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From Earth to Jupiter and beyond

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1 From Earth to Jupiter and beyond
ESA’s Technology Reference Studies: From Earth to Jupiter and beyond M.L. van den Berg, P. Falkner, A. C. Atzei, A. Lyngvi, D. Agnolon, A. Peacock Planetary Exploration Studies Section Science Payload & Advanced Concepts Office ESA/ESTEC

2 SCI-A Technology Reference Studies
What they are: Technologically demanding and scientifically meaningful mission concepts, that are not part of the ESA science programme Aim: Strategic focus on critical technology development needs for potential future science missions (e.g. from Cosmic Vision) How: Design feasible and consistent mission profiles Output: Identify critical technologies to enable new science missions Establish roadmap for mid-term technology developments

3 TRS design philosophy Key objective for solar system exploration:
Establish affordable mission concepts Cost-efficiency is achieved by: Medium-sized launch vehicle – Soyuz-Fregat Use of low resource spacecraft – typically ~200 kg (dry mass) Highly miniaturized, highly integrated payload and avionics suites When available proven, off the shelf, technology is baselined Identify promising and innovative technology that reduce resources Technology Development: typically within 5 years  technically realistic assumptions

4 Solar system studies overview
Venus Entry Probe Aerobot technology Microprobes Deimos Sample Return & Near Earth-Asteroid Sample collection/investigation from a low gravity body Direct Earth re-entry Cross-scale Multi-spacecraft constellation Low resource spinners Europa Minisat Explorer & Jupiter System Explorer Extreme radiation environment Use of solar power at 5 AU from the sun Interstellar Heliopause Probe Extremely high delta-V (200 AU) Long lifetime Geosail Solar sail demonstrator Jovian Minisat Explorer TRS

5 Cross-Scale / Objectives
Establish a feasible mission profile for the investigation of fundamental space plasma processes that involve non-linear coupling across multiple length scales The key universal space plasma processes are: Reconnection Shocks Turbulence All three processes: Are dynamical Involve complex 3-D structured interaction between different length scales (electrons, ions, MHD fluid) Can be investigated in near-Earth space (bowshock, current sheet, magnetosheath)

6 Cross-Scale / Mission concept
8 – 10 spacecraft to be launched with a single Soyuz-Fregat 1 – 2 on electron scale: 2 – 100 km 4 on ion scale: – 2,000 km 3 – 4 on large scale: 3,000 – 15,000 km Baseline orbit: 1.5 – 4 Re × 25 Re (near equatorial) < 100 krad in 5 y Spacecraft constellations optimized near apogee Baseline solution Dedicated transfer vehicle/dispenser system brings constellation to operational orbit Simple identical 130 kg spinners with ~30 kg P/L Individual data downlink Autonomous payload operation Cross-scale Technology Reference Study is work in progress

7 Study of the Jovian System (1)
Launch with Soyuz-Fregat 2-1B All-chemical propulsion / solar powered S/C Transfer duration ~7 years 1st study phase: Europa Exploration Europa Orbiter: 30 kg P/L, 200 km polar orbit 1.5 year tour of the Galilean moons In orbit life time ~ 60 days (limited by radiation and perturbations) TID: 1 Mrad (10 mm shield), 5 Mrad (4 mm shield) Relay sat: 15 kg P/L, 11 Rj × 28 Rj Jupiter orbit Equatorial Jupiter orbit achieved after 1.5 years Operational lifetime ~2 years TID: 1.5 Mrad (4 mm shield) Launch configuration Europa orbiter ONERA developed radiation model which combines: Salammbô (2004), Divine & Garrett (1983) and Galileo Interim Radiation Electron (2003)

8 Study of the Jovian system (2)
2nd study phase: extended Jovian System Exploration Magnetosphere: 1 – 2 dedicated spinning orbiter(s) Atmosphere: atmospheric entry probe Magnetospheric orbiters: P/L: 40 kg, 40 W Equatorial orbit: 15 Rj × 70 Rj and/or 15 Rj × 200 Rj Operational lifetime: at least 2 years TID: < 1 Mrad (4 mm) (TBD) Krupp et al. (2004)

9 Interstellar Heliopause Probe /Objectives
Mission concept for the exploration of the interface between the Heliosphere and the interstellar medium In-situ exploration of the outer heliosphere Interaction between heliosphere and local interstellar medium Termination shock, heliopause, hydrogen wall Plasma acceleration and heating processes Characterization of the local interstellar medium Plasma and plasma dynamics Neutral atoms Galactic cosmic rays Dust From:

10 Interstellar Heliopause Probe / Mission concept
Launch with Soyuz-Fregat 2-1b Solar sail propulsion system (245 × 245 m2) Two solar photonic assist (closest approach 0.25 AU) Solar sail jettisoned at 5 AU Flight time to 200 AU: 26 years (1 mm/s2) Radioisotopic power source (7 W/kg) Spacecraft design Item Mass (kg) Instruments 21 S/C 182 Sail assembly 249 Launch mass 431 Demonstration of solar sail propulsion required

11 Solar sail demonstration by GeoSail
Launch with VEGA from Kourou Demonstration of solar sail propulsion Sail deployment Sail AOCS Sail jettison Plasma measurements at 23 RE throughout the year Rotate line of apses 1 / day 1 deg/day GeoSail TRS: 11 x 23 Re Spacecraft design parameters Sail size ~40 × 40 m2 Characteristic acceleration 0.1 mm2/s Sail assembly mass ~85 kg Spacecraft mass GeoSail Technology Reference Study has recently started

12 Conclusion Technology Reference Studies are a tool
for the identification of critical technologies: Cross-scale Spinning S/C with plasma physics instrumentation Jovian system study High radiation exposure tolerant systems (e.g. electronics, solar cells) Interstellar Heliopause Probe Solar sailing, radio-isotopic power generation, long lifetime systems Cluster II Sample of spacecraft technologies: Enhanced Radiation Model for Jupiter (ONERA) – finished Jupiter LILT solar cells (RWE) - running Solar Sail Material Development (TRP) – under ITT Hi-Rad. Solar Cell development (TRP) – approval Effective Shielding Methods for Jovian Radiation (TRP) - approval

13 Questions?

14 Backup-slides

15 Cross-Scale / Orbit 8 – 10 spacecraft to be launched with a single Soyuz-Fregat 1 – 2 on electron scale: 2 – 100 km 4 on ion scale: 100 – 2,000 km 3 – 4 on large scale: 3,000 – 15,000 km Baseline orbit: 1.5 – 4 Re × 25 Re Spacecraft constellations optimized near apogee Constellation passes through bowshock, magnetosheath and magnetotail Perigee 1.5 – 4 Re Apogee 25 Re Constellations optimized near apogee Range of constellation length scales is sampled at least once Cross scale TRS baseline orbit 4 x 25 Re

16 Tailbox Definition Q is 10 Re from the Earth’s centre in anti-sunward direction along the equatorial plane P (tailbox centre) is at 30 Re from the Earth’s centre with line Q-P parallel to the ecliptic plane The tailbox is defined as a rectangular box parallel to the ecliptic plane: 25 Re along Q-P line, extending 5 Re tailward of P 4 Re orthogonal to the ecliptic plane (+/-2 Re from the tailbox centre P) 10 Re parallel to the dawn-dusk terminater (+/-5 Re from the centre P)

17 Jupiter radiation belt models
Divine & Garrett (1983) from Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) : empirical model based on Pioneer & Voyager in situ measurements, observations from Earth, theoretical formula with a good coverage in both space and energy …but based on a restricted set of quite old data : empirical pitch-angle dependence and magnetic field model far from reality GIRE -Galileo Interim Radiation Electron- (2003) from JPL : update of D&G thanks to Galileo measurements only concern electrons from 8 to 16Rj Salammbô-3D (2004) from ONERA : physical model derived from the Salammbô-3D code widely used for Earth global model with a coverage in space limited to 6-9Rj A. Sicard and S. Bourdarie, Physical Electron Belt Model from Jupiter's surface to the orbit of Europa, JGR, V109, February 2004.

18 Jupiter radiation models / spatial coverage
D&G in 83 D&G out 83 GIRE Electron Salammbô 6 8 9.5 12 16 L Salammbô Proton D&G 83

19 Jupiter radiation models / energy coverage
D&G in and out 83 GIRE Electron Salammbô MeV Proton Salammbô D&G 83

20 JME – Radiation Concerns
JEO Radiation For Jupiter and Jovian Moons Radiation environment requires: European Rad-Hard component program (electronics, solar cells also materials) Ganymede = somewhat relaxed, but still very harsh ! Outer Planets Program Yes or No? Yes  develop European RTG technology no specific high radiation solar cell LILT development No  high radiation solar cell LILT development

21 The Jupiter Explorer TRS addresses several challenges:
Jupiter challenges The Jupiter Explorer TRS addresses several challenges: Development of low resource minisats Surviving deep space as well as Jupiter’s extreme radiation environment: Radiation hardened components ( 1 Mrad) + radiation shielding Radiation optimised solar cells, totally new development required Development of highly integrated systems (especially low resource radar) Maximise the use of solar power, even at ~5 AU from Sun Low power deep space communication Planetary protection compatible systems LOW COST vs. investments in new developments

22 2 1 Cosmic Vision Themes 1 & 2 (solar system themes)
How does the Solar System work ? What are the conditions for life & planetary formation ? 2 1 TRS Solar-Polar Orbiter (Solar Sailor) From the sun to the edge of the solar system Far Infrared Interferometer From dust and gas to stars and planets TRS Helio-pause Probe (Solar Sailor) TRS Cross-scale Jupiter Magnetospheric Explorer (JEP) TRS The Giant Planets and their environment From exo-planets to biomarkers TRS Jovian In-situ Planetary Observer (JEP) Near Infrared Terrestrial Planet Interferometer TRS Europa Orbiting Surveyor (JEP) Kuiper belt Explorer Asteroids and small bodies Life & habitability in the solar system Mars In-situ Programme (Rovers & sub-surface) TRS Near Earth Asteroid sample & return Mars sample and return Terrestrial Planet Astrometric Surveyor Looking for life beyond the solar system Terrestrial-Planet Spectroscopic Observer

23 Cosmic vision themes 3 & 4 (fundamental physics and astrophysics)

24 Near Earth Asteroid - SR
TRS Studies VEP DSR heritage NEA-SR Venus Entry Probe SF-2B launch Entry-Probe with Aerobot (floating ~55 km) Atmospheric MicroProbes (15) Atmospheric Orbiter Deimos Sample Return SF-2B launch 1 kg surface material direct Earth re-entry Near Earth Asteroid - SR SF-2B Sample return with direct Earth re-entry potential surface & remote sensing investigations

25 TRS Studies – Solar Sailing
IHP SPO GeoSail Interstellar Heliopause Probe SF-2B launch solar sail based (60.000m2) 200 AU in 25 year RTG based GeoSail Solar Sail demonstrator 40 x 40 m2 Sail Size Rotate line of apsides 1º / day Small S/C and Technology P/L Solar Polar Orbiter Solar Sail based @ 0.48 AU (3:1 resonance) Max inclination 83° 5 year cruise time ~40 kg P/L mass

26 Other Technology Reference Studies
Gamma-ray lens Evolving violent universe 500 m focal length Gamma-ray focussing optics Formation flying Wide Field Imager Expanding universe/Dark energy Soyuz-Fregat to L2 2m telescope with 1° FOV Light weight optical mirrors

27 Status / Overview Sci-AP TRS status as of 10 November 2006 Venus Entry Probe (VEP) finished  Deimos Sample Return (DSR) finished  Jovian Minisat Explorer (JME) finished  Jupiter Entry Probe (JEP) finished  Interstellar Heliopause Probe (IHP) finished  Jupiter System Explorer (JSE) on-going Cross Scale (CS) on-going Near Earth Asteroid Sample Return on-going Solar Sail Demonstrator (GeoSail) on-going Solar Polar Orbiter sail GNC under study 2006 -

28 TRS Technologies / Summary
Microprobes Localization and Communication (QinetiQ) - running High Speed Impact (Vorticity) – finished (2006) 2 System studies (ESYS and TTI) – finished (2004) Entry: Jupiter Entry numerical simulation (ESIL) - running Venus Entry and MicroProbes (ESIL) – finished (2004) Jupiter Entry Probe (ESA-CDF, Oct 2005) – finished (2005) Instrumentation Technology: Jupiter Ground Penetrating Radar (ESA-CDF, Jun 2005) – finished Advanced Radar Processing (GSP2006) – running Miniaturization of Radars (SEA) – finished (2005) Planetary Radar - running Payload Definition for (IHP, DSR, VEP, JME) – finished Highly Integrated P/L suites Engineering Plan – finished (2005) Highly Integrated P/L suites Detailed Design – under negotiation 3 axis Fluxgate Magnetometer ASIC – running Ground Penetrating Radar YAGI Antenna (TRP) – under approval Spacecraft Technology: Jupiter LILT solar cells (RWE) - running Hi-Rad. Solar Cell development (TRP) – approval Solar Sail GNC (ESA internal study) – running Solar Sailing Trajectories (Univ. of Glasgow, McInnes) – finished 04 Solar Sail Material Development (TRP) – under ITT Enhanced Radiation Model for Jupiter (ONERA) – finished Effective Shielding Methods for Jovian Radiation (TRP) - approval Touch-and-Go sample mechanism (GSTP06) – under preparation (?) In-situ P/L: Nano-Rover + Geochemistry P/L (VHS) Mole + HP3 (Galileo, DLR) LMS ATR Melting Probes OSL – surface dating

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