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Artifacts Medical parasitology lab. Faculty of health sciences

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2 Artifacts Medical parasitology lab. Faculty of health sciences
Medical Laboratory Sciences Department Medical parasitology lab. Artifacts

3 Definition Artifacts: other things, living or artificial, present in the stool that are not parasites and could mislead the laboratory worker. Note: “Artifacts not to be mistaken for cysts”.

4 Blastocystis Round or oval, sometimes with angular irregular edges, contain one large vacuole taking up almost the whole cell, the compressed cytoplasm forms a granular ring round it.

5 Yeast Oval, often with buds, often contain eccentric cluster of 3-6 small granules. Some related forms of yeast are rectangular, with a very clear oval cytoplasm inside: arthrospores. Yeast oval or rectangular granules in peripheral and arthrospores If two rbc close together rotate the fine adjustment and notice the limit between the two there is line if not present it is yeast

6 Yeast Yeast Giardia lamblia cyst
Yeast in an iodine-stained concentrated wet mount of stool. Yeast in wet mount may be confused for Giardia lamblia cyst.

7 Leukocytes Round or slightly elongated, with an irregular outline.
Contain refractile cytoplasm, clear and granular with tiny vacuoles. Nucleus indistinct, sometimes with a star- shaped false karyosome. Eosinophil in parasitic infection

8 Pus Pus can be seen by the naked eye as opaque, greyish streaks ( not transparent like mucus). Under the microscope it appears as a mass of more or less degenerate leukocytes

9 Bacteria

10 Coccidia These are protozoa that may be parasite of men without causing any significant pathogenic effects, or may be found in transit in stool following the consumption of infected foods. They appear in stool in a form resembling cyst called oocysts or sporocysts. An elongated oval, sometimes tapered at one pole. There three types: 4 sporozoites (small banana shaped rods), each containing a small round nucleus, sometimes a few large granules massed at one pole. One large round granular cell. Refractile granules completely fill the interior. In dirty rabbit meat

11 Coccidia (cont.)

12 Air bubbles Trichouris trichoura egg

13 Oil droplet

14 Entamoeba histolytica/dispar cyst
Fungal spores Fungal spore Entamoeba histolytica/dispar cyst Fungal spore in a wet mount of stool.  Such spores may be confused for the cysts of Entamoeba spp.

15 Plant fiber

16 Strongyloides stercoralis larvae
Upper fiber head and tail without internal structure Under head and tail and interinal structure

17 Misdiagnosis can lead to improper treatment
Plant fiber

18 Hair fiber Both blunt

19 May confused with helminthes eggs
Plant cell May confused with helminthes eggs Both plant cell

20 Plant cell

21 Plant cell Plant cell and hookworm and mite egg mite egg Plant material in an iodine-stained concentrated wet mount of stool. This material can be confused for a hookworm egg

22 Charcot-Leyden crystals
Remenant of eosinophil in stool becouse parasite but in sputum becouse allergy

23 Epithelial cells

24 Macrophages

25 RBCs With fine adjustment (bright)

26 Pollen grains

27 Pollen grains Both Pollen greens as lobed and like helminths egg but the egg of heminths yellow to brown to golden yellow Eggs not stains becouse they have color

28 Starch granules Digest starch

29 Crystals

30 Non- parasitic structure found in stool
Non parasitic objects may be misidentified as parasites. The differentiation of the most common pseudoparasites is as follow: Protozoan cyst: may be confused with air bubbles, fat globules or yeasts. Iodine should be added to the wet preparation so that the internal structure of the cyst is stained and identifiable. Amoebic trophozoites: must be differentiated from non- pathogenic protozoan trophozoites and macrophages. Trophozoites of Entamoeba histolytica/dispar must be motile and hematophagus. Macrophages found in cases of intestinal amoebiasis are distinguishable from amoebic trophozoites by possessing a larger nucleus and, although they can haematophagus, they are only motile for a very short time. Their pseudopodia are small, blunt and granular.

31 Cont. Ova, their general shape, except for Entrobius, is perfectly symmetrical, distinguishing them from various objects found in stools. Trichuris and Taenia ova may be confused with pollen grains. Ascaris ova may be confused with vegetable cells, the latter having smooth, thick walls but irregular shape. Strongyloides or hookworm larvae can be confused with hair or vegetable fibers. The latter are usually tapered at one end and the other being blunt and with no internal structure. Free living nematode larvae may be found in concentrates if contaminated water is used

32 Cont. Fasciola ova resemble vegetable cells.
Insect and may be found in stools as spurious infection. Mite eggs may be confused with hookworm eggs. Dipylidium caninum eggs sacs can look similar to vegetable cells. Other structure found in stool are crystals, Charcot- Leyden are the breakdown products of eosinophil cells and may be present in stools or sputum. Starch granules are sometimes seen in stool. When undigested, they appear as concentric rings and stain blue with iodine, when partially digested, they stain red.

33 Thanks

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