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Housing Basic Housing Planning and Inspection Physical Processes of Planning Implementation.

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Presentation on theme: "Housing Basic Housing Planning and Inspection Physical Processes of Planning Implementation."— Presentation transcript:

1 Housing Basic Housing Planning and Inspection Physical Processes of Planning Implementation

2 Introduction Housing – The absolute core building block of community If you cannot achieve sustainability in your housing base – effective community can never be realized Work – Shelter - Dignity

3 The Dimensions of Housing 1. AFFORDABILITY Acquisition and Possession of Shelter is the single most expensive obligation for the vast majority – it is typically a persons greatest source of wealth Affordability is measured within each country and in numerous sub districts as the percent of individuals that can afford to acquire shelter for the first time Affordability is the percent of income that can be applied to the carrying cost of housing Shelter, therefore, must be tiered to an affordability index and translated into demand and supply – the current sweet spot is $85,000 to $92,000

4 Percent of Population at the Median Income Qualified to Purchase the Median Price Home Housing Affordability Index Community 175%-25 Community 265%-35 Community 370%-30 Community 455%-45 Community 543%-57 Community 652%-48

5 Number of Affordable Rental Units

6 And, The Have Nots In 2001, there are 178,638 know persons you are homeless The actual number is much high since this is the count of persons using public and private shelters

7 Dimensions 2. Supply - Type Public v Private Housing Single Family Housing (owner – rental) Multi-Family Housing Cooperative Housing Public Housing Co-Housing Shelters (including motels) Sweat-Equity Non Profits Manufactured housing

8 Manufactured Housing

9 Mobile Housing

10 Manufactured Housing 1905

11 Dimensions Trickle down supply Assumes that supply has a rapid turnover Projecting Needs Monitoring the Condition of Housing

12 Projecting Needs Projecting population Sectoring into demographics Modal Split – sectoring demographics into the type of housing now supplied Determining the number of units that will leave the housing base Projecting the total housing need Finally, determining the modal split of housing to be supplied

13 Some Basic History – Basic Housing Codes and Regulation Disastrous fires and unsanitary conditions led to the adoption of housing construction codes during the Colonial Period. Codes centered in roof and chimney composition. Most homes required to be constructed from stone or brick. 1626 Jacob Riis

14 Neighborhood Sanitation Basic sanitation practices are linked to the development of housing codes. Outdoor toilet location Food and draft animals in municipal locations. Link to the rise of public health agencies in the 1870s

15 First Tenement Housing Act New York City – 1867 First Comprehensive Housing Act Attacks the problems of light, air, access and sanitation Stairs must have banisters Water closets required – 1 : 20 occupant ratio to water closet

16 Tenement Act of 1882 Amends Act of 1867 Requires running water to every floor in a tenement building Trinity Church of Manhattan largest tenement owner – gross violations City brought enforcement but courts refused to convict – no evidence that running water is essential to life and safety of residents

17 Benchmark Legislation The year 1892 marks the formation of a major movement for housing reform in the United States. Jacob Riis and a host of reformers To pass the Tenement Reform Act of 1901. This landmark legislation is the origin of all housing, sanitation, and live safety codes in the United States.

18 Tenement Reform Act – What It Contains Minimum Room Size More light and air Maximum Occupancy Fireproofing for structures No basement dwelling 8 :1 water closet Potable water supply

19 Federal Involvement Congress authorizes funding (under T.R.) to conduct a major investigation of housing conditions in the U.S. The report is another landmark Discloses the scandal of American housing First report to actually collect data linking poor housing conditions to health and safety.

20 Further Federal Actions FDR commissions a second federal report in 1932 Reports the shocking news that ½ of the nation is ill fed, ill clothed, and poorly housed Fed. Gov. launches the Federal Housing Administration (FHA) and begins leading the way for housing reform and inspection

21 Federal Reform Veterans Administration Home Loan Bank Board Federal National Mortgage Admin. Public Housing Administration Public Works Administration Slum Clearance Act of 1937 and 1949

22 London – The Great White City - 1939

23 Housing Inspection Reform With the federal entrance into the housing market, the process of development housing codes, inspection programs, and health rules became a requirement for all states that participated in the programs.

24 Housing Inspection - Purposes First – to provide safe, decent, and sanitary housing Second, to create a mandatory system of regulations that force housing owners, to maintain their premises under minimum standards Enforcement Overview - ment1.htm

25 Housing is More Than Just Condition – The CDU CDU Index Condition – physical useful life Desirability – meets current needs Utility – suitable for median standards Web Site - U.htm

26 Housing Inspection Process The Components of Shelter The roof and upper supporting members Sidewalls – including windows and doors Accessories – including porches and add-ons The basement supporting structure Condition and maintenance of environment The land use - # of units Parking supply ection_forms.htm

27 Construction Codes and Minimum Standards Building and Structure Minimum Standards Detailed Materials Life Safety – Fire Life Safety – Health and Sanitation Dwelling and Occupancy Access and ADA

28 Minimum Housing Standards Created to set a standard that is at the very minimum of human habitability Delineates a dwelling unit from a sleeping room Sets a standard for efficiency rental housing Sets a minimum set of guidelines for housing adaptation See: %20housing.htm

29 Building & Structure Codes UNIFORM BUILDING CODE SYSTEM – UBC -CLASS OF STRUCTURE -GROUP A -Assembly of 1,000 or more -Assembly, less than 1,000 with stage -Assembly 300 – 1,000 without stage -Less than 300 without stage -Stadiums

30 Classification - Continued GROUP B -Gasoline, fuel services – no repair -Same, repair -Eating places less than 50 -Wholesale, retail, office, factories – using non combustible materials; education buildings beyond the 12 grade less than 50 persons -Parking garages

31 Classification Continued GROUP E -Educational purposes K – 12 by 50 or more persons -Education – less than 50 persons -Day Care – more than 6 children -Day Care – more than 18 children -Training facilities – more than 50 persons

32 Classification Continued GROUP I -Nurseries – Infant Day Care – Children Under six years -Nursing Homes -Congregate facilities -Hospitals -Jails -Prisons

33 Special Classifications GROUP M -Accessory Buildings; garages -Carports; Agricultural Buildings -GROUP H - Hazard Level A (paint rooms) -Hazard Level AA (explosive chemicals) -Hazard Level AAA (corrosive gases)

34 Classification Continued GROUP R -Hotels -Motels -Apartments -Single, two, three and four family dwellings -Lodging or boarding houses -Offices with sleeping facilities


36 Plan Submission and Plan Check 1.Three complete sets of fully dimensioned plans which include: 1.Plot/Site plan 2.Foundation Plan with Steel Reinforcement Details 3.Floor Plan 4.Cross Sections 5.Roof Plan 6.Cross Sections 7.Structural Details 1.Two sets of Title 24 Energy documentation (Certificate of Compliance sheets CF-1R, MF-1R and MF-1R must be reproduced on actual plan sheet) 2.Two copies of engineered truss details (if roof design has a truss system) 3.Two copies of engineered structural calculations (if non-conventional framing) 4.Two copies of soils report (an additional two sets of plans are required for projects utilizing post tension foundation design) 5.Single line diagram for electrical services over 200 amps

37 Detailed Material & Inspections EXAMPLES -Concrete bagging; strength; covering; slumping -Framing; schedule and joining -Roofing – materials ½ OD – 4 corner rafter nailing -Fire place – 14 run with triple stack offset 16 from enclosure -Insulation – materials and schedule for walls and ceiling -Truss, wall, joints – material sizes, treatment, strength

38 Life Safety - Fire THE B.O.C.A THE N.F.P.A.C. SOUTH ORANGE, N.J. (AP) -- As the fire alarm blared throughout the dark dormitory, most students chalked it up as another false alarm, turned over and went back to sleep. ``I thought it was a joke,'' said Pete Tornatore, 18.

39 Nat. Fire Prevention & Safety Association THE BASICS - Adequate exits without over dependence - Construction integrity during fires - Adequate emergency lighting - Early warning - Backup and redundant systems - Enclosure of vertical openings

40 Fire Safety - Materials -Fire resistant materials -Non/combustible -Fire Proof -Class A, B, C explosion suppression areas -Measured in closed cup, flash point temperatures -Basic safety – mobile fire extinguishers -Fixed fire suppression – dry -Fixed fire suppression - sprinklers

41 Life Safety – The B.O.C.A THE BASICS -Exits Exit size, direction, composition and distance -Alarms Type, placement – based on hazard classification -Minimum -Low -Ordinary and High

42 Americans With Disabilities Act CONCEPTS Reasonable Accommodation!!!!!! Parking Access to Buildings Access within Buildings Components, aids, dimensions PDF

43 Conclusions 1.The most complicated and inter-related aspect of physical planning on the town level deals with the provision of housing and construction compliance 2.Construction and implementation are only a first step. Regulatory compliance is critical for a sustainable housing base 3.Slum landlords ARE US

44 The Good

45 The Bad

46 The Ugly

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