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Presentation on theme: "ENV 506 INTEGRATED SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT"— Presentation transcript:


2 INTRODUCTION A key thrust of National Vision Policy is pursuing environmentally sustainable development to reinforce long-term growth. Waste represent social, political,economic, physical and environmental concerns. Preventing and managing waste is the heart of sustainable development. Plan for future

An ever-expanding population and high rates of economic development in Malaysia resulted in the generation of vast amount of waste. It is estimated about 17,000 ton/day of waste generated in Peninsular Malaysia.

4 Average per capita generation of waste 0.85 kg/cap/day.
Con’t… Average per capita generation of waste kg/cap/day. About 1.5 kg/cap/day in Kuala Lumpur. About 76% of waste generated are collected. 1-2% is recycled and the remainder is taken to disposal sites.

5 About 5% waste collected in KL are reused and recycled.
Con’t… About 5% waste collected in KL are reused and recycled. Over 40% of 175 disposal sites are operating as dumpsite. Intermediate treatment is limited to small-scale thermal treatment plant in resorted islands.

Three level of Government Federal Government - Ministry of Housing & Local Government - Economic Planning Unit, Prime Minister Dpt. - Department of Environment - Ministry of Health State Government Local Authorities

Local Government Department, MHLG handles all matters related to Solid Waste Management funding and policy development this is done in coordination with the Economic Planning Unit and others government agencies.

8 Interagency Cooperation
Con’t… Interagency Cooperation MHLG has established a Technical Committee on SWM comprising of relevant government agencies, Local University Researchers and Research Institution.

Study on Strategic Plan for SWM. Study on Safety Closure & Rehabilitation of Landfill Sites in Malaysia. Study on Solid Waste Composition & Characteristic. Study on Composting.

Local Authorities are the implementing agencies and have direct responsibility over solid waste collection, treatment and disposal.

Local Government Act 1976 Street, Drainage and Building Act 1974 Environment Quality Act 1974 Refuse Collection, Removal and Disposals By-Laws.

12 THE WAY FORWARD – Strategic Plan
Principles to guide development of Strategic Plan: Direct participation of Federal Government. Privatization of SWM services Sustainable waste management Inter cooperation amongst government and stakeholders. Public awareness program Development of technical and managerial capability

13 THE WAY FORWARD Reduce Reuse Recycling Intermediate Processing
Waste Hierarchy (Current Status) Reduce Reuse Recycling Intermediate Processing Disposal 5 % recovery 95% Landfill

14 THE WAY FORWARD Reduce Reuse Recycling Intermediate Processing
Waste Hierarchy (Targeted 2020) Reduce Reuse Recycling Intermediate Processing Disposal > 20 % Recycling 15 % Intermediate Processing < 65 % Landfill

15 THE WAY FORWARD Reduce Reuse Recycling Intermediate Processing
Waste Minimization Reduce / Reuse Recycling Incineration (With Energy Recovery) (Without Energy Recovery) Land Disposal Waste Hierarchy (FUTURE) Reduce Reuse Recycling Intermediate Processing Disposal

16 Legislation & Institutional
THE WAY FORWARD Legislation & Institutional Review existing legislation Enable federalization and privatization Enhance waste minimization Identifying all stakeholders Institutional strengthening

17 Privatization To improve SWM services To relinquish financial burden
Con’t… Privatization To improve SWM services To relinquish financial burden Wider involvement by the private sector Final stage of agreement (transition period)

18 Benefit of private Sector Participation
UK & US Studies Costs have been at least 25% lower due to rationalized operation and greater management flexibility. Canadian Studies Costs have been at least 25% lower in most provinces 60% lower in Atlantic Province High costs in Quebec Province were due to older and large equipment, large crew sizes and lower productivity.

19 Latin American Studies
Costs have been at least 50% lower due to higher labor and vehicle productivity Malaysian Study Costs have been at least 20% lower due to grater efficiency

20 Technical Aspect Integrated solid waste management facilities
Con’t… Technical Aspect Integrated solid waste management facilities New Facilities with appropriate technology - Transfer Station - Thermal Treatment Plant - Composting Plant - Sanitary Landfill

Solid waste management facilities Persekitaran Kita Pengurusan sisa pepejal yang baik memerlukan pendekatan yang bersepadu. Kitarsemula Sisa & Tenaga Slag Bahan Binaan Bahan Tidak Terbakar atau Kitarsemula Buang Ke Tapak Pelupusan

22 Con’t… Public Participation Lack of public awareness in solid waste management. Require full attention A key to success in waste minimization and solid waste management.

Definition The discipline associated with the control of generation, storage, collection, transfer and transport, processing and disposal of solid waste in manner that is accordance with the best principles of public health, economic, engineering, conservation, aesthetics and environmental consideration.

The activities associated with the management of solid waste from the point of generation to final disposal has been group into five elements. Generation Storage Collection, Transportation and Transfer Treatment Disposal


26 Definition The selection and application of suitable techniques, technologies and management programs to achieve specific waste management objective and goals

27 Hierarchy of ISWM Source Reduction Recycle Waste Transformation Landfilling Monitoring and Evaluation

28 Hierarchy of ISWM Source Reduction highest rank of the ISWM
most effective way to reduce the quantity waste, costs & env. Impacts. Involve reducing the amount and/or toxicity of the waste May occur through the design, manufacture, packaging of products

29 Minimum volume of material Longer useful life
Cont’ minimum toxic content, Minimum volume of material Longer useful life May also occur at the household, commercial, industrial facility. Selective buying patterns & reuse of product & material.

30 Recycle Second highest rank
Cont’ Recycle Second highest rank Important factor in reducing the demand or resources & the amount of waste requiring disposal by landfill. Involved separation and collection of waste materials Preparation of the material for Reuse, Reprocessing, remanufacture

31 Reuse, reprocessing and remanufacture of these materials

32 Cont’ Waste Transformation Involved the physical, chemical or biological alteration Improve the efficiency of SWM operation & systems To recover reusable & recyclable materials To recover conversion products & energy Heat & biogas Reduce use of landfill capacity

33 Landfilling For solid waste that cannot be recycle & no future use
Cont’ Landfilling For solid waste that cannot be recycle & no future use Residual matter remaining after separation Residual matter remaining after recovery of combustion products / energy Involves the controlled disposal of waste

34 Monitoring and Evaluation


36 DEFINITIONS Definition 1
Defined as wastes arising from human and animal activities that are normally solid and unwanted Definition 2 By products of human activities. Physically it contains the same materials as are found in useful products

37 Con’t… Definition 3 Refuse is define as putrescrible and non-putrescrible solid wastes including garbage, ashes, rubbish, street cleanings, dead animal and industrial wastes

38 Con’t… Definition 4 Garbage is the putrescrible animal or vegetable waste generated from the handling, preparation, consumption of food and is organic in nature

39 Con’t… Definition 5 Ash is the residue i.e. the waste product of fuel used for industrial purposes. It is incombustible part of the fuel and is usually used for the landfilling or as a constituent in cement making.

40 Con’t… Definition 6 Rubbish is combustible and non-combustible part of refuse like paper, rags, wood, and glass

Five main categories of solid waste : Municipal Solid Waste Agriculture waste Industrial waste Hazardous waste Medical waste

Sisa Pepejal Awam. Sisa Pepejal Import. Sisa Pepejal Isi Rumah. Sisa Pepejal Keinstitusian. Sisa Pepejal Komersial. Sisa Pepejal Pembinaan. Sisa Pepejal Perindustrian.

43 Municipal Solid Waste mainly the household waste include commercial waste and institutional waste. it composition depends on factors such as living standard, geographical location, type of housing and seasons.

44 Some are considered as hazardous waste
Agriculture waste Wastes and residues resulting from diverse agricultural activities include plant residue and animal waste. food processing waste is consider as agriculture waste Some are considered as hazardous waste

45 Industrial waste comprises waste from industrial processes
E.g construction, fabrication, manufacturing, refineries, chemical plants Some of these could also include hazardous waste

46 Hazardous waste Wastes or combination of wastes that pose a substantial present or potential hazard to human. special group of wastes define by certain criteria containing substances causing hazard. Sometimes hospital waste is also classified as hazardous waste

47 the hazard effect could be due to any or all of following:
Con’t… the hazard effect could be due to any or all of following: ignitability corrosivity reactivity toxicity infectivity

48 Medical Waste Hospital waste includes hazardous and non- hazardous waste. hazardous waste clinical waste Non-hazardous - Clinical wastes are any waste consist human tissue, blood or other body fluids, excretion include infectious waste.

49 Urban waste In the form of solid, semi-solid, liquid and gases
Could organic and anorganic could divide into six types

50 Type of urban waste household wastes city wastes commercial wastes
industrial wastes liquid waste gaseous wastes

51 Household wastes consist of wastes generated in the preparation of food mainly garbage, fuel, residue, house sweeping, household discard, garden wastes and animal dung.

52 City wastes derived from street cleaning, park, school.
consist mainly paper, dry leaves, animal dung, etc.

53 commercial wastes from office, shops and markets, restaurants, hotel
include high proportion of paper, cardboard, wood, food waste ,glass and plastic. Hospital waste some time include in commercial wastes.

54 Industrial wastes from the manufacturing and the processing industries, construction . proposition of wastes depending on the type of industry. include metal ores, wood, lime, tiles, food waste, special waste and hazardous wastes.

55 Liquid waste include mainly domestic sewage and factory effluents.
could be organic and inorganic liquid. e.g. Agro wastes chemical factory

56 gaseous wastes could be from exhaust fume of factories, incinerator and chimney discharges.

57 Sources of solid wastes
domestic or residential municipal services commercial Institutional construction and demolition treatment plant site industrial agricultural

58 Type of Solid Waste

59 Domestic or residential
Type of Solid Waste Domestic or residential Facilities, activities /location Type of solid waste Source Residential Single family & multifamily detached dwelling, Low, medium & high-rise apartment, etc. Food waste, paper, cardboard, plastics, textile, leather, yard waste, wood, glass, tin, cans, aluminum, other metal, ash, street leaves, special waste, household hazardous waste. Special waste: Bulky items, consumer electronics, white goods, yard wastes collected separately, batteries, oil and tires.

60 Commercial Facilities, activities /location Type of solid waste Source
Stores, restaurants, markets, hotel, motel, print shop, service station, auto repair shop. Paper, cardboard, plastics, wood, food waste, glass, metal, special waste, hazardous waste, ets.

61 Institutional Facilities, activities /location Type of solid waste
Source Institutional Schools, hospitals, prisons, governmental centers. Paper, cardboard, plastics, wood, food waste, glass, metal, special waste, hazardous waste, ets.

62 Construction and Demolition
Facilities, activities /location Type of solid waste Source Construction and demolition New construction sites, road repair/renovation sites, razing or building, broken pavement. Wood, steel, concrete, dirt, etc.

63 Municipal Services Facilities, activities /location
Type of solid waste Source Municipal service (Excluding treatment facilities) Street cleaning, landscaping, catch basin cleaning parks and beaches, other recreational areas. Special waste, rubbish, street sweepings, landscape and tree trimmings, catch basin debris, general waste from parks, beaches and recreational areas.

64 Treatment plant sites Facilities, activities /location
Type of solid waste Source Treatment plant sites; Municipal incinerators Water, waster water and industrial treatment processes, etc. Treatment plant wastes, principally composed of residual sludges.

65 Municipal Solid Waste Facilities, activities /location
Type of solid waste Source Municipal solid waste All as above All as above

66 Industrial Facilities, activities /location Type of solid waste Source
Construction, fabrication, ligh & heavy manufacturing, refineries, chemical plants, power plants, demolition, etc. Industrial process wastes, scrap materials, etc. Non-industrial wastes including food wastes, rubbish, ashes, demolition & construction wastes, special wastes, hazardous waste.

67 Agricultural Facilities, activities /location Type of solid waste
Source Agricultural Field and row crops, orchards, vineyards, dairies, feedlots, farm, etc. Spoiled food wastes, agricultural wastes, rubbish, hazardous wastes.


The activities associated with the management of solid waste from the point of generation to final disposal has been group into six elements. Waste Generation Waste Storage Waste Collection Waste Transfer and Transport Waste Treatment and Disposal

70 Waste Generation Urbanization and industrialization - many changes in the quality and quantity of solid wastes generated Some of the changes included: change in waste characteristic increased volume of waste use modern techniques in MSWM concentration of large population in a small area

71 The type of produced depends upon various factors :
Con’t…. The type of produced depends upon various factors : standard of living occupation habits of dietary Average per capita generation of waste 0.85 kg/cap/day. About 1.5 kg/cap/day in Kuala Lumpur.

72 Housing area generates the largest amount of waste.
Con’t…. Housing area generates the largest amount of waste. The high income group residential areas - high percentage of leaves, glass and plastic Market areas - large percentage of garbage and leaves, Hay & straw is the large proposition in commercial areas

73 Con’t…. Slum areas higher percentage of hay & straw , lower percentage of glass &

Source: MHLG 2003



77 International Trend in MSW Generation
Most Asian country produce lower quantities of waste (mean 0.56 kg/capita/day) except Japan. The developed industrial countries generate more (mean 0.96 kg/capita/day). Japan, Singapore and Hong Kong show the pattern of waste generation similar to EC countries (0.86 kg/capita/day) 77

78 US is the largest per capita generating of MSW (1.97 kg/capita/day).
Scandinavian countries generated above the per capita EC average (>0.96 kg) The population size does not influence the rate of waste generation. 78

79 Waste composition organic waste paper textile/leather wood
Malaysia generate about 72% compostable waste, comprising; organic waste paper textile/leather wood Garbage is the main component to 48% Paper and cardboard is the second most abundant component (18 to 30% is)

80 The composition of MSW reflects the affluence of the society:
Cont’…. Plastic waste was at 9 – 16% KL generate only 9% plastic waste compare to 14 – 16% generate other three cities around KL The composition of MSW reflects the affluence of the society: The way of life Economic status Social behaviour

81 Waste Composition (K.L.)
No. Source Of Waste Residential Commercial Institutional 1. Food waste & organic 63.1 76.8 40.6 2. Mix paper 6.7 7.6 16.0 3. Mix plastics 14.3 9.0 17.2 4. Textiles 1.7 0.5 0.7 5. Rubber & leather 0.6 0.3 0.1 6. Yard waste 6.3 0.9 18.4 7. Glass 2.1 1.5 8. Ferrous 2.3 1.4 2.8 9. Aluminum 1.3 10. Others 2.5 Total (2,3,7,8,9) 25.5 19.0 38.8 Source: Nazeri 2002

82 Composition of refuse from the municipality of KL, Petaling Jaya and Penang for the year 1990
Kuala Lumpur Petaling Jaya Paper & cardboard 25.5 30.0 27.0 Textile & leather 3.4 2.5 3.1 Plastics 11.2 9.8 16.4 Rubber 0.8 0.2 2.0 wood 14.4 3.2 7.0 garbage 32.8 40.8 36.5 Metal ferrous & non-ferrous 2.6 4.6 3.9 Glass & ceramics 1.4 3.0 Others 8 5.9 1.0


84 Waste Storage Including the waste handling, processing, separation and storage. The type of container use is highly variable depend on the amount of waste generated, the frequency of collection and whether waste separation is mandated. The most commonly used in Malaysia are the plastic container. Daily collection 7 – 11 litres Weekly collection 20 – 30 litres

85 WASTE HANDLING Refer to the activities associated with managing solid waste until they are place in the containers used for storage. The activities will vary depending on: Type of waste materials are separated Type of collection service May also requires to move the loaded containers to the collection point.

86 Residential dwellings
Three categories most often used: Low-rise dwelling Under 4 stories Single family detached Single family attach multifamily

87 Type of container used depend on whether waste separation is mandated.
Tenants are responsible for placing the containers of solid waste around their dwelling. Type of container used depend on whether waste separation is mandated. Home owner will placed the containers filled with wastes to the street curb.

88 Medium-rise From 4 to 7 stories Handling methods for Low- and medium- rise Apartment depending on the waste storage location and collection method. Location of storage include basement storage, outdoor storage, occasionally, compactor storage.

89 High-rise Over 7 stories The most common methods are: Waste are pick up by building maintenance personnel Waste are taken to the basement/service area by tenants Waste are placed by the tenants in vertical chute.

90 Waste discharged in chutes are collected in large containers.
The chutes are available in diameter from 12 to 36 inches ( ) and the most common diameter is 24 inches. The use of disinfection and sanitizing unit as recommended.

91 Separation Separation of waste components including: Paper Cardboard
Aluminum can Glass plastic containers

92 Factors that must be consider in the onsite storage include
Cont’…. Factors that must be consider in the onsite storage include The effects of storage on the waste components. The type container to be used The container location Public health and aesthetics.

93 Effects of storage on the waste components.
Cont’…. Effects of storage on the waste components. Effects of storing wastes include: Biological decomposition Waste will immediately start to undergo microbiological decomposition (putrefaction) If waste are allowed in storage containers for extended period of time, flies will start to breed and odors compounds can develop.

94 The absorption of fluids
Cont’…. The absorption of fluids Components of solid waste have differing initial moisture contents, re- equilibration take place. The moisture will become distributed throughout the waste. The degree of absorption depend on the length of time. Waste also can absorb water from rainfall that enter into container.

95 The contamination of waste components
Major waste components may be contaminated by small amount of waste. E.g: motor oil, paints, household cleaner. Effect : reduce the value of the individual waste components for recycling.

96 Types of containers The type and capacities of container used depend on: the characteristics and type of solid waste to be collected. type of collection system. The collection frequency The space available for placement of containers.

97 Low-rise dwelling (manual curbside collection)
Cont’…. Low-rise dwelling (manual curbside collection) Container should be light enough to handle easily. Injury to collector have results from handling container that loaded to heavy. Upper weight limit between 40 to 65lb. 30 gal. galvanized metal or plastic container is proven the least expensive of storage for low-rise dwelling.

98 Galvanize metal tend to be noisy when being emptied and can be damage.
Cont’…. The choice container materials depend on the preferences to the home-owner. Galvanize metal tend to be noisy when being emptied and can be damage. Some plastic containers tend to crack under ultraviolet ray and the freezing temperature. Temporary and disposal containers are routinely used as temporary – remove along the waste. The problem of temporary containers is difficult to loading them.

99 Cont’…. The use of all types and different grades of container liners is common. A disadvantage in the using of liner, if the waste are to be separated by component or they are to be combusted, has to be break up.

100 Low-rise dwelling (mechanized curbside)
Cont’…. Low-rise dwelling (mechanized curbside) The containers are designed specifically to work with the container-unloading mechanism attach to the collection vehicle. The container size is from about 75 to 120 gallons. 90 gallons container being the most common.

101 Low- & medium-rise apartment
Cont’…. Low- & medium-rise apartment The two most common types have been use are: Individual plastic or galvanized metal Large portable or fix container The container is kept in enclosed areas which easy access to nearby street. The containers are equipped with caster or roller

102 Where chutes are available separation storage containers are not used.
High-rise apartment Where chutes are available separation storage containers are not used. The most common storage for wastes accumulate from apartment include: Enclosed storage containers or disposal bags Large open-top containers for uncompacted waste, bulky items, Large open-top container for recycle materials.

103 Commercial facilities
Cont’’…. Commercial facilities Types of container depend to a large extents the on the methods use of collection Usually large open-top containers are used for unseparated waste The use of container equipped with compaction mechanism Special onsite processing equipment may also be used – recoverable material

104 Container storage locations
Depend on the type of dwelling or commercial and industrial facilities, available space and access to collection service. Residential dwelling Low-rise detached dwellings usually are placed At the sides of rear of the house In alley In or next to the garage

105 Commercial & industrial facilities
depend on the location of available space & service access condition location & type of containers not own by the commercial or industries Solid waste that The contents of large containers are removed by elevator to the:

106 Large storage container
Compactors used in conjunction with storage containers Stationary compactors Other processing equipments.

107 All of the office paper is now collected for recycle.
Cont’’…. The older large office & commercial buildings are used inadequate equipment and tend to create handling problem. All of the office paper is now collected for recycle.

108 Public Health & Aesthetics
Infestation of vermin & insects – mechanical vectors Most effective control is proper sanitation. Use container with tight lids. The period washing the container Periodic removal biodegradable materials Excellent description of solid waste- disease relationship

109 Odors can be controlled;
Aesthetics Related to the production of odors & un- maintenance of sanitary condition. Odors can be controlled; through the use container with tight lids Reasonable collection frequency. If odors persist, the contents of the container – spray with the masking deodorant To maintain aesthetic condition, the container should scrubbed & wash periodically

110 The common communal storage methods used in Asian country include:
Con’t…. The common communal storage methods used in Asian country include: Depot simple enclosure of brick wall low public health aesthetic value Commonly found in development countries

111 slightly improvised depot within an enclosure around the storage area.
Con’t…. Enclosure slightly improvised depot within an enclosure around the storage area. Exposed to rain and causes air pollution and odors Not suitable in modern society

112 more appropriate and hygienic
Con’t…. Fixed storage bins more appropriate and hygienic Occasionally, an irrseponsible people tend to burn the refuse in the bin. If not emptied regularly become threat to human health.

113 commonly used in Malaysia can be easily loaded/unloaded Drum
Con’t…. Portable steel bins commonly used in Malaysia can be easily loaded/unloaded Drum 200 litres drum provided in some cities in Asia

114 Found in India, Bangladesh and Pakistan
Con’t…. Concrete pipe Section Found in India, Bangladesh and Pakistan Capacity depend on size of pipe scavengers and animal always messing up the bins


116 Planning the waste collection system
Factors need to be consider: population distribution & density topography & road layout characteristic of the waste & quantity disposal method used weather condition type & number vehicles available number of location of transfer station road design

117 Collection of solid waste
The term collection included: picking up of solid waste from the sources, hauling of wastes to the location where the contents of the collection vehicle are emptied The unloading of collection vehicle is also consider part of the collection operation. The activities associated hauling & unloading are similar

118 The gathering or picking up of SW vary with the characteristic of:
Con’t…. Activities associated with hauling and unloading similar for most collection system The gathering or picking up of SW vary with the characteristic of: the facilities. Activities. location where wastes are generated. method use for storage of accumulated wastes between collections.

119 Collection in an urban area is difficult and complex:
Con’t…. Collection in an urban area is difficult and complex: Development of urban and sub-urban Generation become more diffuse & quantity of waste increases. The responsible of the municipal or district council the privet waste management companies.

120 Low-rise detach dwelling (commingled)
Manual method use for collection residential waste include: The direct lifting & carrying of loaded containers to the collection vehicle. The rolling the loaded containers on their rims to the collection vehicle The use of small lifts for rolling loaded to the collection vehicle.

121 Basically, four common types of residential collection service
Con’t…. The method of waste collection will influence the quality and quantity of recovered material and the mode of disposal. Basically, four common types of residential collection service curb alley setout-setback setout

122 Curb Door to door collection
Con’t…. Curb Door to door collection Homeowner responsible for placing the containers. Most common method in Malaysia Terrace houses or link houses material collected from the home by the collection crew

123 The use of small satellite vehicles
Con’t…. In other case the collection vehicle equipped with auxiliary container – then emptied to the collection vehicle The use of small satellite vehicles The empty bins are taken back by the owners

124 the bins are messed up by scavengers bin are stolen
Con’t…. Disadvantages: the bins are messed up by scavengers bin are stolen animal sometimes mess up the bins – looking for food

125 Also call back lane collection Commonly used in many part of Asia
Con’t…. Alley Door to collection Also call back lane collection Commonly used in many part of Asia

126 Setout-setback Door to collection
Con’t…. Setout-setback Door to collection Containers are set out from homeowner’s property and set back after emptied by additional crew. Use two groups of collectors Faster

127 Setout Door to collection Same as setout-setback except:
Con’t…. Setout Door to collection Same as setout-setback except: Homeowners is responsible to return the container to storage location. Individual house collection bungalow

128 Con’t…. Manual methods Manual methods used for the collection of residential waste include: The direct lifting & carrying of loaded containers to vehicle Rolling the loaded container to the vehicle Use small lift for rolling loaded container

129 Low- and Medium-rise Apartments
Curbside collection is common for most low- and medium-rise apartments. Maintenance staff is responsible for transporting the containers to the street for curb collection If large containers are used, the collection vehicle will equipped with unloading mechanisms.

130 High-rise Apartments Usually large containers are used to collect wastes large apartment building. The contents of the containers may be emptied mechanically or may be hauled to an off-site location.

131 Commercial & industrial Facilities
Manual & mechanical means are used to collect wastes. In many large cities solid wastes are collected early morning or late evening Plastic bag, cardboard boxes and other disposal container are used in manual collection. Collection usually accomplished with three or four person crew

132 containers usually used are: Movable containers
Container that can be couple to large stationary compactor Large capacity open top containers

133 Collection of waste (separated at source)
Must be collect gathered together before they can be recycle. The method of collection include: Curbside collection using conventional & special designed collection vehicle Incidental curb collection Delivery by homeowners to drop-off & buy- back centers.

134 Residential (curbside collection)
Recyclable materials are collected separately from commingled waste. Some programs require residents to separate several different material & store in their own containers. Other programs only one or two containers to store commingled recyclable. The vehicle used are for collect the separated waste are: standard collection vehicle specialized collection vehicle.

135 Type of Collection System
The system used may classified from several points of view such as: The mode of operation. Equipment use Type of waste collected collection system have been classified according to their mode of operation into two categories. Hauled container systems (HCS) Stationery container systems (SCS)

136 Hauled Container Systems (HCS)
Suitable for removal of waste where the rate of generation is high. The use of large containers reduce handling time. The advantage: is the flexibility – many different sizes & shapes for the collection all types of waste. Require one truck & driver to accomplish the collection cycle

137 Three types of haul container system: Hoist truck tilt-frame container
Disadvantage the use of vary large containers leads to low- volume utilization unless loading aids provided. Three types of haul container system: Hoist truck tilt-frame container Trash trailer

138 Hoist truck systems container size from 0.2 to 10 cu3 (2 to 12 yd3)
Applicable in only limited cases which are: For small operation and collects from a few pickup points For the collection of bulky item and industrial rubbish

139 Tilt-frame container Widely use especially among private collectors
Used tilt frame loaded vehicle and large containers. Suitable for collection of all types of solid waste rubbish. Various type of large containers are available for use with these vehicles

140 Open-top containers are used at warehouse and construction sites
Large containers in conjunction with stationary compactors are common at apartment, commercial, and transfer station.

141 Trash trailer Similar to tilt frame container system Better for the collection heavy rubbish & often used for the demolition waste.

142 Pneumatic and hydraulic system More complex than hydraulic systems.
Con’t…. Pneumatic and hydraulic system More complex than hydraulic systems. Use low pressure air and vacuum conduit system to transport rubbish through underground pipe transport wastes from high density apartments or commercial activities to central location for processing.

143 Reduces traveling time & increases the waste collection efficiency & minimize management cost.
Hydraulic transports is being used for the transport of food wastes The major problem of this method is the / waste water used for transporting the wastes must be treated. This system practical in areas where proper processing facilities are incorporated into treatment system.

144 Automated pneumatic waste collection & disposal

145 Con’t…. Routes of Collection The guideline should be taken in to consideration when design the layout the collection routes: Existing policies and regulations the number & arrangement of the containers Frequency of collection

146 Existing system characteristic
the number crew Vehicle type Begin and end should be near arterial street. In hilly area: Should start at the top and proceed downhill as the vehicle become loaded

147 The last container to be collected must be located nearest to the disposal site
Traffic congested location Should be collect as early in the day Sources at extremely large quantities Serviced during the first part of the day

148 Scattered pickup points
the number & arrangement of the containers distance between containers number of block & arrangement

149 Layout of collection routes
The general steps involved in establishing route include: Preparation of location maps Data analysis Preliminary layout of routes Evaluation of the preliminary routes & the development of balanced route by successive trials

150 Collection routes Layout – Step1
Map of the commercial, industrial, or resident housing area to be serve. Plot the solid waste pickup point: Location Collection frequency Number of containers Enter on the map the estimate quantity of waste at each pickup location (if use mechanically loaded containers)

151 Con’t…. For residential sources - assume that approximately the same average quantity number of homes per block will be shown Use the tracing paper once the basic data have been entered on the work map



154 Transfer Station The transfer of wastes from one location to another – more distant location Contents small collection vehicles are transferred to large vehicles to transport the waste over extended distances Transfer and transport operation also used in conjunction with MRFs to transport recover material to markets/residue material and waste-to-energy facilities.

155 The need for transfer operation
Transfer and transport operations become necessity when haul distance to available disposal sites increase. Also become necessity when disposal sites cannot be reach directly by highway (sites in remote control). Transfer station is integral part of all types of MRFs and MR/TFs The time require for transportation is the key factor especially in the traffic congested city.

156 Located between the disposal site & the centre of the city
The function are volume reduction & sorting of waste for recycling Additional factor that tend to make the use of transfer station includes: The occurrence of illegal dumping due to excessive haul distances The location of disposal sites relatively far from collection routes

157 The use of small-capacity collection vehicles
The existence of low-density residential service area


159 Types of transfer station
Classified into three type Direct load Storage load combined direct load and storage load

160 Direct load Small capacity Wastes discharge directly into the open-top trailer to be use to transport to compaction facilities. large capacity The wastes in collection emptied directly into transport vehicle, or The wastes in the collection vehicles are emptied temporarily onto unloading platform

161 The wastes are then push into the transport trailers.
The new technology of direct-load transfer station, replace the use of open- top transfer vehicle with the compaction facilities. The compaction facilities can be use to compact wastes into the transfer trailers.


163 Storage load Wastes are emptied directly into a storage pit then they are loaded into transport vehicles Various types of auxiliary equipment are used to load the wastes into the transport vehicles. The different between direct-load and storage-load is the capacity to store wastes.




167 combined direct load and storage load
Multipurpose facilities that service a broader range of users It can be a materials recovery operation

168 diagram

169 The operation of transfer station

















186 Factors to be consider for location of transfer station.
As near as possible to the collection area. easy access to highway minimal public and environmental risk/objection economical aspects capacity of collection vehicle storage space require time require to unload the collection trucks

187 number of trucks that will use facilities
transfer trailer capacity operation hours type of waste processes

188 Motor Vehicle transport
Collection Compactors commonly use for door to door collection Equipped with compacter facilities capacity 12m3 Use for the compactable waste

189 Roll on roll off (RORO) Top-open truck used for commercial and residential areas For bulky and uncompactable wastes Side loader Without compactor Manually door to door collection

190 Used for transporting bulky & uncompactable wastes.
Open trucks Used for transporting bulky & uncompactable wastes. Used for door to door collection Not recommended for garbage and refuse Hand carts Commonly use by the street sweepers

191 Transfer station Open-top semitrailer Capacity 40m Enclose semitrailer Equipped with satationary compactor Drop-bottom open-top semitrailer Unloaded with hydraulic tipping ramp


193 Waste Treatment and disposal
ideally the disposal methods should meet the following condition: environment friendly cause no health hazard economically less demanding maximum recycling options Should not be labour intensive

194 Waste Treatment The treatment of solid waste prior to disposal includes: recycling compaction pulverisation

195 Waste disposal ideally the disposal methods should meet the following condition: environment friendly cause no health hazard economically less demanding maximum recycling options Should not be labour intensive

196 Disposal without treatment:
dumping in water dumping on land direct disposal (sanitary land field) Disposal involve some treatment incineration biological treatment pyrolysis

197 Disposal On Land Landfill method Define as the physical facilities use for the disposal of residual in the surface soils of the earth. Sanitary landfill refer to engineered facilities for the disposal of SWM designed and operated to minimize the public health and environmental impacts

198 One of the primary technologies use to disposal of solid waste.
The most economically if suitable land is available at low cost, environmentally accepted method and simple. The only method that can deal with all material in solid waste Direct disposal without treatment and Also used for the final disposal of treated waste.

199 Sanitary Landfill Define as: Method of disposing refuse on land without creating nuisance or hazard to public health or safety by utilizing the principle of engineering to confine the refuse to the smallest practical area The goal for design and operation of modern landfill is to eliminate/ minimize the impacts to human and environment

200 and to reduce it to the smallest practical volume and cover it with a layer of earth at the conclusion of each day’s or at such more frequent as many be necessary also call as control tipping and involves the covering of the waste daily with soil or other modern material consist depositing the wastes in 1 -2 m tick layer in low-laying lands or excavation

201 Landfill Planning, Design and operation
The element s should be consider in the planning , design and operation of landfill are as below: Landfill layout and design Landfill operations and management The reaction occurring in the landfill The management of leachate Environmental monitoring Landfill closure

202 Landfill siting consideration
Siting of new landfill is one of the difficult tasks faced by the most communities. Several factors must be consider in evaluating potential site for-long term disposal of solid waste. Final selection of a disposal site usually is best on the result of a detail site survey, engineering design, cost study and EIA.

203 The factors should be consider are ;
Haul distance Location restriction Available land area Site access Soil condition and topography Climatological conditions Surface water hydrology Geologic and hydrogeologic conditions Local environmental conditions Potential ultimate uses for the completed site

204 Preparation of the site
First Step Existing site drainage must be modified to route any runoff away from the landfill area. Drainage of the landfill area itself must be modified to route water away from the initial fill area Construction of access roads, weighing facilities and fences installation.

205 Second Step The excavation and preparation of the landfill bottom and sub surface site Modern landfills are constructed in sections – allows only the small part of the unprotected landfill surface to be expose to precipitation. Excavations are carried out over time – not prepare the landfill bottom at once Excavated material can be stockpiled on unexcavated soil to minimized the precipitation problem

206 If the bottom of the landfill is lined at once, the storm water runoff must be remove from the portion of the landfill that is not being used. To minimized cost, it desirable to obtain the cover material from the landfill site whenever possible. The excavated material stockpiled for later use. Vadose zone and groundwater monitoring equipment is installed before the landfill liner is laid down.

207 Leachate collection and extraction faciliteis are place within or on top of the liner
Usually the liner extends up the excavated wall of landfill. Installation of the horizontal gas recover trenches at the bottom of the landfill To minimized the release of VOCs, vacuum is applied and air is drown through the completed portion of landfill The gas that is remove must be burned under controlled condition to destroy the VOCs

208 A soil berm must be constructed at the downwind side of the planned fill area before the fill operation begin. Foe the excavated landfill, the wall of the excavation usually served as the initial compaction face.

209 The placement of waste The waste is placed in cell beginning along the compaction face The waste deposited in each operating period usually one day from in an individual cell. Wastes deposited are spread out in 45 – 60 cm layers and compacted Typically the cell height vary from 2.8 – 4 metres

210 The length of the working face varies with the site condition the size of the operation
The width of the a cell varies from cm –depending on the design and capacity of of the landfill. The exposed faces of the cell are covered with a thin layer of soil (15 to 30 cm) at the end of each operating period. After or more lifts has be place, horizontal gas recovery trenches can be excavated in the completed space.

211 The excavated trenches are filled with gravel and perforated plastic pipes are installed in the trenches Successive lifts are place on top of another until the final design grade is reached. A cover layer is applied to the completed landfill section to minimized infiltration of precipitation to route drainage away from the active section of the landfill The landscaping to control erosion

212 Reactions in landfill Biological reactions
The organic material in MSW lead to the production of landfill gas and liquids. Decomposition process usually proceed aerobically for a short period. During aerobic decomposition, CO2 is the gas produced Once the available O2 has been consumed, the composition become anaerobic and the organic matter converted to CO2 and CH4 and ammonia and hydrogen Sulfide.

213 Chemical Reaction Include dissolution and suspension of landfill materials and biological conversion products in the liquid percolating, evaporation and vaporization of chemical compound and water The organic compounds can subsequently be released into the atmosphere – through the soil or from uncover leachate treatment facilitie. Other chemical reactions include those between certain organic compound and clay liner.

214 Physical reactions The important physical changes are: the lateral diffusion of gases and emission of landfill gases to surrounding environment Movement of leachate within the landfill and into underlying soil Settlement caused by consolidation and decomposition of landfill material Landfill gas movement and emission particularly important consideration in landfill management because;

215 Internal pressure could causing the landfill cover crack and leak
Escaping landfill gas may carry trace carcinogenic and teratogenic compounds into the environment Because high CH4 contents, may be can cause burning or explosion Leachate migration is another concern

216 Concerns with the landfill
Uncontrolled release of landfill gas The impact of uncontrolled discharge of landfill gas Uncontrolled release of leachate The breeding of disease vector The health and the environmental impact



219 Landfill Type aerobic landfill anaerobic sanitary landfill with daily cover improve anaerobic sanitary landfill with buried leachate collection facilities landfill with forced aeration

220 Only the anaerobic and semi-aerobic landfill are desirable when leachate and gas quality to be considered

221 Advantages

222 fires are uncontrolled air pollution smell
Disadvantages Open dumping potential source of disease fires are uncontrolled air pollution smell pollute nearby waterways & ground water ugly scavenging

223 Sanitary landfill destruction of habitats - (wetland) cause of urban land shortage hence transportation cost – (distant) lost of resources – cannot be replace leachate leakage - (groundwater contamination) maintanance after completion require 10 to 15 years Non-available of suitable cover material

224 Level of Sanitary Landfill
Level 1: control tipping Level 2: sanitary landfill with bound and daily soil cover Level 3: sanitary landfill with leachate recirculation Level 4: sanitary landfill with leachate treatment facilities.

225 Landfill Technology The most common landfill technologies are area method trench method ramp method sandwich method

226 Area method/Depression
terrain is unsuitable for the excavation of trenches Solid waste cells constructed in a large area layers of cells are created until the permitted height reached Each cell represents the waste received and compacted in place and covered each day.

227 Can accommodate very large volume operation
Earth dyke with height of one lift (2-3 m) is first constructed to gate the support for compacting. The wastes are unloaded at the top of the earth dyke and spread and compacted on the slope of the dyke. The layers dept is from 30 – 60 cm.

228 Depression method best for area where natural depression exist.
The installation liners and leachate collection system is relative easy. The earth cover of this system is usually obtain from borrow-pit or brought from elsewhere.

229 Trench Method Waste is spread and compacted in an excavated trench The excavator tailings are used as cover material Best for flat land where the excavation of trenches can be carryout easily. The ground water level should be sufficiently low

230 The trench size varies in length and width:
dept: 1 – 2 metre width: 2 – 5 metre length: 30 – 120 metre Wastes are spread into thin layers from cm and compacted before soil cover in introduced.

231 Ramp method also call progressive slope. A combination of area method and trench method Solid waste is spread and compacted on a slope cover material is obtained directly from the front of the working face. The excavation of cover material provides a depression for the next day waste.

232 Ramp is about 15 metre wide and 30 metre length and suitable height.
Trucks come on the top of the ramp and discharge their contents inside the trench.

233 Sandwich method Used when the solid waste is deposited horizontally into narrow valleys. Cover soil layer is added over each layer of solid waste


235 Modern Sanitary Landfill
incorporates gas collection, storage and compressor system leachate collection, storage and treatment facilities. prevent leachate leakage into ground water

236 gas leakage detection p robes.
leachate monitoring well and ground water monitoring well

237 Design & operation SLF Several important factors must be considered: land area cover material cell design and construction equipment requirement personnel requirement finance drainage

238 spread and compaction water supply fire prevention facilities fencing - gatehouse operation time land use after completion of landfill wheel cleaning notice board

239 Population protection
site location rainfall temperature Soil type wind Hydrological properties and water table

240 compaction landfill essential to reduce settlement take about 2 years prevent fire eliminates odour, flies & vermin for building structure – 10 – 12 years

241 ideally compacted fill should have density of 900 – 950 kg/m3
densities are measure by using backhoe method and auger method. the values depend on:

242 Type of waste Pretreatment Composting of waste Time of landfill Moisture content Type of landfill Stage of compaction

243 Leachate define as liquid that has percolated through solid waste and has extracted Dissolved or suspended material

244 average amount of leachate generated is 150L//tonne
contain organic matter, nitrogen (ammoniacal), suspended solid salts & colouring matter. constration of eluted matters will be highest the first 3 – 8 years.

245 quantity of leachate produced depend on factors:
Soil type Waste composition Degree of composition Rainfall Evaporation Landfill type and age

246 Leachate treatment facilities
include: equalisation tank biological treatment physicochemical treatment


248 Biological treatment To remove the organic matter and nitrogen involve one or more of the following techniques: activated sludge treatment contact aeration rotary disc

249 deep shaft oxidation ditch trickling filter aerated lagoon treatment anaerobic biodegredation an aerobic fixed film treatment

250 physicochemical treatment
to removes/reduce COD, metal, suspended solid and colour the process used are: sedimentation with coagulation sand filtration ozone oxidation Activated carbon adsorption Chelating resin adsorption

251 Landfill gas the microbial degradation generate gaseous products. methane production begins several month to one/two years after deposition the rate of production depends on: size and composition of solid waste age of solid waste and landfill

252 moisture contain temperature conditions in landfill quantity and quality of nutrients organic contain of refuse pH and alkalinity of liquids presence of toxic or hazardous material

253 gas production ranges from 1.3 to 1.7 L/kg/yr
the main component of the gas is CH4 (55%), CO2 (45%), Biodegradation of solid waste could be describe under four phases: the aerobic phase hydrolysis and fermentation anaerobic phase decelerated methane production

254 Biological treatment Consists two main options Composting (aerobic) Biogasification (anaerobic)

255 Definition Composting define as the biological degradation of the organic components of waste under controlled condition to produce a stable end product call compost

256 Objectives biotreatment:
Volume reduction Stabilization Sanitisation Valorisation

257 composting of organic material generates CO2 and H2O.
Biogasification generates CH4 , CO2, and H2O. The final products of biotreatment are stable & could be use as fertilizer. Composting is an exothermic process & max. temperature C

258 The aerobic phase in the presence of O2, oxygen & nitrogen are depleted while CO2 increases The phase lasts only a few days

259 Hydrolysis and fermentation
biological polymers Anaerobic phase beginning of methane generation bacteria (methanogens) responsible for degradation substances.

260 decelerated methane production
concentrations of carboxylic acid decreases to below 100 mg/l.

261 Monitoring wells are installed within and around the landfill.
Gas monitoring involve the monitoring of methane and other volatile organic compound. Monitoring wells are installed within and around the landfill. Two type of gas monitoring device can be use. barhole probe permanent probe

262 Barhole probe performe near structure or along the parameter of a landfill. only obtain one time measurement of gas concentration at shallow depts. permanent probe located along the parameter of the landfill at location identify during the hydrogeology investigation Periodically gas samples collected from these wells are analysed for methane contain & and other gas.


264 INCINERATION Define as: Control process for burning solid, liquid and gaseous combustible wastes to gases and residue containing non-combustible material.

265 is any facility used wholly or in part for the controlled combustion of municipal wastes and other waste. waste materials are treated at incinerator plants through the controlled application of that converts waste feed by high temperature oxidation to gaseous material. during combustion the moisture is vapourised while the combustible waste is also vapourised and oxidised.

266 final products are CO2, water vapour, ash, and non-combustible or residue.

267 Objectives of thermal treatment
volume reduction reduces 90% MSW reduces 70% of weight life span of a landfill could be longer

268 the output generally inert and more stable when landfill.
Waste stabilisation outputs from the incinerator are ash, flue gas and combustible residue. the output generally inert and more stable when landfill.

269 Waste to energy conversion
reduce the usage of fossil and fuel Conversion of natural resources.

270 kill all the pathogen – important in the clinical/hospital waste.
Sanitisation of waste high temperature (800 – 11000C) outlet oC kill all the pathogen – important in the clinical/hospital waste.

271 categories of incinerator Three categories:
mass burning Selected burning source separated materials

272 The Incineration Process
Four types of incinerator Multiple chamber incinerator Non-heat utilization incinerator Fluidised bed incinerator Rotary kiln combustor

273 Multiple chamber incinerator
the simplest incinerator combustion proceeds in two sage combustion in the ignition chamber gaseous phase combustion in the secondary combustion chamber.

274 used when quality of waste is below 340 kg/hr
Two type retort used when quality of waste is below 340 kg/hr In-line used for higher capacities

275 differences between two type are
direction of gas flow presence of a common wall between the primary and secondary combusting stage in retort in the rotary type have length to width ratio of 1:1 to 2.4:1 for retort type and 2:1 to 5:1 for in-line type


277 Non-heat utilisation incinerator
similar with multiple chamber incinerator except the waste to energy process is not included accommodate up to 1,000 tonnes/day. capacity of storage pit 16 to 36 hrs of refuse intake

278 furnaces used are vertical circular, multicell rectangular or rotary kiln.

279 Fluidised bed incinerator
uses a vertical furnace as alternate design develop and commonly used in Japan the combustion chamber contains a fluidised bed advantage of this system is less mechanical problems

280 FBI has a maximum capacity 350 tonnes/day
more efficient in burning and flue gas volume is smaller. start up time is much smaller – 5 min

281 Rotary kiln combustor rotary kiln is circular, inclined, cylindrical slow revolving combustion chamber waste is rotated slowly perforation along the kiln allow O2 be pumped – efficient burning

282 energy transfer by three method
radiation from the refractory inner space surface transfer energy to all surface in the kiln by convection from the hot combustion gasses to the feed material the hot refractory surface continuously comes into contact with the underside of the bed

283 Products of incineration
sifting fine material include ash, metal fragments, glass, unburnt organic substances etc.. residue all solid material that are left after incineration remove continuously or in batches

284 clinker and fly ash 10% is the fused ashes, etc.. is use as component of cement, concrete or road making. the fly ash comes from the gas scrubbing unit the quantity of fly ash usually 12 – 15 kg/tonne of refuse also used in cement making, concrete, brick and road making

285 suspended particulates
flue gas vented air emitted from a chimney after combustion in burner. It can include nitrogen oxides, carbon dioxides, water vapor, sulfur dioxides, particles and many chemical pollutants (FSL)

286 the equipments used to remove are:
the fabric filter – almost 100% efficiency electronic precipitations -96 – 100% efficiency

287 wet scrubbers – 94 – 97% cyclones – 60 – 65% settling chamber – 10 – 30% wetted baffle spray – 10 – 53%

288 waste gas removed via the stack the high and diameter depends amount of climatic and lanscaping of the area

289 heavy metal found in the stack gas, bottom ash, filter dust or in salt and sludges from dust cleaning the heavy metal are: Cd, Cl, Cr, Cu, F, Pb, Hg, Ni, S and Zn.

290 Distribution of heavy metal in incinerator residue
Fraction % Stack gas % Bottom ash % Filter dust % Salt and sludges from gas cleaning % Cadmium 0.04 11 85 3.6 Chlorine 0.12 9 15 76 Chromium 0.01 94 5.8 0.27 Copper 95 4.9 0.53 Fluorine 1.5 69 3.0 26 Lead 75 24 0.9 Mercury 2.1 7 5.1 86 Nickel 87 13 0.61 Sulphur 0.47 50 10 40 Zinc 0.05 49 51 0.7


292 Acid Gas SO2, HCL and HF can be remove by three methods wet method Dry method semi dry method Wet method Pollutions are removed by large quantities of slaked lime or aqueous sodium hydroxide in Ventury scrubbing system

293 The limestone mixed by two ways:
with the waste before incineration introduce separately into the furnace Semi dry method used a spray of lime (CaO) mixed with water into the flue gas flow

294 Dioxin control Organic pollutant – high level of toxicity
Persistence in the environment The emission of dioxin can be control with further treated of flue gas by; adsorption onto activated carbon filters catalyst uses: mix metal oxide catalyst destroy the dioxin by reaction with O2

295 NOx controlled by in fluidised bed incinerator by controlling the amount of air inlet to the cobustion process Where NOx production cannot be prevented, it is remove by the injection of urea or ammonia into the flue gas.

296 Advantages of incineration
incineration is sanitary, odourless and dustless residue only 20% of the original weight and can be used for making cement and other materials for construction industry require very little space and very few personnel

297 can be located centrally even within the town and reducing transportation costs.
energy production and other by-product could generated revenue ash and other residue are pathogen- free pre sorting and recycle could be incorporated and this reduces the volume to be incinerated

298 Disadvantages of incineration
high capital cost and high operating cost take time to plan, design construction require skill personnel disposal of ash require landfill may cause air pollution and long term environmental effect

299 High moisture content in refuse make it more expensive to incinerate
dioxin is a component of the flue gas especially when the wastes contain a high proportion of plastic require pre-sorting otherwise the slag volume would be higher

300 RECYCLE Recycle of solid waste is reduce the amount of waste introduce to the environment. also reduce the use of primary commodities or raw material Recycle paper would reduce 60% of water usage, save 70% of the energy and reduce the emission of the pollutants as much as 50 %

301 Recycle glass would reduce the usage of water by 50%, 79% of the mining waste could be avoided and air pollution could be reduce by 14% Recycle plastic reduce 30% of energy to make polystyrene foam products compare with the energy used for paper cups made

302 Why it is important to recycle
Lack of space Not wise to build one landfill after another Pollution, hygiene and other issues must be consider Water pollution Most land areas are catchment area Toxic leachate will pollute the water

303 Air pollution Decomposition releases gas Pollute air and contribute to global warming Create unpleasant environment Save energy One aluminum can save enough energy to keep a TV set on One glass bottle can saves 100 watts

304 Compromising health Air and water pollution Live close with landfill
Vector may carry diseases

305 The benefits of recycle
Cut down the need for disposal capacity Lower emission from landfill, incinerators and litter Reduce of energy usage and emission Lessen impacts and conserve raw material The energy recovery will increase due to; Reduction in energy use and related emission and reduction in extraction and manufacturing process Long term, value of conservation materials

306 The limitation in recycle
The definition of waste is varies among the different nation Lack of incentives among developing countries for technology development There are no fix price for the recycle product and the erratic price fluctuations favour incineration or landfill

307 Usually curb side collection is preferred when recycle is higher
Usually curb side collection is preferred when recycle is higher. The “bring” system is not conducive to participants There no incentive for recycle in many South East Asia countries Frequent recycle causes contamination risk due to heavy metal accumulation.

308 Recycle in Malaysia Recycle was introduced in PJ in In 1996, yellow box recycling programme was launched In KL plastic is the main material recycled followed by metals. However, less then 1% is recycle. The awareness is high among Malaysian but very few actually practice Only 30 to 40% of paper is recycle compare with US 50% and some European nation 60 to 70%

309 The important elements of integrated solid waste management are not officially and legally incorporated into the Malaysian waste management practice Organized source reduction and recycle are lacking although a few NGOs do carry out recycle activities Only 1 to 2% of the garbage is recycle and the target should be 25 to 30% Recycle of paper is currently practiced in Malaysia especially KL, Penang and Ipoh

310 Among Asian countries, Australia, Japan and India have a high recover (60 to 80%)
Which increase commitment in certain sector, recycling of glass in Malaysia has increase

311 What we can recycle? Paper
The principal types of waste paper that are recycled are old newspaper, cardboard, high grade paper and mix paper Except tissue paper, carbon paper, aluminum foil/wax paper, plastic liminated paper and contaminated paper

312 Glass Container glass (for food packing), flat glass (window glass), pressed or amber glass Except crystal, mirror, window panes vehicle screen, porcelain, ceramic, bulb, laboratory apparatus and toxic container Glass, to be reprocessed is often separated by color into categories of clear, green and amber

313 Aluminum Aluminum recycle is made up of two sector: aluminum cans and secondary aluminum Secondary aluminum includes window frame,sliding and gutter Except paint container, toxic container and solvent container The demand for recycled aluminum cans is high. It take 95% less energy to produce an aluminum cans from an existing cans than from ore

314 Plastic Classified into two categories: Clean commercial grade scrap
Post consumer scrap Two type of post consumer plastic that most commonly recycle are: polyethylene terephtalate (PETE/1) High density polyethyelene (HDPE)

315 Ferrous metal (iron & steel)
Traditionally come from large item such as cars and appliances Many communities have large scrap metal piles at the local landfill or transfer station In many cases, the pile are unorganized in different metal are mix together – making them unattractive to scrap buyer

316 Steel can use as food container (juice, soft drink and food) and easily separated from mixed recyclable or municipal waste.

317 From construction and demolition project:
Non-ferrous metals Recyclable non-ferrous metal from household items: Outdoor furniture, kitchen cookware and appliance, ladder, tool and hardware From construction and demolition project: Cooper wire, pipe, and plumbing supplies, light fixture, aluminum siding, gutters.

318 From large consumer, commercial and industrial products:
Appliance, automobiles, boats aircraft and machinery Virtually all nonferrous metal can be recycled if they are sorted and free of foreign materials such as plastic, fabrics and rubber

319 Methods for the collection of recycle materials
The methods used for the collection of recycle materials includes curbside collection and delivery by homeowner to drop-off and buy- back centres The future separation and processing of waste that have been source-separation is at Material Recover Facilities (MRFs) or Integrated Material Recover Facilities/transfer facilities (MRTFs)

320 Drop-off centre Required residents or businesses to separate recyclable materials at the source and bring to a specified drop-off or collection centre Require residents to store the materials until sufficient and material is collected to the drop-off centre. The storage of multiple material types is a problem in densely populated area.

321 To encourage participation, most successful programs have made drop-off centres has convenient as possible Other incentives, such as donating portions of proceeds a local charity

322 Buy-Back Centres Refers to a drop-off program that provides monetary incentive to participate The residents are paid for their recyclable either directly or indirectly through reduction in monthly collection and disposal fees.

323 Options for the separation of waste materials
Separation is a necessary operation in the recovery of reusable and recyclable materials from MSW Separation can be accomplished either at the source of generation or at MRFs / MRTFs.

324 Integrated MRTFs The function of a drop-off centre for separation waste. The facilities include: Material separation facilities A facility for the composting and bioconversion of waste A facility for the production of refuse- derive fuel Transfer facility

325 Chemical and biological processes are use to reduce the volume and weight and to recover conversion products and energy The most common used chemical transformation process is combustion. Used in conjunction with the recovery of energy. The most commonly used biological transformation process is aerobic composting


327 Field capacity of solid waste
Factor that limit growth of vegetation on landfill


329 Medical Waste Non-hazardous Hazardous (Clinical waste)

330 Increasingly, municipalities additionally address urban environment issues related to solid waste management. Public concern and sensitivity to environmental issues is driving this expanded agenda. These include health and environmental impacts of accumulated uncollected waste and clandestine disposal sites health and environmental impacts of solid waste facilities, including transfer, composting and landfill facilities air emissions from waste collection and transfer vehicles special handling and disposal of hazardous wastes, including healthcare and industrial hazardous waste.

331 health and environmental impacts (see papers Occupational and Environmental Health Issues of Solid Waste Management: Special Emphasis on Middle and Lower-Income Countries and Environmental Health at a glance) of accumulated uncollected waste and clandestine disposal sites health and environmental impacts of solid waste facilities, including transfer, composting and landfill facilities air emissions from waste collection and transfer vehicles special handling and disposal of hazardous wastes, including healthcare and industrial hazardous waste.




335 Disease and Injury Risks for Solid Waste Workers
(Based on data from various countries that is presented within this document) 6 times more relative risk of Infectious Disease (Denmark)\74\ 2.6 times more relative risk for Allergic Pulmonary Disease and 1.4 for Non-Allergic Pulmonary Disease (Denmark)\74\ 2.5 times fore relative risk for Chronic Bronchitis (Geneva in Switzerland)

336 1.2 increased risk of hepatitis (Genoa in Italy)\47\
3 times more relative risk for Parasites (India)\11\ 10 times more relative risk for Acute Diarrhea (Romania)\21\ 2 times more relative risk for Coronary Disease (USA)\17\ 1.3 times more relative risk for Injury (Romania)\22\

337 5.6 times more relative risk for Accidents (Denmark)\74\
10 times more relative risk for Accidents (USA)\12,43,74\ 1.9 times more relative risk for Musculoskeletal Problems (Denmark)\74\

338 Health Risk Factors for Solid Waste Workers
Waste content fecal matter, blood, body fluids, animal Flesh hazardous chemicals and heavy metals volatile organic and greenhouse gases pressurized gas containers, munitions Heavy loads, lifting exertion and vibration Landfill slides, fires and vehicle accidents Noise


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