referenced tests are not alwaysappropriate for this age, and morecurriculum-based approaches areutilized
31 Early Childhood / Global Assessment approachesBayley Scales of Infant Development: 3Assessment, Evaluation & Programming SystemKaufman Survey of Early Academic and Language SkillsBracken Basic Concept Scale: 2Hawaii Early Learning ProfileInfant Toddler Social Emotional AssessmentCarolina Curriculum for Infants / Toddlers
33 Types of scores Raw scores Standard and Scaled Scores Number of correct responses for a testMay be useful when measuring progressStandard and Scaled ScoresNormal distribution of raw scores (establishedmean and standard deviation)IQ scoresT-Scores
34 Normal Distribution Curve Also called the bell curve (due to its shape), or the gaussian curve (after Carl Friederich Gauss)
35 Normal Distribution Curve Mean () – average scoreStandard deviation () – spread of scores
36 Normal Distribution Curve PopulationMean = 100SD = 15Standard deviation
37 Normal Distribution Curve PopulationMean = 100SD = 16Standard deviation
38 Normal Distribution Curve PopulationMean = 10SD = 3Standard deviation
39 Normal Distribution Curve PopulationMean = 50SD = 10Standard deviation
40 Types of scores Age / grade equivalents Child’s raw score in relation to average score for a given ageOften used with young children, and individuals with developmental delaysOften interpreted incorrectly
41 Age Equivalent1==41==4Equal raw scores leads to the same age equivalent score. However, it does NOT mean the same items were correctly answered. The second child answered items that were at a higher developmentallevel.
42 Types of scores Percentiles Different than percentages Provides comparison to peer groupPerform equal to or better than X% of children
43 Normal Distribution Curve Population-1 SD = 16%ile+1 SD = 84%ileStandard deviation
44 Normal Distribution Curve Population-2 SD = 2%ile+2 SD = 98%ileStandard deviation
45 When is a score significant? Generally, when a score is greater than 2 SD (either above or below the mean, the score is significantly different (e.g., an IQ of 70 or lower).The score can be significant if it is 2SD below OR 2SD above the mean (e.g., T-Scores onbehavior checklists greater than 2SDabove the mean generally indicate anarea of concern.Standard Scores or PercentilesAge and grade equivalents are NOT on the normal curve.
47 Where to get information Your medical consultants (e.g., psychologists, SLPs)Sattler, J.M. (2001). Assessment of Children: Cognitive Applications (4th Ed.). La Mesa, CA: Sattler Publisher.Sattler, J.M. (2002). Assessment of Children: Behavioral and Clinical Applications (4th Ed.). La Mesa, CA: Sattler Publisher.Buros InstituteMental Measurements YearbookTests in PrintUniversity libraries (e.g., IUPUI)SSA Test List
48 SSA Test List Updated list of tests (earlier list developed ca. 1991) Recently placed on SSA’s intranetProvides the following information:List of tests by areaComprehensive, screening, subarea, special populationPublisher, publication dateDescription / PurposeStandard administration timeScores (names, types)How information is obtainedIs currently being updated
49 Where to get information Test PublishersAchenbach System of Empirically Based AssessmentAmerican Guidance ServicePsychological Assessment ResourcesPsychological CorporationRiverside PublishingWestern Psychological Services
50 For more information…. Steven M. Koch, Ph.D., HSPP Psychologist, Interdisciplinary Training DirectorRiley Child Development CenterIU School of Medicine – Dept. of PediatricsRiley Hospital for Children