Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Chapter 8 Rocks and Minerals

Similar presentations

Presentation on theme: "Chapter 8 Rocks and Minerals"— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 8 Rocks and Minerals
4th Grade Earth Science Chapter 8 Rocks and Minerals

2 Minerals ___________ - a natural, non-living solid with a definite chemical structure. Earth’s crust contains more than _________ minerals – only two dozen are common. Examples: diamond, quartz, emerald copper Minerals are made up of ______. Particles of _______ are arranged in a particular repeating pattern. Mineral 4,000 kinds crystals crystals

3 Crystals _______ form when minerals are made in nature
Each type of mineral has its own unique chemical __________. Differences in minerals result from the way that particles are arranged. Brass – Copper + Zinc –____________because it does not occur naturally Mineral structure Not a mineral

4 Identifying Minerals Minerals are identified by their ____________
_______________ - a scale to measure hardness of a mineral The range of the harness scale is from 1 (_______) to 10 (______) Talc has a harness of __ / diamond is a _____ ________ - refers to how difficult it is to scratch its surface characteristics Moh’s hardness scale Softest Hardest 1 10 hardness

5 Other Mineral Characteristics
_______ - a mineral may have different crystals depending on the kinds of materials that make up its ______. The color of a mineral can be seen in its ______. A mineral can also be identified by the ______ of its crystals. _______ - minerals show particular patterns when they are broken along flat planes. Color crystals streak shape Cleavage

6 Luster ______ - the appearance of a mineral in reflected light.
A mineral may appear: __________ Luster Metallic Nonmetallic Greasy Glassy Waxy

7 Rocks _____ - a solid, natural material made up of one or more minerals ___________ - as time passes, rock break down, and the minerals in them are recycled – pattern of change The rock cycle takes place over ________ of years. There are three types of rocks: __________, __________, and __________ rock Rock cycle millions sedimentary igneous metamorphic

8 Sedimentary Rock ______________ - made from pieces of rocks and minerals Sedimentary rock forms in ________ - the oldest rock at the bottom and the newest rock on top. Sedimentary rock is like a “_________” - past events captured in each layer. _____ - remains of once living animals or plants Sedimentary rock layers History book fossils

9 Sedimentary Rock Continued
Fossils are ONLY found in _____________ Example of sedimentary rock = ________ Limestone is made from _________________ or from dissolved __________ that settle out of seawater. Sedimentary rock limestone Shells of tiny sea animals minerals

10 Igneous Rock __________ - forms from magma – molten rock inside of the earth that cools and hardens Some igneous rock forms ______________ and is only exposed after rocks above have worn away Other igneous rocks form when _____ cools at the Earth’s surface When lava cools fast - _______________ When lava cools slowly - _______________ Igneous rock Below Earth’s surface lava Fine-ground rocks form Coarse-grained rock

11 Metamorphic Rock _____________ - forms when heat, pressure, or chemical reactions change one type of rock into another type of rock. Metamorphic rock is made from ___________ or _________. Example: ______ is a metamorphic rock made from________ (sedimentary rock) Metamorphic rock Sedimentary rock Igneous rock marble limestone

12 Compare and Contrast How are the three types of rocks similar and different?

13 Clues to the Past Scientists can tell a great deal about Earth’s history by looking at _____. ______________ - scientists look at the layers of sedimentary rock and learn about the relative age of each layer and the minerals found in it. Relative dating allows scientists to place past events in ____________ rocks Relative dating Sequential order

14 Rock Cycle

Download ppt "Chapter 8 Rocks and Minerals"

Similar presentations

Ads by Google