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Pharmacy as a Profession

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1 Pharmacy as a Profession
Pharm-CORP Pharmacy Career Opportunity Mahalia Harrell Tamara Dixon

2 What do pharmacists do? This is the image that most people think of when they hear the word Pharmacist, but…

3 Careers from Retail to Research (and everything in between)
Pharmacists held over 250,000 jobs in the US Need for pharmacists is expected to grow faster than the average for all occupations through the year 2018 When you think of pharmacy the image of the drug store pharmacist probably jumps to mind. But in reality, pharmacists held approximately 243,000 jobs in 2006 and many of those jobs were in settings that were not retail, including hospital and government positions. Recession resistant

4 Factors Influencing Pharmacy
Aging population and increased Rx use Expansion of retail outlets & 24 hour stores Direct to consumer advertising Gene and Individualized therapies Expanding roles in traditional and non-traditional settings Increased involvement of pharmacists in cost containment Robotics and Automation When you think of pharmacy the image of the drug store pharmacist probably jumps to mind. But in reality, pharmacists held approximately 243,000 jobs in 2006 and many of those jobs were in settings that were not retail, including hospital and government positions. May expound on gene therapy Traditional vs non traditional. Not just counting pills. Now we have mtm, consultation, clinical pharmacist Cost containment through formulary management, cost saving alternatives

5 Pharmacists are Everywhere!!!
Hospital Clinical Home Care Long-term Care Consultant Managed Care Community Drug Information Academia Pharmaceutical Science/Research Industry Mail order Association Management Drug Use Safety & Policy MTM These are just a few of the many venues in which pharmacists can be found…

6 Hospital and Clinical Pharmacy (approx
Hospital and Clinical Pharmacy (approx. 22% of pharmacists are employed in this area) Work directly with physicians, nurses, and patients. Participate in patient rounds. Manage medications after diagnosis Counsel patients on discharge meds Critical Care (ICU) Hematology/Oncology Intravenous therapy Drug and poison information As of 2006 about 23% of all pharmacists were employed in hospital pharmacies. A career in hospital pharmacy can be very rewarding because the pharmacist gets to work directly with other healthcare providers (doctors, nurses, etc.) to provide the best care possible to their patients. Hospital pharmacists have the opportunity to specialize in many areas including nuclear pharmacy, IV therapy, drug and poison information, and many others. In addition to these specialty areas, many hospitals have outpatient clinics in which the pharmacist can work with specific disease states like diabetes, hyperlipidemia, hypertension, and anticoagulation. They are able to counsel patients directly on the management of their medications. career_opps_pharmacy_printed.pdf

7 Home Care/Long-Term Care Facilities
Create drug therapies with physicians Prepare medications and infusions for use in the home Educate patients and caregivers on medication regimens Bubble-pack medications to ensure accurate delivery Pharmacists in this field work with patients and their caregivers to make sure that they understand their drug regimen. They work with physicians to modify these regimens to improve the quality of life of their patients.

8 Consultant Pharmacist
Monitoring medication use in extended care facilities to help reduce adverse effects due to complicated regimens Assists in forming individualized care plans for patients Recommends treatment options to physicians -usually not the pharmacist that actually dispenses the medications, just monitors drug regimen and therapy

9 Academic Pharmacy Colleges and schools of pharmacy
Serve as teachers and researchers Serve as a model for the best practices of pharmacists, now and in the future Pharmacists working in academia help to shape the future of their profession. They inspire future pharmacists to make the most of their degree and advance their profession.

10 Pharmaceutical Company
Help with medication research Drug discovery, delivery, and analysis Participates in sales and marketing of drug Offers educational programs Average cost to develop a new drug? Pharmacists in this area often serve as the experts on their drug, because they follow it from the research stage to the marketing stage. Cost of development: a billion dollars. Research, trials, approval process.

11 Industrial/Sales/Marketing
Overseeing drug production Selling products to physicians and retailers Marketing Public Relations Government regulators Can talk about the new laws that forbid drug reps from giving merchandise (pens, notebooks, etc.) to doctors or pharmacists so the reps have to come up with new creative ways to make their pitch.

12 Mail Order/ Direct-to-Consumer
Oversee filling of prescriptions Serve as a liaison for patients Can talk about the hotlines that these pharmacies have to answer questions about drugs.

13 Drug Information Centers
Provide Hotlines for patients, physicians, and other healthcare providers Research and dispense information for professional and personal use Malissa’s slide Answer questions from doctors, pharmacists, and the general public.

14 Association Management
Many national and local organizations have pharmacist needs Work on regulatory issues Ex: National Association of Chain Drug Stores Foundation is working to advance pharmacy nationwide pharmacy practice. Another opportunity is to act on association boards such as APhA, NCPA, NACP, AMCP Associations that work to promote and advance the field of pharmacy

15 Community/Retail Pharmacy
Fill Prescriptions Counsel Patients Compound Medication Provide Immunizations Source of Medication Information Prescription OTC Herbal/Natural Products

16 Independent Ownership
Ability to be own boss Ability to tailor services to patient population’s needs Stock prescription and OTC products specific to region or town Niche, compete with retail, can you do it?

17 Other Fields Federal, state, and professional positions
United States Public Health Service Food and Drug Administration Department of Defense-branches of the armed services Veterans Affairs Bureau of Prisons Pharmacists in these fields often are central to implementation of new laws and regulations in order to improve patient safety.

18 Should You Be A Pharmacist?
Do You Like? Chemistry, Biology, and Math? To help people? To solve problems and Puzzles? Are You? Dependable? Organized? Detail-Oriented? Able to communicate well with others? If you answered yes, you should consider pharmacy as a career!

19 Timeline What happens Apply via PharmCAS in Fall of sophomore year
2 years of pre-pharmacy work PCAT after freshman year Apply via PharmCAS in Fall of sophomore year Complete Supplemental Applications for each school Interview in late Fall/Spring of sophomore year Acceptance letters in Spring PharmCas: a nationwide application in a central database to submit one application for multiple schools.

20 UMKC PreReq Courses General Chemistry I & II (with labs) General Biology I & II Organic Chemistry I & II (with labs) Cell Biology Human Anatomy (with lab) Microbiology (with lab) Medical Terminology Calculus I Physics I (with lab) English Comp I & II Public Speaking US Constitution Course  AP courses that count towards UMKC pharmacy prerequisites are Calculus AB and BC, Chemistry, English Language & Composition, Physics B, US Government Politics, and US History You are not wasting your time with these pre-req’s even if you change you mind. These pre-req’s are general to an area of healthcare for the most part. Only 1:4 people who apply get into the med school. Compared to med school this is cake.

21 Residencies Managed Care Community Pharmacy Critical Care Oncology
Ambulatory Infectious Disease Pediatrics Nuclear Medicine My slide *** Expound on the progression of pharmacy towards possibly requiring residencies

22 Money Community Hospital Other
Annual income in community: K Hospital: 85K w/o residency, 90K with residency Other: successful independent, potentially 120K maybe

23 Advice Admissions Career Life
What I wish I’d known before…. Check out pharmacy schools…..

24 Patient Case “ I can’t walk as far as I used to, and this cough is really bothering me” HPI: 67 yo male presents to clinic for a follow-up visit for his COPD. He states he had been doing okay until 3 days back when he couldn’t walk daily anymore and started getting short of breath at rest. He states he has been compliant with all his medications. He also reports that he has been coughing up a lot of “green stuff” too. He had pulmonary function tests about 6 months back, but he states he never found out the results. HPI: History of the Present Illness Acute exacerbation

25 Patient Case PMH: COPD x 3 years GERD x 5 years
SH: 45 pack-year history of smoking (patient quit 4 years ago to help improve his symptoms of GERD) Lives with wife (children grown); retired coal miner (-) EtOH  Meds: Albuterol MDI 1-2 puffs q 4 hours PRN Salmeterol 1 inhalation BID Omeprazole 20 mg po daily Vaccination status: Last influenza vaccine (9/08); Last pneumococcal vaccine at age 45 yo  Allergies: NKDA COPD: Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease GERD: acid reflux. Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease PMH: Patient Medical History SH: Social History MDI: Metered Dose Inhaler PRN: As Needed BID: twice a day NKDA: No Known Drug Allergies

26 Patient Case ROS: Pulmonary: (+) SOB with chronic cough; (+) fatigue; (+) dyspnea on exertion; (+) sputum production Cardiovascular: (-) palpitations; (-) chest pain PE: Gen: Mild respiratory distress after walking to the end of the hall to reach the exam room; hunched over to breathe with accessory muscle use Pulmonary: Tachypnea with prolonged expiration; decreased breath sounds; no rales, rhonchi or crackles Cardiovascular: regular rate and rhythm, no murmurs, rubs or gallops ROS: Review of Systems SOB: Shortness of Breath PE: Physical Exam

27 Patient Case VS: BP 125/64 P 93 RR 26 O2 sat 91% (room air) Weight 71kg Height 5’11” Labs: CO2- 35 mEq/L (normal= mEq/L) PFT: (six months ago): Prebronchodilator FEV1 1.6L (3.55L predicted) Prebronchodilator FVC 3.2L Postbronchodilator FEV1 1.72L (baseline- at diagnosis) Prebronchodilator FEV1 2.84L (3.55L predicted) Prebronchodilator FVC 4.4L Postbronchodilator FEV1 2.9L VS: Vital Signs BP: Blood Pressure RR: Respiration Rate O2 sat: oxygen saturation in blood PFT: Pulmonary Function Test

28 Mahalia
“Pharmacy is a diverse profession. Where there is a medication to be used or discussed or a disease to be prevented, your imagination is the limit of what you can do with your degree.” –Dr. Lindsey Questions? Mahalia Change contact info to who ever is presenting that day

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