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Basic MOS Device Physics

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Presentation on theme: "Basic MOS Device Physics"— Presentation transcript:

1 Basic MOS Device Physics
Lecture 16 MSE 515

2 Topics MOS Structure MOS IV Characteristics CCD

3 Revolution and Evolution in Electronics

4 NMOS Structure Source: the terminal that provides charge carriers.
LD is caused by side diffusion Substrate contact--to reverse bias the pn junction Connect to most negative supply voltage in most circuits. Source: the terminal that provides charge carriers. (electrons in NMOS) Drain: the terminal that collects charge carriers.

5 Short-Channel MOSFETs
Subthreshold Characteristics Although no current should ideally conduct before threshold, a small percentage of electrons with energy greater than or equal to a few kT have sufficient energy to surmount the potential barriers! As a result, there is a slight amount of current conduction below VT

6 Short-Channel MOSFETs
Potential contours in a long channel MOSFET. In a long channel MOSFET, the potential is uniform and parallel to the gate.

7 Short-Channel MOSFETs
Narrow Width Effect If the Polysilicon gate is atop the region of a LOCOS isolation where the oxide is increasing in thickness. It is possible to form a channel under LOCOS away from the thin gate oxide! This is quite important for devices with L < 1 mm.

8 CMOS Structure PMOS NMOS Connect to most positive
supply voltage in most circuits. Reverse bias the pn junction Reverse bias the pn junction PMOS NMOS

9 MOS IV Characteristics
Threshold Voltage Derivation of I/V Characteristics I-V curve Transconductance Resistance in the linear region Second Order Effect Body Effect Channel Length Modulation Subthreshold conduction

10 Threshold Voltage 1. Holes are expelled from the gate area
Depletion region (negative ions) is created underneath the gate. No current flows because no charge carriers are available.

11 MOSFET as a variable resistor
The conductive channel between S and D can be viewed as resistor, which is voltage dependent.

12 Threshold Voltage (3) When the surface potential increases to a critical value, inversion occurs. No further change in the width of the depletion region is observed. A thin layer of electrons in the depletion region appear underneath the oxide. A continuous n-type (hence the name inversion) region is formed between the source and the drain. Electrons can no be sourced from S and be collected at the drain terminal. (Current, however, flows from drain to source) Further increase in VG will fruther incrase the charge density. The voltage VG required to provide an inversion layer is called the threshold voltage.

13 Implantation of p+ dopants to alter the threshold
Threshold voltage can be adjusted by implanting Dopants into the channel area during fabrication. E.g. Implant p+ material to increase threshold voltage.

14 Formation of Inversion Layer in a PFET
The VGS must be sufficient negative to produce an inversion layer underneath the gate.

15 I-V Characteristics

16 Channel Charge A channel is formed when VG is increased to the point
that the voltage difference between the gate and the channel exceeds VTH.

17 Application of VDS What happens when you introduce a voltage at the drain terminal?

18 Channel Potential Variation
E.g. VS=0, VG=0.6, VD=0.6 At x=0, VG-VX=0.6 (more than VTH) At x=L, VG-VX=0 (less than VTH) VG-VX is reduced as you move from S to D. VX the voltage along the channel VX increases as you move from S to D.

19 Pinch Off Small VDS Saturation Region Large VDS
Linear Region Small VDS Saturation Region Large VDS Electrons reaches the D via the electric field in the depletion region No channel

20 MOSFET as a controlled linear resistor
Take derivative of ID with respect to VDS For small VDS, the drain resistance is

21 Transistor in Saturation Region
I-V characteristics Transconductance Output resistance Body transconductance

22 Saturation of Drain Current

23 Transconductance Analog applications:
How does Ids respond to changes in VGS?

24 IDS vs VGS 0.13 um NMOS VDS=0.6 V W/L=12um/0.12 um VB=VS=0 Y axis: Ids
X axis: Vgs

25 Different Expressions of Transconductance

26 Channel Length Modulation
As VDS increases, L1 will move towards the source, since a larger VDS will increase VX . L is really L1 ID will increase as VDS increases. The modulation of L due to VDS is called channel length modulation.

27 Controlling channel modulation
For a longer channel length, the relative change in L and Hence ID for a given change in VDS is smaller. Therefore, to minimize channel length modulation, minimum length transistors should be avoided.

28 Output resistance due to gds

29 MOS Device Layout

30 MOS Capacitances

31 Detector zoology l [mm] X-ray Visible NIR MIR Silicon CCD & CMOS 0.3
1.1 0.9 2.5 5 20 HgCdTe InSb STJ 0.1 Si:As In principle, an STJ is sensitive to radiation from the X-rays to the sub-millimeter regime. In practice, however, the simultaneous spectral range is limited by the different techniques required to collect and focus celestial radiation at different energies. The short wavelength cut-off of an optical/UV STJ device is set by the substrate material upon which the STJ is deposited and illuminated through. For the favored substrates of magnesium fluoride or sapphire, these cutoffs occur at about 115 nm and 145 nm respectively - i.e. in the far-UV well below the ~310 nm transmission cutoff of the atmosphere. The long wavelength limit of the STJ detector is set by the point at which the weak charge signal from low energy photons become lost in the thermal background signal from the telescope and surroundings, which typically occurs in the near-IR at wavelengths above a few micron. Hence an STJ-based instrument could be made to simultaneously cover nearly the entire optical and near-IR optical window open to ground-based observation. Its space-based counterpart would simultaneously cover more than a decade in wavelength, spanning the complete far-UV through near-IR region of the spectrum. In this course, we concentrate on 2-D focal plane arrays. Optical – silicon-based (CCD, CMOS) Infrared – IR material plus silicon CMOS multiplexer Will not address: APD (avalanche photodiodes) STJs (superconducting tunneling junctions)

32 Step 2: Charge Generation
Silicon CCD Similar physics for IR materials

33 CCD Introduction A CCD is a two-dimensional array of metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) capacitors. The charges are stored in the depletion region of the MOS capacitors. Charges are moved in the CCD circuit by manipulating the voltages on the gates of the capacitors so as to allow the charge to spill from one capacitor to the next (thus the name “charge-coupled” device). An amplifier provides an output voltage that can be processed. The CCD is a serial device where charge packets are read one at a time.

34 Potential in MOS Capacitor

35 CCD Phased Clocking: Summary

36 CCD Phased Clocking: Step 3
+5V 0V -5V 1 2 3 1 2 3

37 CCD output circuit This is the corner of the CCD where the output transistor is, on modern CCDs you usually get one of these in each corner, so you can move charge in different parts of the chip in different directions to speed up this process by a factor four. Charge is shifted through the output diode into a capacitor, this is measured by measuring a voltage change on the output from the readout transistor. The capacitor is then reset by the reset transistor.

38 Charge Transfer Efficiency
When the wells are nearly empty, charge can be trapped by impurities in the silicon. So faint images can have tails in the vertical direction. Modern CCDs can have a charge transfer efficiency (CTE) per transfer of , so after 2000 transfers only 0.1% of the charge is lost. Charge can be trapped as you read it out, although with modern buried channel CCDs this is much less of a problems than it used to be. good CTE bad CTE 38

39 These are some examples of publicity colour images from MegaCam, of course a CCD is not a colour camera, so these are colour composite images (separate RGB). Stop here Tuesday

40 Threshold Voltage VG=0.6 V VD=1.2 V CMOS: 0.13 um W/L=12um/0.12 um

41 I-V characteristic Equation for PMOS transistor

42 More on Body Effect Example Analysis gmbs

43 Variable S-B Voltage constant

44 gm as function of region
0.13 um NMOS VGS=0.6 V W/L=12um/0.12 um VB=VS=0 Y axis: gm X axis: vds saturation linear

45 gds 0.13 um NMOS VGS=0.6 V W/L=12um/0.12 um Slope due to VB=VS=0
Y axis: gm X axis: vds Slope due to channel length modulation saturation linear

46 Body Effect The n-type inversion layer connects the source to the drain. The source terminal is connected to channel. Therefore, A nonzero VSB introduces charges to the Cdep. The math is shown in the next slide. A nonzero VSB for NFET or VBS for PFET has the net effect Of increasing the |VTH|

47 Experimental Data of Body Effect

48 W/L=12 um/0.12um CMOS: 0.13 um process VDS=50 mV Simulator: 433 mV Alternative method: 376 mV

49 Subthreshold current Subtreshold region As VG increases, the surface
potential will increase. There is very little majority carriers underneath the gate. There are two pn junctions. (B-S and B-D) The density of the minority carrier depends on the difference in the voltage across the two pn junction diode. A diffusion current will result the electron densities at D and S are not identical.

50 Conceptual Visualization of Saturation and Triode(Linear) Region

51 I-V Characteristic Equations for NMOS transistor
To produce a channel (VGS>VTH) (Triode Region: VDS<VGS-VTH) Saturation: VDS>VGS-VTH

52 VTH as a function of VSB Body effect coefficient VSB dependent
(VTH0: with out body effect)

53 Sensitivity of IDS to VSB
gm (chain rule) η=1/3 to 1/4, bias dependent

54 Bias dependent CGS and CGD

55 Complete NMOS Small Signal Model

56 Complete PMOS Small Signal Model

57 Transconductance in the triode region
For amplifier applications, MOSFETs are biased in saturation

58 Small signal model of an NMOS


60 Small Signal Model If the bias current and voltages of a MOSFET are only disturbed slightly by signals, the nonlinear amd large signal model an be reduced to linear and small signal representation.

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